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The reason is not far to seek illustrationwhen the pharmacist puts up an ordinary, nonproprietary prescription, the patient gets no clue from the package as to the nature of theprescription employed but when an original bottle of neurosine isdispensed, even though the pharmacist puts his own prescription labelon it, the patient sees the difference at once and knows just whythe usual prescription bottle was not employed he also knows thathe can get the medicine with its original wrapper or label by merelyshowing the bottle to the druggist, for essay service cheap the words “neurosine” and “dioschemical co ” are blown in the glass here, then, may be a plausiblereason for desiring that only original bottles be dispensed you may ask, “what difference does it make if the patient does learnthe name of the nostrum, he must go to his physician for adviceconcerning its use?. ” having learned the name of the remedy that hasbeen prescribed for sleeplessness, let us say, he proceeds to useit whenever he imagines that he needs it. And that need, real orimaginary, has a way of increasing in frequency as a result, thepatient takes far more neurosine than the physician would think ofpermitting if the matter had not passed entirely beyond his control not only has the patient acquired a dangerous habit ofself-prescribing, but he takes especial delight in recommending hisfavorite remedy to friends whose symptoms, real and imaginary, seem toresemble his own this offers him an opportunity to prescribe with anair of authority it was prescribed for him by dr blank, and it gaverelief, ergo it may be depended on to give relief to others!. thus isthe basis laid for its general use by the laity, when this process ismultiplied sufficiently the statement is susceptible of easy proofby any one who cares to investigate the matter for himself there isprobably no physician worthy of the name who will attempt to denythat the promiscuous use of hypnotics and narcotics is dangerous, andcertainly no careful physician will deliberately place a narcotic inthe hands of patients to be used freely and without control since we have selected neurosine at random, so far as this writingiculardiscussion is concerned, it is worth while to inquire into itscomposition, the claims that have been made for it and the evidence, ifany exists, for or against its therapeutic value even the most activeof hypnotics are worse than useless if they are inferior to otherreadily available hypnotics, or if they have undesired side-actionsthat outweigh any advantages that they might otherwise have the council on pharmacy and chemistry investigated the literaturerelating to neurosine and published its report in the journal, jan 9, 1915, p 165 according to this report the manufacturers of neurosineclaimed that each fluidounce contained. Bromid of potassium, c p 40 grains bromid of sodium, c p 40 grains bromid of ammonium, c p 40 grains bromid of zinc 1 grain extract lupulin 32 grains cascara sagrada, fl ex 40 minims extract henbane 0 075 grain extract belladonna 0 075 grain extract cannabis indica 0 60 grain oil bitter almonds 0 60 grain aromatic elixirthis chemical blunderbuss was recommended for use in insomnia, hysteria, neurasthenia, migraine, neuralgia, delirium tremens, epilepsyand thesis other conditions also it was called an ideal calmative forchildren suffering from chorea, the exploiters claiming that “allauthorities recommend the bromids, hyoscyamus and cannabis indica inthis disease ” oliver t osborne, professor of therapeutics in yalemedical school, does not mention one of these three drugs in hisdiscussion of the medicinal treatment of chorea, in the handbook oftherapy, though he quotes several authorities in this article indeed, he does not mention one of the ten drugs included in the above formulaof neurosine in connection with the treatment of this disease it is acurious fact that osborne gives the greatest prominence to the use ofthat drug which is claimed to be wanting in the formula of neurosine, namely, hydrated chloral perhaps you may have seen temporary relief follow the administrationof neurosine in chorea, and may argue that theorizing is of littlevalue in the face of personal experience we shall not deny that essaymay have had that experience, for osborne calls attention to the factthat the success of any medicinal treatment must be judged in thelight of the fact that chorea is self-limited, and the intensity ofthe symptoms will abate in from two to four weeks in view of this, wewould hardly dispute the claim that one may administer narcotics, suchas those contained in neurosine, and the symptoms of chorea may abatein spite of such mistreatment in all the years that neurosine has beenexploited to physicians with such remarkable claims, we have never seena report of a careful clinical study in which the product has been usedunder the conditions which scientific investigation demands would youprescribe any nonproprietary preparations which had never been studiedclinically, if a horse-shoer or grocer boy told you it would cureepilepsy or malaria?.

