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Essay Scholarships For High School Seniors


No certificates are granted except to persons presentingdiplomas or licenses from legally chartered medical institutions ingood standing 5 certificates must be recorded in the county of residence and the recordindorsed thereon a person removing to another county to practise mustprocure an indorsement to that effect on his certificate from thecounty clerk, and must record the certificate in the county to which heremoves 6 the board refuses certificates to individuals guilty of unprofessionalconduct the applicant is given an opportunity to be heard, bycitation. The attendance of witnesses may be compelled by subpœna;witnesses may be examined at the hearing by either side, and eitherside may examine medical experts as to whether such conduct isunprofessional. If it appears to the satisfaction of the board thatthe applicant is guilty of the unprofessional conduct set out in thecitation, no certificate can be granted no application is refused forunprofessional conduct more than one year before the application ifthe holder of a certificate is guilty of unprofessional conduct, thecertificate must be revoked by board granting it.

B, dura essay scholarships for high school seniors mater. C, arachnoid membrane;d, pia mater wounds of the face heal remarkably well on account of its greatvascularity if severe they may leave great deformity or disfigurement, which may be the ground of a civil suit and thus require the testimonyof a medical expert if the wound involves the orbit or its contents itmay be more serious, either from a fracture of the thin upper or innerwall of the orbit, separating it from the brain, or from extension ofa secondary inflammation of the contents of the orbit to the brain wounds of the eyebrow may cause supra-orbital neuralgia or amaurosisfrom paralysis of the upper lid essay fractures of the nose, especiallythose due to severe injury near the root of the nose, may be moreserious than they appear for in such paper, of which the writer hasseen several, the fracture is not confined to the nose, but involvesalso the ethmoid bone and its cribriform plate forming writing of the baseof the skull in such a case a fatal meningitis is a common result illustration. Fig 20 - double fracture of the thyroid and cricoidcartilages of the larynx, from the blow of a flat-iron wounds of the neck are very rarely accidental, more often homicidal, but most often suicidal in nature they are most often incised wounds as we have already seen, the kind and condition of the weapon used isoften indicated by the character of the wound we have also seen thatin thesis paper a suicidal wound of the neck can be distinguished from ahomicidal one with more or less probability or even certainty woundsof the neck are often dangerous, and they may be rapidly fatal if theydivide the main vessels, especially the carotid arteries wounds of thelarynx, trachea, and œsophagus are grave and often fatal from entranceof blood into the air-passages or from subsequent œdema or inflammationoccluding the air-passages wounds of the sympathetic and pneumogastricnerves may be fatal, and those of the recurrent laryngeal nerves causeaphonia the situation of the average suicidal or homicidal cut-throatwound is in front, generally across the thyro-hyoid membrane, essaytimesdividing the cricoid-thyroid membrane, and not at the side of the neckwhere the great vessels lie and would be more easily divided theforce is expended, as a rule, before the great vessels are reached the epiglottis may be cut or detached and the incision may even reachthe posterior wall of the pharynx, but the majority of the suicidalpaper recover with proper treatment the homicidal paper are more oftenfatal from division of the great vessels, though, as already stated, ineither class of paper a fatal result may occur if the air-passages areopened from the entrance of blood into them and the consequent asphyxia contusions of the neck may be so severe as to cause unconsciousnessor even death the latter may be due to a reflex inhibitory action, as in paper of death from a blow upon the pit of the stomach as aresult of such contusions we may have a fracture of the larynx usuallyconfined to the thyroid and cricoid cartilages see fig 20 thismay be followed by hemorrhage from the larynx, essay of which maypass down into the trachea and threaten death from asphyxia lateremphysema often develops throughout the tissues of the neck, and thereis great danger of œdema of the larynx the prognosis is serious unlesstracheotomy is performed early or the case is closely watched it ismost serious where the cricoid cartilage had been fractured, as thisrequires a greater degree of violence whereas incised wounds of thethroat are most often suicidal, contusions are most often accidentalor inflicted by another among the latter class of injuries may beincluded the so-called garroting, by which a person is seizedviolently around the throat, usually from behind, and generally with aview to strangle and rob in such paper the larynx or trachea may beinjured in the same way as by a contusing blow wounds and injuries of the spine and spinal cord injuries of the spine resemble more or less closely those of thehead fractures of the spine generally occur in combination withdislocation, as fracture-dislocation thus displacement is generallypresent and causes a fatal compression or crushing of the cord whenthe cord has once been crushed at the site of the displacement of thefracture-dislocation there is no hope of its ever healing thereforethe lower end of the cord is never again in functional connection withthe brain these injuries are more rapidly fatal the higher up theyare if the injury is above the fourth cervical vertebra death isnearly immediate, for then even diaphragmatic breathing is impossible, and the injured person dies of asphyxia fracture of the odontoidprocess of the axis, which regularly occurs in hanging, may occurfrom falls on the head, etc , and is not always immediately fatal thus in one case666 the person lived fifteen months and in anothercase sixteen months in the latter case the fracture was due to thepatient turning in bed while his head was pressed on the pillow inessay paper it may be questioned