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After which follow small, roundblackish seed the root is small and woody, with divers small stringsspreading within the ground, and dies not, but abides thesis years place it grows on heaths, and uplands, and dry grounds, in thesisplaces of this land time they flower in july and their seed is ripe quickly after government and virtues it is an herb of mercury, and a strongone too, therefore excellent good in all afflictions of the brain the decoction of the herb being drank, brings down women courses, and provokes urine it is profitable for those that are bursten, ortroubled with convulsions or cramps, with shortness of breath, orcholeric torments and pains in their bellies or stomach. It also helpsthe yellow-jaundice, and stays vomiting, being taken in wine takenwith salt and honey, it kills all manner of worms in the body ithelps such as have the leprosy, either taken inwardly, drinking wheyafter it, or the green herb outwardly applied it hinders conceptionin women, but either burned or strewed in the chamber, it drives awayvenomous serpents it takes away black and blue marks in the face, andmakes black scars become well coloured, if the green herb not thedry be boiled in wine, and laid to the place, or the place washedtherewith being applied to the hucklebone, by continuance of time, itspends the humours, which cause the pain of the sciatica the juicebeing dropped into the ears, kills the worms in them the leaves boiledin wine, and drank, provoke sweat, and open obstructions of the liverand spleen it helps them that have a tertian ague the body beingfirst purged by taking away the cold fits the decoction hereof, withessay sugar put thereto afterwards, is very profitable for those thatbe troubled with the over-flowing of the gall, and that have an oldcough, and that are scarce able to breathe by shortness of their wind;that have any cold distemper in their bowels, and are troubled withthe hardness or the spleen, for all which purposes, both the powder, called diacaluminthes, and the compound syrup of calamint are the mosteffectual let no women be too busy with it, for it works very violentupon the feminine writing camomile it is so well known every where, that it is but lost time and labour todescribe it the virtues thereof are as follow a decoction made of camomile, and drank, takes away all pains andstitches in the side the flowers of camomile beaten, and made up intoballs with gill, drive away all sorts of agues, if the writing grieved beanointed with that oil, taken from the flowers, from the crown of thehead to the sole of the foot, and afterwards laid to sweat in his bed, and that he sweats well this is nechessor, an egyptian, medicine itis profitable for all sorts of agues that come either from phlegm, ormelancholy, or from an inflammation of the bowels, being applied whenthe humours causing them shall be concocted. And there is nothing moreprofitable to the sides and region of the liver and spleen than it thebathing with a decoction of camomile takes away weariness, eases pains, to what writing of the body soever they be applied it comforts the sinewsthat are over-strained, mollifies all swellings. It moderately comfortsall writings that have need of warmth, digests and dissolves whatsoeverhas need thereof, by a wonderful speedy property it eases all painsof the cholic and stone, and all pains and torments of the belly, andgently provokes urine the flowers boiled in posset-drink provokessweat, and helps to expel all colds, aches, and pains whatsoever, andis an excellent help to bring down women courses syrup made ofthe juice of camomile, with the flowers, in white wine, is a remedyagainst the jaundice and dropsy the flowers boiled in lye, are goodto wash the head, and comfort both it and the brain the oil madeof the flowers of camomile, is much used against all hard swellings, pains or aches, shrinking of the sinews, or cramps, or pains in thejoints, or any other writing of the body being used in clysters, it helpsto dissolve the wind and pains in the belly. Anointed also, it helpsstitches and pains in the sides nechessor saith, the egyptians dedicated it to the sun, because itcured agues, and they were like enough to do it, for they were thearrantest apes in their religion that i ever read of bachinus, bena, and lobel, commend the syrup made of the juice of it and sugar, takeninwardly, to be excellent for the spleen also this is certain, that itmost wonderfully breaks the stone. Essay take it in syrup or decoction, others inject the juice of it into the bladder with a syringe myopinion is, that the salt of it, taken half a dram in the morning ina little white or rhenish wine, is better than either. That it isexcellent for the stone, appears in this which i have seen tried, viz , that a stone that has been taken out of the body of a man beingwrapped in camomile, will in time dissolve, and in a little time too water-caltrops they are called also tribulus aquaticus, tribulus lacusoris, tribulusmarinus, caltrops, saligos, water nuts, and water chesnuts descript as for the greater sort of water caltrop it is not foundhere, or very rarely two other sorts there are which i shall heredescribe the first has a long creeping and jointed root, sendingforth tufts at each joint, from which joints rise long, flat, slender, knotted stalks, even to the top of the water, divided towards the topinto thesis branches, each carrying two leaves on both sides, being abouttwo inches long, and half an inch broad, thin and almost transparent;they look as though they were torn. The flowers are long, thick, andwhitish, set together almost like a bunch of grapes, which being gone, there succeed, for the most writing, sharp pointed grains all together, containing a small white kernel in them the second differs not much from this, save that it delights in moreclean water. Its stalks are not flat, but round.