As also to help the redness of the eyes, and swellings ofprivities, and of the breasts before they be grown too much the freshherb applied to the forehead, eases the pains of the head-ache comingof heat down, or cotton-thistle descript this has large leaves lying on the ground, essaywhat cutin, and as it were crumpled on the edges, of a green colour on theupper side, but covered with long hairy wool, or cotton down, set withmost sharp and cruel pricks, from the middle of whose head of flowers, thrust forth thesis purplish crimson threads, and essaytimes althoughvery seldom white ones the seed that follows in the heads, lying ina great deal of white down, is essaywhat large, long, and round, likethe seed of ladies thistle, but paler the root is great and thick, spreading much, yet it usually dies after seed-time place it grows in divers ditches, banks, and in corn-fields, andhighways, generally every where throughout the land time it flowers and bears seed about the end of summer, when otherthistles do flower and seed government and virtues mars owns the plant, and manifest to theworld, that though it may hurt your finger, it will help your body. Fori fancy it much for the ensuing virtues pliny and dioscorides write, that the leaves and roots thereof taken in drink, help those that havea crick in their neck. Whereby they cannot turn their neck but theirwhole body must turn also sure they do not mean those that have got acrick in their neck by being under the hangman hand galen saith, that the root and leaves hereof are of a healing quality, and goodfor such persons as have their bodies drawn together by essay spasm orconvulsion, as it is with children that have the rickets dragons they are so well known to every one that plants them in their gardens, they need no description. If not, let them look down to the lower endof the stalks, and see how like a snake they look government and virtues the plant is under the dominion of mars, and therefore it would be a wonder if it should want essay obnoxiousquality or other. In all herbs of that quality, the safest way iseither to distil the herb in an alembick, in what vehicle you please, or else to press out the juice, and distil that in a glass still, insand it scours and cleanses the internal writings of the body mightily, and it clears the external writings also, being externally applied, fromfreckles, morphew, and sun-burning. Your best way to use it externally, is to mix it with vinegar. An ointment of it is held to be good inwounds and ulcers. It consumes cankers, and that flesh growing in thenostrils, which they call polypus. Also the distilled water beingdropped into the eyes, takes away spots there, or the pin and web, andmends the dimness of sight. It is excellently good against pestilenceand poison pliny and dioscorides affirm, that no serpent will meddlewith him that carries this herb about him the elder tree i hold it needless to write any description of this, since every boythat plays with a pop-gun will not mistake another tree instead ofelder. I shall therefore in this place only describe the dwarf-elder, called also dead-wort, and wall-wort the dwarf-elder descript this is but an herb every year, dying with his stalks tothe ground, and rising afresh every spring, and is like unto the elderboth in form and quality, rising up with square, rough, hairy stalks, four feet high, or more essaytimes the winged leaves are essaywhatnarrower than the elder, but else like them the flowers are white witha dash of purple, standing in umbels, very like the elder also, butmore sweet is scent. After which come small blackish berries, full ofjuice while they are fresh, wherein is small hard kernels, or seed the root doth creep under the upper crust of the ground, springing indivers places, being of the bigness of one finger or thumb essaytimes place the elder-tree grows in hedges, being planted there tostrengthen the fences and writingitions of ground, and to hold the banksby ditches and water-courses the dwarf elder grows wild in thesis places of england, where being oncegotten into a ground, it is not easily gotten forth again time most of the elder trees, flower in june, and their fruit isripe for the most writing in august but the dwarf elder, or wall-wort, flowers essaywhat later, and his fruit is not ripe until september government and virtues both elder and dwarf tree are under thedominion of venus the first shoots of the common elder boiled likeasparagus, and the young leaves and stalks boiled in fat broth, dothmightily carry forth phlegm and choler the middle or inward barkboiled in water, and given in drink, works much more violently.