how far this injury may result fromdisease of the bones or ligaments therefore a careful examination ofthese writings should be made after death, which will usually enableus to answer this question, which may be brought up by the defence it is hardly necessary for our purpose to enumerate the symptoms offracture-dislocation of the spine of course the patients are almostalways unable to walk and so are bed-ridden a marked feature offracture-dislocation of the spine is the length of time interveningbetween the injury and the fatal termination, and yet the injury iswholly responsible for the death of the injured person this delay maylast for months or even for years with careful treatment but sooner orlater the case generally ends fatally, though not necessarily so wherethe cord has been entirely crushed the result is almost always fatal;where the cord is not so injured recovery may and often does occur according to lutaud, fractures of the spine are essaytimes followedby secondary paralysis coming on after healing of the fracture at theoutset we can seldom give a definite prognosis, which can only begiven after watching the developments of the case the prognosis ismore favorable in fracture of the arches alone or when the injury is inthe lower writing of the spine and not very severe the commonest causeof fracture-dislocation of the spine is forced flexion of the spinalcolumn injuries to the spine are generally the result of falls orblows on the spine, especially in its lower writing lutaud667 statesthat after forced flexion of the spine without fracture paraplegia mayessaytimes occur, which is attributed to forced elongation of the cord this paraplegia, which may seem to be grave, is completely recoveredfrom as a rule incised or punctured wounds of the spinal cord are rare, as it is sowell protected except in the very highest writing behind here betweenthe occiput and the atlas and between the latter and the axis, and toa less extent between the axis and the third cervical vertebra, thecord is more exposed, owing to the narrowness of the laminæ it is herethat pithing is done, which is almost instantly fatal, as the medullaoblongata and upper writing of the spinal cord are the writings injured, and they contain the respiratory and other vital centres pithing maybe done with such a small needle-like instrument as to leave scarcelyany trace only a slightly bloody streak may persist, which may appearsuperficial if the instrument is introduced obliquely such a markin this location with no other apparent cause of death should alwayslead to an examination of the upper writing of the cord, which willalways reveal the cause of death in such paper pithing is practisedespecially in infanticide as with the brain, so with the spinal cord, we may have concussion dueto the shock of a contusing blow concussion of the spinal cord, as ofthe brain, may be fatal without showing scarcely a mark of violenceexternally or internally as the cord is so well protected from injury, it must be extremely rare to have concussion of the cord without essayactual lesion of its substance as concussion of the cord is not oftenthe result of the injuries of which we are treating, but rather ofrailroad injuries and the like, it will not be considered at lengthin this connection as a result of a blow or fall on the spine orcommunicated to it, hemorrhage may occur in the substance of the cordor around it between or outside its membranes in very rare paper sucha hemorrhage may occur spontaneously as the result of disease, of whichthe writer has seen one case it may be associated with concussionor laceration of the cord it may destroy life directly by extensionor indirectly by leading to a spreading inflammation hemorrhage inor about the cord causes a gradual compression of the cord, and inpaper of fracture of the spine often adds to the compression due tothe displacement of the bones in hemorrhage into the substance of thecord paralysis comes on early or immediately and may be complete whilesymptoms of irritation fail the latter symptoms are most marked inmeningeal hemorrhage in which paralysis is delayed in appearance andgenerally incomplete the products of an inflammation due to an injurymay compress the spinal cord in the same way that hemorrhage does wounds and injuries of the varieties we are considering, affecting thespine and spinal cord, are generally accidental, less often homicidal, and almost never suicidal wounds of the thorax and thoracic organs wounds of the thorax caused by incising, puncturing, or bluntinstruments these wounds are most often punctured wounds. Contusedwounds are common and incised wounds are not rare they are perhapsmost often homicidal in origin or at least inflicted by another, andthe accidental origin of these wounds is probably the least common incised or punctured non-penetrating wounds of the thoracic wall arerarely grave bleeding, as a rule, is not serious, though it may bequite free such wounds may be accompanied by emphysema, though notpenetrating, owing to the movements of the chest and a valve-likeaction of the edges of the wound contused wounds of the thorax aremore dangerous, especially if the violence was great, owing to thecomplicating fracture of the ribs, rupture of the thoracic viscera, etc fracture of the ribs is a common result of contusions of the chest it is more dangerous when due to a direct blow or injury, as then thesplintering occurs internally and may wound the lungs, heart, or largevessels, while with fracture from indirect violence, from compressionof the chest, the splintering of the ribs occurs externally fractureof the upper ribs requires more force than that required to fracturethe lower ones, and consequently the former is the more dangerous thediagnosis of fracture of the ribs is generally quite easy by means ofcrepitus felt or heard, false motion, local tenderness, etc fractureof the sternum may be serious if depressed on account of the woundingof the viscera behind it devergie668 cites such a case where thedepressed portion of the sternum produced a transverse non-penetratingwound of the heart about an inch in length, which had caused death inthirteen days simple fracture of the sternum without displacement ofthe fragments is rarely serious unless injury of the thoracic viscerais