As also other tortures and griping pains of the bowels thedecoction thereof with succory and centaury is held very effectualto help the dropsy, and them that are inclining thereunto, and thediseases of the spleen it stays essay starters the fluxes of blood, either at themouth or nose, and inward bleeding also, for it is a singular woundherb for wounds both inward and outward. It helps the bloody flux, andhelps the abundance of women courses there is a syrup made of thejuice hereof and sugar, by the apothecaries of italy, and other places, which is of much account with them, to be given to those that aretroubled with the cough or phthisic the same also is singularly goodfor ruptures or burstings the green herb bruised and presently boundto any cut or wound, doth quickly solder the lips thereof and thejuice, decoction, or powder of the dried herb is most singular to staythe malignity of spreading and fretting cankers and ulcers whatsoever, yea in the mouth and secret writings the distilled water of the plant isavailable in all the diseases aforesaid, and to wash outward wounds andsores, by applying tents of cloths wet therein mugwort descript common mugwort hath divers leaves lying upon the ground, very much divided, or cut deeply in about the brims, essaywhat likewormwood, but much larger, of a dark green colour on the upper side, and very hoary white underneath the stalks rise to be four or fivefeet high, having on it such like leaves as those below, but essaywhatsmaller, branching forth very much towards the top, whereon are setvery small, pale, yellowish flowers like buttons, which fall away, andafter them come small seeds inclosed in round heads the root is longand hard, with thesis small fibres growing from it, whereby it takesstrong hold on the ground. But both stalks and leaves do lie down everyyear, and the root shoots anew in the spring the whole plant is of areasonable scent, and is more easily propagated by the slips than theseed place it grows plentifully in thesis places of this land, by thewater-sides. As also by small water courses, and in divers other places time it flowers and seeds in the end of summer government and virtues this is an herb of venus, thereforemaintains the writings of the body she rules, remedies the diseases ofthe writings that are under her signs, taurus and libra mugwort is withgood success put among other herbs that are boiled for women to applythe hot decoction to draw down their courses, to help the delivery ofthe birth, and expel the after-birth as also for the obstructions andinflammations of the mother it breaks the stone, and opens the urinarypassages where they are stopped the juice thereof made up with myrrh, and put under as a pessary, works the same effects, and so does theroot also being made up with hog grease into an ointment, it takesaway wens and hard knots and kernels that grow about the neck andthroat, and eases the pains about the neck more effectually, if essayfield daisies be put with it the herb itself being fresh, or the juicethereof taken, is a special remedy upon the overmuch taking of opium three drams of the powder of the dried leaves taken in wine, is aspeedy and the best certain help for the sciatica a decoction thereofmade with camomile and agrimony, and the place bathed therewith whileit is warm, takes away the pains of the sinews, and the cramp the mulberry-tree this is so well known where it grows, that it needs no description time it bears fruit in the months of july and august government and virtues mercury rules the tree, therefore are itseffects variable as his are the mulberry is of different writings. Theripe berries, by reason of their sweetness and slippery moisture, opening the body, and the unripe binding it, especially when they aredried, and then they are good to stay fluxes, lasks, and the abundanceof women courses the bark of the root kills the broad worms in thebody the juice, or the syrup made of the juice of the berries, helpsall inflammations or sores in the mouth, or throat, and palate of themouth when it is fallen down the juice of the leaves is a remedyagainst the biting of serpents, and for those that have taken aconite the leaves beaten with vinegar, are good to lay on any place that isburnt with fire a decoction made of the bark and leaves is good towash the mouth and teeth when they ache if the root be a little slitor cut, and a small hole made in the ground next thereunto, in theharvest-time, it will give out a certain juice, which being hardenedthe next day, is of good use to help the tooth-ache, to dissolve knots, and purge the belly the leaves of mulberries are said to stay bleedingat the mouth or nose, or the bleeding of the piles, or of a wound, being bound unto the places a branch of the tree taken when the moonis at the full, and bound to the wrists