It is good against quotidian agues, and faults in thestomach and liver, yet because it is well corrected if you take buthalf a dram at a time, and keep yourself warm, i suppose you may takeit without danger pilulæ alœphanginæ college take of cinnamon, cloves, cardamoms the less, nutmegs, mace, calamus aromaticus, carpobalsamum, or juniper essay service cheap berries, squinanth, wood of aloes, yellow sanders, red roses dried, wormwood, of each halfan ounce, let the tincture be taken out of these, being grossly bruisedin spirit of wine, the vessel being close stopped. In three pounds ofthis tincture, being strained, dissolve aloes one pound, which beingdissolved, add mastich, myrrh, of each half an ounce, saffron twodrams, balsam of peru one dram, the superfluous liquor being consumed, either over hot ashes, or a bath, bring it into a mass of pills culpeper it cleanses both stomach and brain of gross and putrifiedhumours, and sets the senses free when they are thereby troubled, itcleanses the brain offended by ill humours, wind, &c helps vertigo andhead-aches, and strengthens the brain exceedingly, helps concoction, and strengthens the stomach, one dram taken at night going to bed, will work gently next day. If the writingy be weak, you may give less, ifstrong more if you take but half a dram, you may go abroad the nextday. But if you take a dram, you may keep the house. There can be noharm in that pilulæ de aloe lota or pills of washed aloes college take of aloes washed with juice of red roses, one ounce, agarick three drams, mastich two drams, diamoscu dulce half a dram, syrup of damask-roses, so much as is sufficient to make it into a massaccording to art culpeper it purges both brain, stomach, bowels, and eyes ofputrified humours, and also strengthens them use these as thesucceeding aloe rosata college take of aloes in powder four ounces, juice of damask rosesclarified one pound, mix them and digest them in the sun, or in a bath, till the superfluous liquor be drawn off, digest it, and evaporate itfour times over, and keep the mass culpeper it is a gallant gentle purger of choler, frees the stomachfrom superfluous humours, opens stoppings, and other infirmities ofthe body proceeding from choler and flegm, as yellow jaundice, &c andstrengthens the body exceedingly take a scruple, or half a dram atnight going to bed, you may walk abroad, for it will hardly work tillnext day in the afternoon pilulæ aureæ college take of aloes, diacrydium, of each five drams, red roses, smallage seeds, of each two drams and an half, the seeds of annisand fennel, of each one dram and an half, mastich, saffron, troch, alhandal, of each one dram, with a sufficient quantity of honey roses, make it into a mass according to art culpeper they are held to purge the head, to quicken the senses, especially the sight, and to expel wind from the bowels, but worksessaything harshly half a dram is the utmost dose, keep the fire, takethem in the morning, and sleep after them, they will work before noon pilulæ cochiæ, the greater college take of species, hiera picra, ten drams, troch, alhandal, three drams and an half, diacrydium two drams and an half, turbith, stœchas, of each five drams, with a sufficient quantity of syrup ofstœchas, make it into a mass, according to art culpeper it is held to purge the head, but it is but a dogged purgeat best, and must be given only to strong bodies, and but half a dramat a time, and yet with great care pilulæ cochiæ, the less college take of aloes, scammony, colocynthis, of each one ounce, with equal writings of syrup of wormwood, and of purging thorn, make itinto a mass according to art pilulæ de cynoglosso or pills of hound-tongue college take of the roots of hound-tongue dried, white henbaneseed, opium prepared, of each half an ounce, myrrh six drams, olibanumfive drams, saffron, castoreum, styrax, calamitis, of each one dram andan half, with syrup of stœchas, make it into a mass culpeper it stays hot rheums that fall down upon the lungs, therefore is good in phthisics, also it mitigates pain, a scruple isenough to take at a time going to bed, and too much if your body beweak. Have a care of opiates for fear they make you sleep your last pilulæ ex duobus or pills of two things college take of colocynthis, and scamony, of each one ounce, oil ofcloves as much as is sufficient to malax them well, then with a littlesyrup of purging thorn, make it into a mass pilulæ de eupatorio or pills of eupatorium college take of the juice of maudlin, and wormwood made thick, citron, myrobalans, of each three drams, rhubarb three drams and anhalf, mastich one dram, aloes five drams, saffron half a dram, syrup ofthe juice of endive, as much as is sufficient to make it into a mass culpeper it is a gallant gentle purge, and strengthening, fittedfor such bodies as are much weakened by disease of choler the authorappropriates it to such as have tertian agues, the yellow jaundice, obstructions or stoppings of the liver. Half a dram taken at nightgoing to bed, will work with an ordinary body, the next day by noon pilulæ fætidæ or stinking pills college take of aloes, colocynthis, ammoniacum, sagapen, myrrh, rue-seeds, epithymum, of each five drams, scamony three drams, theroots of turbith half an ounce, the roots of spurge the less prepared, hermodactils of each two drams, ginger one dram and an half, spikenard, cinnamon, saffron, castoreum, of each one dram, euphorbium prepared twoscruples, dissolve the gums in juice of leeks, and with syrup made withthe juice of leeks and sugar, make it into a mass culpeper they purge gross and raw flegm, and diseases thereofarising.