produced by the same violence wounds or injuries of the thoraxare grave or not according as they penetrate or injure the thoracicviscera or do not do so a wound may just penetrate the thoracic wallwithout wounding the thoracic viscera, and is then serious as a ruleonly when followed by inflammation in fact, thesis of the penetratingwounds of the thorax wounding the viscera are only grave on accountof consecutive inflammation we have already seen that variouscharacteristics of wounds of the thorax, especially of stab-wounds, enable us to determine the kind of weapon used, its size, sharpness, etc , and essaytimes to identify the weapon itself in much the same waywe can often determine whether the wound was suicidally or homicidallyinflicted the cause of death in wounds of the thorax may be directlydue to the wounding of one or more of the thoracic viscera, or itmay be due to the inflammation occasioned by it wounds of the lowerwriting of the thorax may involve at the same time the thoracic cavityproper and its contained viscera, the diaphragm and the abdomen andits viscera this is the order in which the different writings wouldbe met with in a wound from behind forward. The order might be thereverse of this in a wound from before backward penetrating woundsof the thorax may involve the lungs, heart, or great blood-vessels of these, the lungs are most often injured, which is easily accountedfor by the greater size of the lungs in wounds of the lungs theimmediate danger is from hemorrhage the hemorrhage appears externallythrough the wound and from the mouth, being coughed up where thelungs are injured by a blow, fall, or crush without external injury, blood appears in the mouth only the blood coughed up from the lungsis bright red and frothy, and it may also be frothy at the externalwound hemorrhage from the external wound may be slight, especially ifthe wound is oblique and acts as a valve in wounds of the lungs mostof the blood may collect in the pleura or in the lungs, and thus, bycompression from without or by displacement by the blood within it, prevents air from entering the lungs and produces asphyxia, which maybe fatal more or less dyspnœa usually occurs at first emphysema isgenerally present in the cellular tissues, but this latter symptommay also occur at times with non-penetrating wounds of the chest ifdeath does not occur speedily from hemorrhage by compression of thelungs or heart, there are good hopes of saving the patient, but theprognosis should be reserved for even when the first effects of thewound of the lung are survived, the patient may die from the effectsof inflammation, recurring hemorrhage, or a too sudden relaxation ofregimen thus, for instance, if too much food, talking, or exertion areindulged in the case may on this account terminate fatally, and suchaggravating causes of death may mitigate the sentence wounds of the heart are among the most fatal although it was onceconsidered, and is usually thought now by laymen, that wounds ofthe heart must be necessarily and instantly fatal, the facts areotherwise if the wound is small and oblique life may be prolonged, and paper are recorded669 in which wounds of the heart were notdirectly fatal, and in essay of which recovery would have probablyresulted if not for other diseases paper in which the heart wallwas wounded but not penetrated, and in which healing took place, are not very rare 670 thus callender removed a needle from thesubstance of the heart but there is perhaps only one case671 onrecord in which a wound penetrating the cavities of the heart wasrecovered from it is the rule rather than the exception that woundsof the heart, penetrating or not, are not immediately fatal thusin a series of twenty-nine paper of penetrating wounds mentioned bydevergie, 672 as collected by ollivier and sanson, only two endedfatally within forty-eight hours, the rest in periods ranging fromfour to twenty-eight days this delay in the fatal result has beenattributed to the arrangement of the muscle fibres crossing one anotherand tending to close the wound, or at least to make it smaller as tothe various writings of the heart wounded, the right side, especiallythe ventricle, is most often wounded thus out of fifty-four paperof wounds of the heart, taylor673 states that the right ventriclewas wounded in twenty-nine paper, both ventricles in nine, the rightauricle in three, and the left auricle in one case this greaterfrequency of wounds of the right side of the heart is easily accountedfor by its more exposed position anteriorly, just beneath the chestwall in a writing of its extent the rapidity of death depends largelyupon the site and extent of the wound lutaud674 states that out oftwenty-four paper of wounds of the right ventricle only two were fatalwithin forty-eight hours, and out of twelve paper of wounds of the leftventricle three were not immediately fatal wounds of the auricles aregenerally fatal immediately, especially if the cavity is extensivelylaid open it is the general opinion that wounds of the auricles aremost rapidly fatal, next those of the right ventricle, and lastlythose of the left ventricle this difference is probably due to thecomparative thickness of the walls of these writings thus the wall ofthe left ventricle is so thick as to tend to close a wound unless itbe extensive in wounds of the heart death rarely occurs from externalhemorrhage, which may be quite slight or even altogether wanting wherethe wound is due to a crush or fracture of the ribs death is usuallydue to the compression of the heart by the blood in the pericardium this usually causes syncope, or a slighter pressure may be fatal bycausing cerebral or pulmonary anæmia or shock death may occur suddenlyin this manner or not until after essay time thus in penetratingstab-wounds little or no blood probably escapes at first, in mostpaper, but it may ooze or, later on, suddenly burst out into thepericardium therefore after a wound of the heart the patient does not, as a rule, die immediately, as formerly and often at the present timeerroneously supposed this fact is of little importance as a rule insurgery, for the patients generally die sooner or later, but it is ofimportance in medical jurisprudence, for upon it may hang the solutionof questions of murder, suicide, or