of a woman arm, whose coursescome down too much, doth stay them in a short space mullein descript common white mullein has thesis fair, large, woolly whiteleaves, lying next the ground, essaywhat larger than broad, pointed atthe end, and as it were dented about the edges the stalk rises up tobe four or five feet high, covered over with such like leaves, butless, so that no stalk can be seen for the multitude of leaves thereonup to the flowers, which come forth on all sides of the stalk, withoutany branches for the most writing, and are thesis set together in a longspike, in essay of a yellow colour, in others more pale, consisting offive round pointed leaves, which afterwards have small round heads, wherein is small brownish seed contained the root is long, white, andwoody, perishing after it hath borne seed place it grows by way-sides and lanes, in thesis places of this land time it flowers in july or thereabouts government and virtues it is under the dominion of saturn a smallquantity of the root given in wine, is commended by dioscorides, against lasks and fluxes of the belly the decoction hereof drank, isprofitable for those that are bursten, and for cramps and convulsions, and for those that are troubled with an old cough the decoctionthereof gargled, eases the pains of the tooth-ache and the oil madeby the often infusion of the flowers, is of very good effect for thepiles the decoction of the root in red wine or in water, if there bean ague wherein red hot steel hath been often quenched, doth stay thebloody-flux the same also opens obstructions of the bladder and reins a decoction of the leaves hereof, and of sage, marjoram, and camomileflowers, and the places bathed therewith, that have sinews stiff withcold or cramps, doth bring them much ease and comfort three ounces ofthe distilled water of the flowers drank morning and evening for essaydays together, is said to be the most excellent remedy for the gout the juice of the leaves and flowers being laid upon rough warts, asalso the powder of the dried roots rubbed on, doth easily take themaway, but doth no good to smooth warts the powder of the dried flowersis an especial remedy for those that are troubled with the belly-ache, or the pains of the cholic the decoction of the root, and so likewiseof the leaves, is of great effect to dissolve the tumours, swellings, or inflammations of the throat the seed and leaves boiled in wine, andapplied, draw forth speedily thorns or splinters gotten into the flesh, ease the pains, and heal them also the leaves bruised and wrapped indouble papers, and covered with hot ashes and embers to bake a while, and then taken forth and laid warm on any blotch or boil happening inthe groin or share, doth dissolve and heal them the seed bruised andboiled in wine, and laid on any member that has been out of joint, andnewly set again, takes away all swelling and pain thereof mustard descript our common mustard hath large and broad rough leaves, verymuch jagged with uneven and unorderly gashes, essaywhat like turnipleaves, but less and rougher the stalk rises to be more than a foothigh, and essaytimes two feet high, being round, rough, and branched atthe top, bearing such like leaves thereon as grow below, but lesser, and less divided, and divers yellow flowers one above another at thetops, after which come small rough pods, with small, lank, flat ends, wherein is contained round yellowish seed, sharp, hot, and biting uponthe tongue the root is small, long, and woody when it bears stalks, and perishes every year place this grows with us in gardens only, and other manured places time it is an annual plant, flowering in july, and the seed is ripein august government and virtues it is an excellent sauce for such whoseblood wants clarifying, and for weak stomachs, being an herb of mars, but naught for choleric people, though as good for such as are aged, or troubled with cold diseases aries claims essaything to do with it, therefore it strengthens the heart, and resists poison let such whosestomachs are so weak they cannot digest their meat, or appetite it, take of mustard-seed a dram, cinnamon as much, and having beaten themto powder, and half as much mastich in powder, and with gum arabicdissolved in rose-water, make it up into troches, of which they maytake one of about half a dram weight an hour or two before meals. Letold men and women make much of this medicine, and they will either giveme thanks, or shew manifest ingratitude mustard seed hath the virtueof heat, discussing, ratifying, and drawing out splinters of bones, andother things of the flesh it is of good effect to bring down womencourses, for the falling-sickness or lethargy, drowsy forgetful evil, to use it both inwardly and outwardly, to rub the nostrils, foreheadand temples, to warm and quicken the spirits.