Yet out of 952cataracts, of which a record has been kept, only two paper occurred injewellers besides, there is not one special sign or physical traceleft on the body by which a prostitute may be known, notwithstandingthe fact that in life the collective appearance would seldom deceive anexperienced man only in the case of sodomy, where anal coitus has been frequent, wouldcharacteristic signs be found on anal examination of 446 prostitutes, dr coutagne594 found the signs of post-perineal coitus in 180 he cites the case of a young prostitute presenting the astonishingcontrast of a gaping anus surrounded by characteristic rhagades, withthe genital writings of an extreme freshness, a very narrow vagina, andnon-retracted hymen, constituting by their reunion a still firm ring a fact yet more curious is shown by a specimen in the collection ofthe museum of the laboratory of legal medicine at lyons the genitalorgans of the cadaver of a woman of twenty-eight or thirty years showeda hymen intact and firm, but on examining the anal region it wassurprising to find an infundibuliform deformity with all the signs ofsodomitical habits, which of course rectified the opinion that had beenmade regarding the chastity of this woman thesis of the signs enumerated as peculiar to different callings haveno special anatomical characteristic that is easy to distinguish withprecision, consequently they do not present a degree of certainty orconstancy sufficient to be invoked as strong medico-legal proof ofidentity moreover, the effects of time or treatment may have causedalteration or disappearance of thesis of the signs in question, whichwould at best be of negative rather than of absolute value to arrive at an imwritingial appreciation of the relative value of theprofessional stigmata as signs of identity, a certain number of thesigns should be thrown aside as illusory others, on the contrary, aredurable, special, and constant, and assist in establishing the identityaccordingly as the lesions or alterations are complete or evident. Butit should be borne in mind that the physical alterations and chemicalmodifications resulting from the exercise of certain trades are not inour country so important from a medico-legal point of view as they arein europe, where class distinctions are more defined value of stains and different imprints in the same manner that a very small portion or fragment of the humanbody may suffice to establish the corpus delicti, so will minuteremains or traces, as finger-marks, footprints, and other materialsurroundings, even smells or traces of perfume, be of great assistanceto justice in determining the identity of both culprit and victim, andat the same time throw light on the attendant circumstances of thedeed the traces of a bloody hand or foot, smears of tar or paint, the various spots or stains found on fabrics, instruments, etc , mayinvolve questions of great nicety the relativity of which is apparent, especially in criminal trials newspapers have familiarized the publicwith thesis paper of the kind, in which medical experts have demonstratedblood and other stains with sufficient accuracy and positiveness tosatisfy a jury the cronin case is a notable instance imprints made by finger-tips are known to be singularly persistent in four specimens of inked digit marks of sir william herschel, madein the years 1860, 1874, 1885, and 1888 respectively, though therewas a difference of twenty-eight years between the first and last, nodifference could be perceived between the impressions the forms ofthe spirals remained the same, not only in general character, but inminute and measurable details, as in the distances from the centreof the spiral and in the direction at which each new ridge took itsrise sir william herschel has made great use of digit-marks forthe purposes of legal attestation among natives of india 595 theextraordinary persistence of the papillary ridges on the inner surfaceof the hands throughout life has been a theme of discussion by theroyal society, 596 and mr galton has devised a method of indexingfinger-marks 597the impress of a naked foot covered with blood may serve to direct theinvestigations of justice in a criminal affair in france, where eightindividuals were implicated, comparative experiments upon the identityof the foot, made with a view to determine to which of the individualsought to be attributed the bloody footprints found near a wardrobe, it was shown that a degree of recognition could be established onreproducing the footprints with defibrinated blood from the eightimprints of the left foot of each individual, impregnated with blood, measures and comparisons could be made, thus helping to establish thedifference or the resemblance with those found near the wardrobe imprints thus obtained may be looked upon as a kind of documentaryevidence, but too much importance should not be attached to them asarticles tending to prove criminality the futility of such evidenceis shown in the varying sizes of different impressions of the foot ofthe same person first in rapid progression, secondly by standing, and third by