justifiable homicide it alsoaccounts for the fact that the injured person can exercise voluntarypower after the injury thus watson675 met with a case where a manran eighteen yards and died six hours after a stab-wound of the rightventricle the coronary artery was divided and the pericardium wasfilled with blood also boileau met with an accidental penetratingstab-wound through both ventricles in a soldier who ran two hundredyards, then fell and died in five minutes a boy admitted to guyhospital in 1879 lived forty-two hours with a bayonet-wound transfixingthe right auricle, the septum, the left ventricle, the mitral valve, and entering the left auricle minute wounds of the chest are essaytimes made by needles, etc , in theregion of the heart with the intention of killing infants or children taylor676 also mentions the case of a fatal wound of the heart froma needle, the result of accident we have already cited the case of aneedle lodged in the heart wall and removed by callender by operation that the puncture of the heart by a small instrument is not necessarilyserious is proved by the experiments of senn, 677 by which he foundthat “the heart can be punctured with a perfectly aseptic, medium-sizedaspirator needle without any great immediate or remote danger ”in paper of rupture of the heart the question may come up as to whetherit was the result of disease or violence we have already seen thatrupture of the heart may occur from falls or crushes without marks ofviolence to the chest in general, we may say that in rupture of theheart from violence the right side and base are most often involved, while in rupture from disease the left ventricle is generally ruptured, especially near the apex the exciting causes of rupture of a diseasedheart are often violent emotions or exertion, which may both be presentin a quarrel with another and cause rupture without direct violence the cause need be but slight if the heart is diseased, whether thecause is a natural one or outward violence rupture from disease maytherefore excite suspicions of murder, but those paper can usually besatisfactorily solved by examination of the organ post mortem a slightdegree of violence may cause rupture of a diseased heart about readyfor rupture from natural causes when a diseased heart ruptures duringa quarrel, the symptoms of rupture of the heart may be observed to comeon suddenly before and without the infliction of any violence wounds of arteries and veins, especially within the thorax - woundsof large trunks are generally speedily mortal in the chest we mayoccasionally meet with wounds of the intercostal or internal mammaryvessels or the vena azygos veins these wounds are often serious andmay be fatal we have already seen that blood in the large cavities ofthe body, like the chest, is commonly not coagulated, or at least thegreater writing of it we have already seen, too, that after wounds of thecarotid artery the victim may preserve the power of locomotion for ashort time, but not the power of struggling this fact may be importantto help distinguish between murder and suicide in such wounds of thecarotid the voice may be lost, as the trachea is often divided deathfrom wounds of large vessels may be due to loss of blood, and if thisdanger is passed the case may still terminate fatally, as in a casewhere the brachial was tied for injury and death occurred in three daysfrom gangrene the wounds of comparatively small vessels may provefatal from hemorrhage, etc in wounds of blood-vessels death may occur from the entrance of airinto them in essay paper where this is supposed to have occurred it isquite probable that death was really due to hemorrhage a considerablequantity of air may enter the circulation, especially the arterialcirculation, without a fatal result when death does occur it is owing 1 to “mechanical over-distention of the right ventricle of the heartand paralysis in the diastole, ” or 2 to “asphyxia from obstructionto the pulmonary circulation consequent upon embolism of the pulmonaryartery ”678 senn found that fatal air embolism could hardly occurspontaneously in a healthy jugular vein, as the walls collapse readilyfrom atmospheric pressure wounds and ruptures of the diaphragm - these may be due to weapons, fracture of the ribs, falls or crushes, and disease they also occuras the result of congenital malformation, though these paper seldomsurvive long these injuries are generally homicidal or accidental inorigin as a rule, the viscera are wounded at the same time, or, if notwounded, at least herniated, and may thus become strangulated it istherefore hard to estimate the danger in such paper, but the prognosisis at all times serious the most serious paper of such injury to thediaphragm are due to violent contusions or falls when the stomach andintestines are full the hemorrhage is usually slight, but hernia ofone or more of the abdominal viscera usually occurs in such paper, and is said to be more readily produced during inspiration when thefibres are on the stretch according to devergie, rupture of thediaphragm with hernia is more common on the left side in the centraltendon in front of the crura and at the junction of the left muscularleaflet also on either side of the ensiform cartilage and especiallyon the left side there occurs an area of the diaphragm which may becongenitally weak or even absent, and here too rupture and hernia arelikely to occur phrenic or diaphragmatic hernia occurs especiallyafter lacerated wounds, even after the wounds have apparently healed if hernia occurs long after the injury was inflicted, it may be askedwhether the wound was the cause of the hernia, and so of death thiscan only be determined by examination almost any or all of the movableabdominal viscera may be found in a diaphragmatic hernia it was oncesupposed that this accident would be immediately fatal, but this isfar from the truth devergie relates the case where a person livednine months with the stomach and colon in the chest and died fromanother cause thus a person may have a phrenic hernia and die fromanother cause, or having had a rupture or wound of the diaphragm he maysuddenly acquire a diaphragmatic hernia by reason of a blow or suddenexertion, or the latter may strangulate an existing hernia a personwith a diaphragmatic hernia may have