Cut down, but could not be resuscitated ligature betweenhyoid bone and larynx, then crossed over itself about middle line ofneck, passed up along each side of face, knotted above the head, thenthrown over a beam, and on the other side the loop essay starters was caught betweenhis legs 55 hoffman. Op cit , p 525, illustrated - case communicated by dr rosen, of odessa man, age 21, and woman, age 17, hung themselves bysame ligature thrown over an open door, one of them on each side theyhad previously tried other means of suicide without success see fig 24 56 ibid , p 530 - man found hanging by handkerchief to branch oftree but sitting on the ground mark of handkerchief superficial andpale when the necroscopy was made the mark had disappeared also asimilar suicide where there was no mark at all 57 ibid , p 541 - man found hanging to a window another man cutthe cord and the suspended one fell into a cellar, fracturing his skull 58 ibid - man found hanging. Cut down. The fall caused rupture ofliver 59 ibid , p 539 - drunkard hung himself. There was evidence that hehad previously injured himself during his drunkenness 60 ibid - boy hung himself because he had been punished by theschoolmaster there were marks on his back and lower limbs from thepunishment see also taylor, “medical jurisprudence, ” pp 451-452. Tidy, “medicaljurisprudence, ” incomplete hanging, paper 33 to 36 and 62. Hofmann, “lehrbuch, ” p 538 homicide 61 harvey. Indian med gaz , 1876, xi , p 3 - woman, age 20, feeble her mother-in-law had kicked her. She probably had fainted;supposing her to be dead, the husband hanged her to a tree within halfan hour after the supposed death autopsy. No marks of injury. Obliquemark of cord on right side of neck. Tip of tongue between the teeth;face essaywhat livid.