slow advance the results appear less sure in the case offootprints made in mud, sand, dust, or snow nevertheless thesis factsrelating thereto may be noted with great certainty the question hasbeen mooted as to whether or not the impress left upon the soil givesalways the exact dimensions of the foot that has made them one sidehas contended that the footprints are a little smaller, while theother refutes this opinion and thinks that they are a little larger the consistency of the soil, which does not seem to have entered intothe discussion, doubtless accounts for the small differences that havegiven rise to this discrepancy of opinion the outline of the sole ofthe foot and the relative position of the toes are more or less neatlydesigned as the ground is more or less wet or soft the means employedfor taking impressions of foot or other tracks in mud, etc , showconsiderable ingenuity on the writing of those who have elaborated thesubject to discover foot-marks in mud, powdered stearic acid is spreadover the imprint and a heat of at least 212° is applied from above bythis means a solid mould may be taken of the imprint these researcheshave been extended to the exact reproduction of imprints left upon snowby pouring melted gelatine upon the imprint previously sprinkled with alittle common table salt, which rapidly lowers the temperature of thesnow about fifteen degrees and permits the mould to be taken withouttoo much hurry the study has been extended to the configuration of theplantar imprints in tabetics, but it does not appear so far to be ofmuch medico-legal value the question may arise as to the length of time since the imprintswere made this would, of course, depend upon thesis circumstances, asweather, temperature, and the like it is a fact that in greenlandfootsteps in snow have been recognized thesis months after they weremade a few summers ago, on an arctic expedition, i climbed capelisbourne, alaska, in company with another person the ground beingthawed in thesis places, our feet left very decided imprints in the mud a year afterward i visited the same spot, and on again making theascent was astonished to recognize the footsteps made the year before circumstances essaytimes direct expert attention to vestiges of otheranimals the tracks of a dog or of a horse may become the object of amedico-legal inquest the books record a case in which it was necessaryto ascertain whether a bite had been made by a large or a small dog this question was settled by producing the dogs and comparing theirteeth with the scars persons familiar with border life know theimportance of trails and the minute observation that is brought to bearon them by the experienced frontiersman in following cattle-thievesand murderers, while with the fourth united states cavalry on the riogrande frontier, i have known the peculiarity of a horse footprint inthe prairie to tell a tale of great significance observation in this respect may extend to such apparently trivialobjects as the tracks of wheels, as those of a wagon, a wheelbarrow, or a bicycle, or to the singular imprints left by crutches or awalking-stick the imprint left in the ground by a cane usually occursin the remarkable order of every two and a half or every four and ahalf steps investigation of such circumstances may result in materialfacts that may be of great assistance in establishing the relation ofone or several persons with essay writingicular act deformities and pathological peculiarities the existence of deformities or injuries is so apparent in serving toestablish identity that it seems almost superfluous to mention them, except for the purpose of deciding whether the wounds were made duringlife or after death in the matter of gunshot wounds on persons whotook writing in the late civil war, thesis of whom unfortunately belong tothe vagrant class and are often found dead, their wounds essaytimesafford excellent means of identification in thesis instances themultiple character of these wounds is almost incredible when on dutyat the army medical museum, in connection with the preparation of the“medical and surgical history of the war of the rebellion, ” i saw a manwho was literally wounded from the crown of his head to the sole of hisfoot, the scars being fifty-two in number wounds made during life might show the suggillation peculiar tobruises or traces of inflammation besides, the gaping nature of thelips of the wound, the fact of hemorrhage having taken place and thecoagulation of the blood, the infiltration of blood into the cellulartissue, etc , are surgical facts that would leave but little doubt asto the infliction of the wounds during life the cause of death is often a difficult matter to determine, asit may have been accidental, suicidal, or the result of homicide the causes relating thereto are, moreover, so thesis and varied thatspace and time compel a reference to other headings of this work informing an opinion as to the probable date of death the extent ofputrefaction is the chief guide if death is quite recent, we may beguided by the post-mortem rigidity or the extent to which the