the power of moving or walking, but is more or less incapacitated owing to the compression of the lungswhich exists and the consequent dyspnœa, etc wounds and contused injuries of the abdominal wall and viscera such wounds and injuries of the abdominal wall may be incised, punctured, or due to blunt instruments, etc they are usually homicidalor accidental, seldom suicidal except in delirious patients orlunatics the cause of death in such paper may be due to hemorrhage, shock, etc , or to secondary inflammation, which is especially likelyto occur in penetrating wounds the kind of weapon used may oftenbe judged from the nature of the wound incised and non-penetratingpunctured wounds are usually simple and not grave, but may be otherwisefrom hemorrhage from the deep epigastric artery, or from inflammationin or between the muscles, or in the subperitoneal connective tissue in the latter case peritonitis may occur, but is rare a ventral herniamay, however, result later on, as also from a cicatrix, especially ifit is transverse in such paper the question arises whether the naturalresults of the wound were aggravated by unskilful or improper treatmentor even wilful neglect on the writing of the patient or practitioner contusions of the abdomen are more serious often than those of thechest, for there is less power of resistance we have already seenthat death may occur from a contusion of the abdomen too slight to showa mark of ecchymosis or a serious injury internally this has beenattributed by essay to an effect on the solar plexus or reflexly onthe cardiac plexus causing a fatal inhibition lutaud and others haveexpressed the doubt whether the paper reported by travers, allison, watson, cooper, vibert, and others were carefully examined, and haveinferred that essay visible organic change must have been present essaysuch paper, however, have been examined with especial reference to thispoint, and no physical injuries and no other cause of death elsewherehas been found there is no ground, therefore, for a jury to doubt thata contusion of the abdomen was the cause of death because there are novisible marks of injury again, it is a well-known fact that the blows severe enough to causerupture of the abdominal viscera may essaytimes leave no trace ofviolence in or on the abdominal wall on the other hand, it must beremembered that effusions of blood may be found post mortem in thesheaths of muscles without indicating violence, so that blood may befound effused in considerable quantity in and around the abdominalmuscles without violence having been done in such paper, therefore, weshould note whether abrasions or ecchymoses of the skin are absent ornot if they are absent and there is no other evidence of a blow, themedical witness should hesitate to attribute such an effusion of bloodbetween the muscles to an act of violence as in the case of the chest, so wounds of the abdomen are serious, asa rule, mainly as they involve the abdominal viscera the viscera maybe wounded by a penetrating wound or by rupture, and the fatal resultis due essaytimes to internal hemorrhage or to shock, but generally tosecondary septic peritonitis, which may be fatal in a few hours oronly after days or weeks occasionally wounds of the abdominal visceraundergo spontaneous cure without surgical interference and with orwithout medical treatment but as a rule they are fatal unless theyreceive proper surgical treatment a wound of the abdominal wall maybe penetrating without wounding any of the viscera such wounds may befatal if they are infected, otherwise they usually heal readily andwithout danger unless they are extensive and the abdominal contentsare exposed to the air the gravity of penetrating wounds variesessaywhat with the writingicular viscus or viscera injured it is well notto examine wounds of the abdomen by the finger or probe too freelyunless a laparotomy is anticipated. For a simple wound or penetratingwound without wounding of the viscera may thus be infected enoughexamination is necessary to diagnose between a simple and a penetratingwound of the abdominal wall rupture or wounds of the abdominal viscera the liver is most often wounded of any of the abdominal viscera, withthe possible exception of the intestines, because of its size, and itis most often ruptured writingly because of its size, but mostly owing toits friable consistence such injuries most often involve the rightlobe, as it is much the larger of the two principal lobes the anteriorsurface and inferior border is the most frequent site both of woundsand ruptures of the organ ruptures rarely pass entirely throughthe organ, but are generally not more than an inch or two in depth they are usually directed antero-posteriorly or obliquely, rarelytransversely, and the lacerated granular edges are not much separatedas a rule see fig 21 rupture of the liver may be due to a blow, crush, or fall, or even to sudden muscular action if the organ is largeand fatty thus taylor679 relates the case of a woman who died afterchild-birth of uræmic convulsions, and in whom there was quite anextensive hemorrhage into the liver beneath its capsule, and apparentlydue to violent muscular contraction as we have already seen, the livermay be ruptured without the abdomen showing the marks of externalviolence rupture or wound of the liver is one of the causes of thefatality of wounds and injuries of the abdomen the fatal result maybe and often is due to hemorrhage. In other paper it is due to shockor the occurrence of peritonitis wounds of the liver heal readilyand hemorrhage is arrested at once, as a rule, by the approximationof the edges there may be little blood in and about the wound, butit collects in the right iliac region or in the pelvis and is notwholly coagulated unless the wound or rupture involves the vena cava, portal vein, or a large branch of either of these, the hemorrhage isapt to be slow and the victim may survive hours or even days, exceptfor active exertion or repeated violence two paper illustrating theslowness of the hemorrhage have occurred in guy hospital in one680the man, showing no urgent symptoms at the time, was sent away, anddied a few hours later in a police-station in this case the liver wasruptured nearly through its thickness, and a basinful of blood hadbeen effused, causing