To the beeswax is added oil of eucalyptus, u s p , 2 essay starters percent , and betanaphthol, u s p , 0 25 per cent the manufacturerfurther states that the myricyl palmitate is a purified form ofbeeswax, free from all impurities, acids, etc , which is solelymanufactured by this company and for which patents are pending theproperties described for “cerelene” were as follows. When cold, cerelene is a solid wax-like cake of a fine yellow brown color on exposure to air for long periods, the amber color darkens to essay extent it is entirely free from solids, odorless and tasteless. Does not separate or change when melted repeatedly, and cannot in the melted state be separated by fractional crystallization it is entirely neutral to indicators being perfectly free from both acids and bases tests. Melting point, u s p method, 126 f density, u s p method, 0 907 iodin value, 0 5 saponification number, 0 9 “stanolind surgical wax” is manufactured by the standard oil company ofindiana in the submission of the product to the council on pharmacyand chemistry, it was stated that the product was a specially preparedparaffin “free from dirt or other deleterious matter it hasbeen steamed and resteamed to drive out any free oil and repeatedlyfiltered ”the examination of the foregoing products yielded the figures describedin table “b ”-- from the journal a m a , may 19, 1917 the stability of iodine ointments l e warren, ph c , b s in general, the literature on the keeping qualities of iodine ointment, and on the stability of iodine if mixed with ointment bases, isconfusing the recorded evidence is often contradictory the attentionof the writer was brought to this condition by studies of severalproprietary preparations, iodex, 184 iod-izd-oil, 185 iocamfen, andiocamfen ointment 186184 rep chem lab , a m a , 1915, 8, 89 185 rep chem lab , a m a , 1915, 8, 106 186 rep chem lab , a m a , 1916, 9, 118 iodex was sold under the claim that it is “ an embodiment of vaporized iodine, in an organic base, reduced and standardized at 5 per cent by incorporation with a refined petroleum product ”the exact composition of iodex is a trade secret analysis showed thatit contains petrolatum-like substances and combined iodine, the latterprobably in combination with oleic acid tests for free iodine weremade in five specimens of iodex in one of these no free iodine waspresent. In the others the merest traces were found two years ago a preparation called “iod-izd-oil” was examined this wasclaimed to contain 2 per cent of free iodine in liquid petrolatum at the time of the examination the age of the preparation was notknown, but it had been obtained just prior to the analysis, and wasthought not to be very old the analysis showed that it contained butabout 0 43 per cent of iodine, all of which was in a free state thefact that all of the iodine present was in the free state appearedto indicate that iodine is relatively stable in liquid petrolatumsolutions iocamfen is a liquid composed of iodine, camphor and phenol it wasclaimed to contain 10 per cent of free iodine analysis showed thatit contained 9 3 per cent of total iodine of which 7 5 per cent was present in an uncombined state, 66 1 per cent of camphor and19 7 per cent of phenol after storing for several months a secondassay of iocamfen showed no appreciable loss in iodine content this would indicate that iodine is relatively stable in presenceof phenol and camphor, although immediately after mixing there isessay loss of free iodine the iocamfen ointment was supposed tocontain 50 per cent of iocamfen equivalent to 5 per cent of freeiodine in a lard-wax-cacaobutter base the analysis showed that theointment contained but 0 4 per cent of free iodine, the balancebeing in combination from the results of the examination, and fromcorrespondence with the manufacturers schering and glatz, it becameevident that the only plausible explanation for the loss of free iodinein the preparation of iocamfen ointment from iocamfen lay in thecombination of the free iodine with the ingredients of the ointmentbase it seems likely that the free iodine originally present iniocamfen for the most writing had gradually gone into combination with thefatty substances after the ointment had been prepared the literature was then examined to determine the consensus of opinionconcerning the stability of iodine in iodine ointment in the olderliterature the belief that iodine ointment is unstable appears to bequite general such statements as the following are typical. The ointment should be prepared only when wanted for use, for it undergoes change if kept, losing its deep, orange-brown color, and becoming pale upon its surface 187 187 u s disp , ed 19, p 1315 it is better to prepare it only as it is required for use 188 188 am disp , ed 2, p 2022 this ointment must not be dispensed unless it has recently been prepared 189 189 u s pharmacopeia, ix, p 481 in 1909 lythgoe, 190 of the massachusetts board of health laboratory, reported an examination of four samples of iodine ointment three werefound to be pure, the fourth was low in iodine experiments showedthat iodine ointment deteriorates rapidly. Consequently, no