body hascooled the march of putrefactive decomposition would, of course, beregulated by circumstances it takes place very rapidly in persons whohave succumbed to excessive fatigue or to any disassimilative excessesor derangement resulting in ante-mortem change of the tissues, suchas those occurring in virulent or infectious diseases the body ofan infant decays more rapidly that that of an adult the course ofputrefactive phenomena is also influenced by the seasons, the extentof the exposure to air, and to other mesological causes there is amanifest difference in the special putrefactive change accordingly asa body is buried in the earth, submerged in a fluid, thrown into acesspool, or buried in a dung-heap in certain paper, especially where the body has been much mutilated, itmay be desirable to know whether there was one or several murderers while no definite rule can be laid down on this point, we are justifiedin supposing that there were two or more assassins when the body of thevictim shows both gunshot and knife wounds, or that two persons wereconcerned in the dismemberment and mutilation of a body which shows thesimultaneous presence of writings skilfully cut, while others show evidentawkwardness where there is more than one mortal wound on the same dead body, a question of medico-legal significance may arise this occurred inthe burton murder case at newport, r i , in 1885, which gave rise todiscussion of the following abstract question. “whether it is possiblefor an individual, with suicidal intent, and in quick succession, to inflict a perforating shot of the head and another of the chestimplicating the heart or, reversing the proposition, is it incrediblethat a person bent on self-destruction can, with his own hand, shoothimself in the heart and in the head?. ”after consideration of the case referred to and reversal of theprevious decision of the coroner, the supposed suicide proved to bea homicide yet if the abstract question of possibilities is aloneregarded, there is no doubt of the fact that a suicide could shoothimself in such manner, both in the head and the heart, or, changingthe order, of shots in the heart and in the head the number ofpaper recorded establishes beyond a doubt the feasibility of theself-infliction of two such wounds, and make it clear that the theoryof suicide may be maintained in such circumstances 598judicial anthropometry of late years the subject of anthropometric identification has takensuch a place before justice that it cannot be ignored by the medicallegist the facts of scientific anthropology have here been applied insuch a way as to establish with great certainty both the present andfuture identity of individuals who attempt dissimulation of their nameand antecedents the method used principally in the identificationof criminals and deserters from the army has been adopted in thepublic service599 and by most municipalities, with the exception ofnew york, where the subsequent identification of persons connectedwith municipal affairs has been and may be a source of no littleembarrassment the system is based on three recognitory elements. Photography, anthropometric measurements, and personal markings, from which adescriptive list is made that gives absolute certainty as to individualidentity owing to the illusory nature of photography and the difficultyin finding the portrait of any given individual in the large andconstantly increasing collection of a “rogues’ gallery, ” the matterhas been simplified and facilitated by grouping the photographiccollection according to the six anthropological coefficients of sex, stature, age, and color of the eyes each of these primordial groups isagain subdivided in such a way as to reduce the last group to a smallnumber, when the portrait is easily found and verified on comparing themeasurements of the head, of the extended arms, the length of the leftfoot, and that of the left middle finger the photographic proof for each individual consists of two portraitsside by side, one of which is taken full face, the other in profile ofthe right side on the back of the photographic card is recorded withrigorous precision all personal markings or peculiarities the measurements, which can be made by any person of averageintelligence in three or four minutes, are extremely simple theright ear is always measured, for the reason that this organ isalways reproduced in the traditional photograph which represents theright face other special measurements are taken on the left side theheight sitting, dimensions and character of the nose, color of eyes, etc , are also noted it is contended that by these measurements alone the identity of anindividual whose face is not even known may be established in anothercountry by telegraph the application of the system has proved of greatservice in the apprehension of deserters from the united states army when the authorities have been able to find the card, while it isclaimed to have caused the disappearance of numerous dissimulators ofidentity in the prisons of paris the police authorities of that cityreport that out of more than five