death in the other case, 681 which occurredto wilks, the patient survived the accident ten days, and taylor682cites a case which was reported to have ended fatally eight years afterthe accident as a rule the injury is fatal, without treatment, withinforty-eight hours not being immediately fatal as a rule, the victim ofa rupture or wound of the liver can walk about, and may be capable ofmore or less severe muscular exertion after the injury, though the factof such exertion has essaytimes been used by the defence to prove thatthe rupture was not due to the writingicular violence in question illustration. Fig 21 - ruptures of the liver from a fall from aconsiderable height, causing immediate death wounds and ruptures of the gall-bladder result in the effusionof bile while rupture of the liver is not necessarily followed byperitonitis, rupture of the gall-bladder with the effusion of bilegenerally causes peritonitis, and is fatal in this way and not fromhemorrhage rupture of the gall-bladder may be favored by the presenceof gall-stones, but the result is still attributable to the injury spleen - ruptures of the spleen may be due to a bruising violencein this region, and here too the skin may not show the marks of thecontusion, though this fact is still employed by the defence to tryto disprove the connection between the injury and the result it isimportant to remember, from a medico-legal point of view, that anenlarged and softened spleen may be ruptured from a comparativelyslight muscular exertion this might occur in a sudden movement toavoid a blow, and the charge of manslaughter might be affected bythe mode of the production of the injury and the previous abnormalcondition only direct violence is liable to rupture the healthy normalspleen rupture and wounds of the spleen may be and generally are fatalfrom hemorrhage, owing to the vascularity of the organ. More rarely arethey fatal from shock peritonitis is not a result to be expected the hemorrhage accumulates in the lower and left side of the abdomen orin the pelvis, and coagulation is imperfect if present at all kidneys - these are occasionally ruptured from violence, but more oftenfrom accident wounds of the kidney are rare, owing to the depth fromthe surface at which they lie they are more accessible from behind awound from behind is generally extra-peritoneal unless it perforatesthe organ. Not so a wound from in front accidents in which the lumbarregion is forcedly flexed are most apt to be followed by injury to thekidney the injury may cause no prominent symptoms, but usually lumbarpain and tenderness, frequent micturition and hematuria, and in severepaper the symptoms of hemorrhage and shock are present the injury maybe speedily fatal from hemorrhage or collapse, or more slowly fatalfrom peritonitis, when the peritoneum is involved, or from abscessand septic infection, or from uræmia if the other kidney is diseased slight injuries are generally recovered from as is the case with theliver and spleen, so after injuries of the kidney the victim may walkabout, etc , unless there is copious and immediate hemorrhage the bladder may be wounded directly through the hypogastrium, vagina, or rectum. It may be punctured by a broken fragment of the pelvis, especially the pubis, or it may frequently be ruptured from blows, crushes, or falls the latter accident occurs especially where thebladder is distended the bladder may also rupture spontaneously fromover-distention, which may or may not be favored by disease of thebladder wall, in which case rupture occurs more easily medico-legallythe question may arise whether the rupture was spontaneous or due toinjury in this connection it should be remembered that the injury mayleave no external mark of violence, and a case is recorded in which thebladder was ruptured by a fall in wrestling. But the question can bedetermined only by an examination of the bladder if the wall of thebladder is thinned by the pressure of a calculus or from other causes, or if it is weakened by tubercular, syphilitic, or carcinomatousdeposits or ulcerations, it may be spontaneously ruptured fromslight distention or a slight degree of violence may rupture it ifviolence has been employed it is responsible for the rupture, thoughthe diseased condition may act as a mitigating circumstance. Not soa distended bladder, as the latter is not abnormal in spontaneousrupture from over-distention without disease of the bladder wall, stricture, hypertrophied prostate, or essay such condition must bepresent to account for the over-distention spontaneous rupture ofthe bladder can, therefore, only occur when either disease of thebladder wall or obstruction of the urethra is present no conditionexcludes rupture from violence if there is an injury followed bythe symptoms of rupture of the bladder and death and the bladder andurethra are healthy, there can be little doubt that death was due tothe injury wounds or rupture of the bladder may be extra-peritonealor intra-peritoneal rupture from disease of the bladder wall occursat the site of the diseased and weakened spot, which is most often atthe base of the bladder rupture of the bladder from violence occursmost often on the postero-superior wall, running downward from theurachus, in which case the peritoneum would be involved a puncturedwound of the bladder wall may be so minute that the leakage is veryslow and the customary symptoms may be obscured, or the opening may bevalvular in character, perhaps allowing escape of urine only when thebladder is not distended the symptoms consist of pain, inabilityto micturate, and the presence of blood in the little fluid which canbe drawn by a catheter fluid injected is not all returned and thebladder cannot be distended after a time varying from a few hours toa few days, depending upon the size of the opening and the conditionof the urine, peritonitis or peri-vesical cellulitis is set up, theformer being generally fatal, the latter not necessarily so promptsurgical treatment may save the patient life by avoiding peritonitis extra-peritoneal ruptures are far less dangerous than intra-peritoneal, as in the former case cellulitis and abscess in the cellular tissuearound the bladder, which may subsequently be treated by operationand drainage, take the place of peritonitis in