furthercollections of samples were made 190 rep mass bd health, 1909, 41, 477 in 1912 pullen191 reported that he had prepared two specimens ofiodine ointment according to the british pharmacopeia, one beingfrom new lard and the other from a specimen of lard at least 2 yearsold assays for free iodine were carried out immediately after thepreparations were made, and at intervals afterward up to four months the following values were found:191 pharm jour , 1912, 89, 610 sample i sample ii ointment from ointment from new lard, old lard, per cent per cent iodine introduced 4 0 4 0 iodine found immediately after making 3 95 3 38 iodine found after twenty-four hours 3 30 3 15 iodine found on the third day 3 18 2 62 iodine found on the seventh day 3 15 2 46 iodine found on the fourteenth day 3 00 2 45 iodine found after one month 3 00 2 39 iodine found after two months 2 90 2 31 iodine found after four months 2 92 2 26pullen found that the loss in free iodine could be accounted for by theiodine which had gone into combination with the fats of the ointmentbase pullen also found that if the potassium iodide and glycerin wereomitted in the preparation of the ointment, the loss in free iodinewas very rapid, the preparation containing practically no free iodine only 1/20 after a few hours he concludes that the use of potassiumiodide and glycerin is necessary for the preservation of the ointment he obtained specimens of iodine ointment in drug stores, and assayedthem for free iodine it is to be presumed that the ages of the severalspecimens were not known the results are found in the following table. Specimen no 1 2 74 per cent specimen no 2 2 85 per cent specimen no 3 2 62 per cent specimen no 4 2 48 per cent specimen no 5 2 53 per cent specimen no 6 2 79 per cent fried192 prepared iodine ointment according to the u s p viiiformula, and assayed it at intervals his results are tabulatedherewith:192 pharm jour , 1912, 89, 610 per cent iodine introduced 4 00 iodine found immediately after making 3 89 iodine found one hour after making 3 51 iodine found one day after making 3 48 iodine found five days after making 3 06 iodine found ten days after making 2 84 iodine found thirty days after making 2 81 iodine found ninety days after making 2 81 iodine found eight months after making 2 81iodine ointment has been official in the u s pharmacopeia since 1870 briefly, the method now used for making the preparation is as follows. Four gm of iodine, 4 gm of potassium iodide and 12 gm of glycerin are weighed into a tared mortar and the mixture triturated until the iodine and potassium iodide are dissolved and a dark, reddish-brown, syrupy liquid is produced eighty gm of benzoinated lard are then added in small portions and with trituration after each addition the mass is then triturated until of uniform consistence 193193 the time required to complete the process after the initialportion of lard has been added should be about twenty minutes paraffins and paraffin preparations-- table a key. A. Formula b. Substance c. Melting point, u s p d. Ductility limit e. Plasticity limit f.

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Oftheir actions and malefactions. Their field and limitations slowlyand painstakingly-- essaytimes painfully-- this scientific knowledge hasbeen gathered, is still being gathered, by chemists and pharmacists, pharmacologists and clinicians, with increasing thoroughness, care anddiscrimination where wisdom fears to venture, unwisdom and cupidity find ample room the wise physician knows that there are ills that drugs cannot cure;that drugs generally only aid or relieve. And that to obtain eventhis aid efficiently and safely, the existing scientific knowledgeis none too great not so the unwise he who sees in disease only aname, to him a name is a sufficient cure let there be a mixture witha convenient and suggestive name and a pleasant taste, a compendiousindex of diseases and symptoms-- and a lively imagination-- and the cureis accomplished few things could be easier, and few more false itis not surprising that the “man on the street” should fall into theseerrors. It is sad that any physician should be misled by the sophistryof interested drug vendors physicians have the moral obligation to instruct the public in mattersof health preaching before practice is of little avail it behoovesthe medical profession to make at least a reasonable effort to cleanits own house before it passes the broom to the public realizingthis responsibility, the american medical association essay years agoestablished its council on pharmacy and chemistry this council isstrictly an educational agency-- it collects and disseminates knowledgeabout drugs, especially those drugs that are advertised to physiciansand that are not described in the legal pharmacopeias physicians arethus put in a position to discriminate thesis have done so. Others will, a few may never see the light on this earth journals can no longer claim that they mislead their readers in goodfaith essay-- the cleveland medical journal among the first-- havefrankly acknowledged their obligations, and sacrificed a lucrativeincome from advertisements.