hundred annual recognitions by theforegoing means, not one mistake has yet occurred 600to avoid a possible source of error mensuration of the organs and theascertainment of their form may be resorted to in the case of a cadaverthat is much decayed, or in one that has been purposely mutilated orburned by the assassin in order to prevent recognition a sufficientnumber of paper may be cited in which the measurement of a limb or abone of a deceased person known to have been lame or deformed duringlife has resulted in the establishment of identity or the reverse a mistake may be prevented in the case of supposed mutilation of adrowned body, which may have been caused by the screw of a passingsteamer other errors may result from carelessness, incorrectobservation of signs, and neglect to follow the ordinary precautionsthat should obtain in all researches on identity of the dead body certain circumstances indicative of the mental state of the culpritmay throw light on the identity a person of unsound mind wouldcertainly be suggested as the perpetrator of such a deed as that ofthe woman already mentioned, who after killing and cutting up herinfant, cooked portions of the remains with cabbage and served themat a meal of which she herself writingook equally conclusive should bethe inference in the case cited by maudsley of a person who, for noascertainable motive, kills a little girl, mutilates her remains, andcarefully records the fact in his note-book, with the remark that thebody was hot and good the handwriting left by the assassin might also furnish a strongpresumption as to the existence of a mental lesion, since the writingof the insane is often characteristic, especially in the initial stageof dementia i recall the case of a former patient, an aphasic, imprisoned for having stabbed a man in the abdomen and for havingwounded his wife in such a way that her arm had to be amputated havinglost the power to express himself phonetically, this man used a bookand pencil, but his writing showed a degree of agraphia which alonewould establish his identity beyond a doubt while it is quite possible that dishonest transactions, and even theft, may take place by telephone and the voices of the perpetrators maybe unmistakable between distant cities, it is more likely that thephonographic registration of speech or other sound by means of agramophone should become a matter of medico-legal investigation and apossible means that may lend great assistance in establishing personalidentity although no precedent may be cited, it is not going intothe domain of theoretical hypothesis to mention a discovery of suchreal scientific certainty that for years after death, and thousands ofmiles away, gives an indefinite number of reproductions that cannotpossibly be mistaken by any one familiar with the voice before it hadbecome “edisonized ” essay gramophone disks lately shown me from gerthesisregistered greetings and messages to relatives in washington, who weredelighted to recognize the exact reproduction of familiar tones andaccents of the fatherland so limitless is the field of research in this direction that there isscarcely an anthropological, biological, or medical discovery thatmay not sooner or later be applied with profit in the investigationsof personal identity where the combined efforts of an attorney and anexpert are required after the most rigid and scrutinizing anatomical and materialexamination is made and the closest inquisition entered on, it mayoften be impossible to give a reasonable explanation for the causeof the physical facts observed the medical man should remember thathis is the one great exception to the rule that rigidly excludesopinions, and that scientific men called as witnesses may not givetheir opinion as to the general merits of the case, but only as to thefacts already proved this qualifying rule being altogether reversedin investigations into personal identity, and the physician opinionas to identity being indispensable, it becomes a matter of mostserious import that this opinion should be grounded upon absolute andwell-attested facts medico-legal determinationofthe time of death byh p loomis, a m , m d , professor of pathology in the university of the city of new york;visiting physician and curator to bellevue hospital, new york;pathologist to the board of health, new york city. President new yorkpathological society, etc , etc medico-legal determination of the time of death signs of death the cessation of respiration and the absence of audible heart-beatsare signs generally regarded as sufficient in themselves to determinethe reality of death but persons have been resuscitated from a stateof asphyxia or have recovered from a state of catalepsy or lethargy inwhom, to all appearances, the respiratory and circulatory processeshave been arrested so it is advisable that we should be acquainted with essay absolutetests of death which are not connected with the heart-sounds or therespiration it is well known that these important functions, although apparentlyheld in abeyance, must be speedily re-established so as to berecognized, or death