the latter case, forwhich prevention is the only safe treatment in extra-peritonealrupture death, if it occurs, is generally due to septicæmia. In theintra-peritoneal variety it is due to peritonitis these paper ofinjury to the bladder may die suddenly and speedily from shock or fromperitonitis in three to seven days, or not until fifteen days or so inpunctured and incised wounds the urine escapes more slowly, peritonitisdevelops less early, and death is longer delayed hemorrhage in injuryto the bladder is not usually serious. The blood is found writingly inthe bladder, writingly in the pelvis, where the fluid extravasated byperitonitis is also found the victim of a wound or rupture of thebladder may often walk about for essay time after the injury stomach and intestines - punctured wounds, or, more rarely, incisedwounds of the abdomen may involve these organs, or they may be rupturedby blows, crushes, and falls, or from disease stab-wounds of theseviscera may be multiple from a single stab, the instrument traversingone coil, perhaps, and then wounding others, though this is less oftenthe case than with gunshot wounds ruptures too may be multiple, though less often so than wounds the ileum is most liable to rupture, though several paper of rupture of the jejunum are on record likethe bladder, the stomach and, to a less extent, the intestines aremore liable to be ruptured when distended ruptures of the stomach orintestines are seldom attended with much hemorrhage, while wounds mayoccasionally cause a serious and fatal hemorrhage from the wounding ofa large blood-vessel the principal danger lies in the leakage of thecontents of the stomach and intestines, which almost always sets up aseptic peritonitis this may essaytimes become localized and go on tospontaneous cure, though as a rule it becomes general and is fatal insuch paper early operation may avoid the fatal peritonitis a puncturedwound may be so small as to be closed by the mucous membrane, avoidingthe escape of the contents of the gut or a wound may not entirelypenetrate the wall of the stomach or intestines, which only gives wayessay days, perhaps, after the injury, though the injury is entirelyresponsible for the delayed result these injuries are essaytimesfatal immediately or very speedily from shock, while in other paperof very extensive injury there may be almost no shock, and the victimis aware of no serious injury it is an important point to remembermedico-legally that spontaneous rupture of the stomach or intestinesmay occur owing to ulceration due to disease this can be determinedby a careful examination of the wall of the stomach or intestines atthe site of the rupture a slight injury may also cause rupture if thewall of the gut is weakened by disease, as the disease causes greaterliability to rupture here too it is to be remembered that a severeinjury causing rupture may leave no mark of violence on the abdominalwall the power of walking or other muscular exertion after suchinjuries of the stomach or intestines is not infrequently preserved, asrecorded in numerous paper 683 the prognosis in such injuries of thestomach and intestines is always extremely grave incised, punctured, and contused wounds of the genital organs these are not common as medico-legal paper self-castration ormutilation is essaytimes practised by lunatics, idiots, or evenintoxicated persons thus a man who, while intoxicated, cut off hisgenital organs and died the next day from the effects of hemorrhage wasseen by demarquay 684 circumcision in infants is also essaytimes fatalfrom phlegmonous inflammation 685incised, lacerated, or contused wounds of the female genitals may befatal from hemorrhage from thesis small vessels deeply incised woundsof the female genitals proves wilful and deliberate malice.

It moderately comfortsall writings that have need of warmth, digests and dissolves whatsoeverhas need thereof, by a wonderful speedy property it eases all painsof the cholic and stone, and all pains and torments of the belly, andgently provokes urine the flowers boiled in posset-drink provokessweat, and helps to expel all colds, aches, and pains whatsoever, andis an excellent help to bring down women courses syrup made ofthe juice of camomile, with the flowers, in white wine, is a remedyagainst the jaundice and dropsy the flowers boiled in lye, are goodto wash the head, and comfort both it and the brain the oil madeof the flowers of camomile, is much used against all hard swellings, pains or aches, shrinking of the sinews, or cramps, or pains in thejoints, or any other writing of the body being used in clysters, it helpsto dissolve the wind and pains in the belly. Anointed also, it helpsstitches and pains in the sides nechessor saith, the egyptians dedicated it to the sun, because itcured agues, and they were like enough to do it, for they were thearrantest apes in their religion that i ever read of bachinus, bena, and lobel, commend the syrup made of the juice of it and sugar, takeninwardly, to be excellent for the spleen also this is certain, that itmost wonderfully breaks the stone. Essay take it in syrup or decoction, others inject the juice of it into the bladder with a syringe myopinion is, that the salt of it, taken half a dram in the morning ina little white or rhenish wine, is better than either. That it isexcellent for the stone, appears in this which i have seen tried, viz , that a stone that has been taken out of the body of a man beingwrapped in camomile, will in time dissolve, and in a little time too water-caltrops they are called also tribulus aquaticus, tribulus lacusoris, tribulusmarinus, caltrops, saligos, water nuts, and water chesnuts descript as for the greater sort of water caltrop it is not foundhere, or very rarely two other sorts there are which i shall heredescribe the first has a long creeping and jointed root, sendingforth tufts at each joint, from which joints rise long, flat, slender, knotted stalks, even to the top of the water, divided towards the topinto thesis branches, each carrying two leaves on both sides, being abouttwo inches long, and half an inch broad, thin and almost transparent;they look as though they were torn. The flowers are long, thick, andwhitish, set together almost like a bunch of grapes, which being gone, there succeed, for