will rapidly follow this condition of apparentlysuspended animation is seen among hibernating animals. The bear, forinstance, will remain for four or five months without food or drinkin a state of lethargy the heart-action and respiration hardlyappreciable yet it will be sufficiently rapid to sustain life duringthe slow metabolic processes a number of well-authenticated paper arereported in which persons could slacken their heart-action, so thatno movement of the organ could be appreciated the case of coloneltownsend, reported by cheyne, is an example he possessed the power ofapparently dying, by slowing his heart so that there was no pulse orheart-action discernible the longest period he could remain in thisinanimate state was half an hour instances have occurred in the new-born child where without questionthere have been no heart-beats or respiratory movements for a number ofminutes, the limit being set at five these are exceptional paper, and it is setting at defiance allphysiological experience to suppose that the heart-action andrespiration can be suspended entirely when once they are established, for a period as long so, then, if no motion of the heart occurs duringa period of five minutes a period five times as great as observationwarrants death may be regarded as certain the respiratory movements of the chest are essaytimes very difficultto observe they can always be better appreciated if the abdomen andchest are observed together there are two methods to determine whetherrespiration is absolutely suspended or not first, by holding a mirrorin front of the open mouth, observing whether any moisture collects onits surface second, by placing on the chest a looking-glass or basinof water, and reflecting from it an image by artificial or sun light the slightest movement would be registered by a change in position ofthe image while the writer considers the absence of heart-beats and ofrespiratory movement an absolute test of death, still essay paper mayoccur in which the establishment of this test is very difficult, andthe following additional tests may be employed:1 temperature of the body same as surrounding air 2 intermittent shocks of electricity at different tensions passed intovarious muscles, giving no indication whatever of irritability 3 careful movements of the joints of the extremities and of the lowerjaw, showing that rigor mortis is found in several writings 4 a bright needle plunged into the body of the biceps muscle cloquet needle test and left there, showing on withdrawal no signsof oxidation 5 the opening of a vein, showing that the blood has undergonecoagulation 6 the subcutaneous injection of ammonia monte verde test, causinga dirty-brown stain indicative of dissolution 7 a fillet applied to the veins of the arm richardson test, causing no filling of the veins on the distal side of the fillet 8 “diaphanous test:” after death there is an absence of thetranslucence seen in living people when the hand is held before astrong light with the fingers extended and in contact 9 “eye test:” after death there is a loss of sensibility of the eyeto light, loss of corneal transparency, and the pupil is not responsiveto mydriatics post-mortem changes the human body after death undergoes certain changes which will bediscussed under the following heads:1 cooling of the body 2 flaccidity of the body 3 rigor mortis 4 changes in color due to a cadaveric ecchymoses b putrefaction cooling of the body immediately after death there is a slight rise of temperature, supposedto be due to the fact that the metabolic changes in the tissues stillcontinue, while the blood is no longer cooled by passing through theperipheral capillaries and lungs the body gradually cools and reaches the temperature of the surroundingair in from fifteen to twenty hours. This is the ordinary course, but the time may be influenced by a variety of causes, such as thecondition of the body at the time of death, manner of death, andcircumstances under which the body has been placed in certain diseases, as yellow fever, rheumatism, chorea, and tetanus, the temperature of the body has been known to rise as high as 104° f and remain so for a time again, it has been observed that when deathhas taken place suddenly, as from accident, apoplexy, or acute disease, the body retains its heat for a long time the bodies of persons dyingfrom hanging, electrocution, suffocation, or poisoning by carbondioxide, do not generally cool for from twenty-four to forty-eighthours, and paper are recorded where three days have elapsed before thebody was completely cold on the other hand, bodies dead from chronicwasting diseases or severe hemorrhage cool very rapidly, even in fouror five hours in determining the temperature of a dead body the hand is not areliable guide.

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And in 6 the hyoid bone only or the bone and larynx were injured in the remaining paper it was not possible to say that the hanging occurred during life in 2 paper there were no marks at all. In 9 there were changes in the skin. In 4, changes in the skin and deeper writings.