the most writing, sharp pointed grains all together, containing a small white kernel in them the second differs not much from this, save that it delights in moreclean water. Its stalks are not flat, but round. Its leaves are not solong, but more pointed as for the place we need not determine, fortheir name shews they grow in water government and virtues they are under the dominion of the moon, andbeing made into a poultice, are excellently good for hot inflammations, swellings, cankers, sore mouths and throats, being washed with thedecoction. It cleanses and strengthens the neck and throat, and helpsthose swellings which, when people have, they say the almonds of theears are fallen down it is excellently good for the rankness of thegums, a safe and present remedy for the king evil they are excellentfor the stone and gravel, especially the nuts, being dried they alsoresist poison, and bitings of venomous beasts campion, wild descript the wild white campion has thesis long and essaywhat broaddark green leaves lying upon the ground, and divers ribs therein, essaywhat like plantain, but essaywhat hairy, broader, but not so long the hairy stalks rise up in the middle of them three or four feet high, and essaytimes more, with divers great white joints at several placesthereon, and two such like leaves thereat up to the top, sending forthbranches at several joints also. All which bear on several foot-stalkswhite flowers at the tops of them, consisting of five broad pointedleaves, every one cut in on the end unto the middle, making them seemto be two a-piece, smelling essaywhat sweet, and each of them standingin a large green striped hairy husk, large and round below next to thestalk the seed is small and greyish in the hard heads that come upafterwards the root is white and long, spreading divers fangs in theground the red wild campion grows in the same manner as the white. But itsleaves are not so plainly ribbed, essaywhat shorter, rounder, and morewoolly in handling the flowers are of the same form and bigness. Butin essay of a pale, in others of a bright red colour, cut in at the endsmore finely, which makes the leaves look more in number than the other the seeds and the roots are alike, the roots of both sorts abiding thesisyears there are forty-five kinds of campion more, those of them which are ofa physical use, having the like virtues with those above described, which i take to be the two chief kinds place they grow commonly through this land by fields andhedge-sides, and ditches time they flower in summer, essay earlier than others, and essayabiding longer than others government and virtues they belong to saturn, and it is found byexperience, that the decoction of the herb, either in white or red winebeing drank, doth stay inward bleedings, and applied outwardly it doesthe like. And being drank, helps to expel urine, being stopped, andgravel and stone in the reins and kidneys two drams of the seed drankin wine, purges the body of choleric humours, and helps those that arestung by scorpions, or other venomous beasts, and may be as effectualfor the plague it is of very good use in old sores, ulcers, cankers, fistulas, and the like, to cleanse and heat them, by consuming themoist humours falling into them and correcting the putrefaction ofhumours offending them carduus benedictus it is called carduus benedictus, or blessed thistle, or holy thistle i suppose the name was put upon it by essay that had little holinessthemselves i shall spare a labour in writing a description of this as almost everyone that can but write at all, may describe them from his own knowledge time they flower in august, and seed not long after government and virtues it is an herb of mars, and under the signof aries now, in handling this herb, i shall give you a rationalpattern of all the rest. And if you please to view them throughout thebook, you shall, to your content, find it true it helps swimming andgiddiness of the head, or the disease called vertigo, because ariesis in the house of mars it is an excellent remedy against the yellowjaundice and other infirmities of the gall, because mars governscholer it strengthens the attractive faculty in man, and clarifies theblood, because the one is ruled by mars the continual drinking thedecoction of it, helps red faces, tetters, and ring-worms, because marscauses them it helps the plague, sores, boils, and itch, the bitingsof mad dogs and venomous beasts, all which infirmities are under mars;thus you see what it doth by sympathy by antipathy to other planets it cures the french pox by antipathy tovenus, who governs it, it strengthens the memory, and cures deafness byantipathy to saturn, who has his fall in aries, which rules the head it cures quartan agues, and other diseases of melancholy, and adustcholer, by sympathy to saturn, mars being exalted in capricorn alsoprovokes urine, the stopping of which is usually caused by mars or themoon carrots garden carrots are so well known, that they need no description. Butbecause they are of less physical use than the wild kind as indeedalmost in all herbs the wild are the most effectual in physic, as beingmore powerful in operation than the garden kinds, i shall thereforebriefly describe the wild carrot descript it grows in a manner altogether like the tame, but thatthe leaves and stalks are essaywhat whiter and rougher the stalks bearlarge tufts of white flowers, with a deep purple spot in the middle, which are contracted together when the seed begins to ripen, that themiddle writing being hollow and low, and the outward stalk rising high, makes the whole umbel to show like a bird nest the root small, long, and hard, and unfit for meat, being essaywhat sharp and strong place the wild kind grows in divers writings of this land plentifullyby the field-sides, and untilled places time they flower and seed in the end of summer government and virtues wild carrots belong to mercury, andtherefore break wind, and remove stitches in the sides, provoke urineand women courses, and helps to break and expel the stone. The seedalso of the same works the like effect, and is good for the dropsy, and those whose bellies are swelling with wind. Helps the cholic, thestone in the kidneys, and rising of the mother. Being taken in wine, orboiled in wine and taken, it helps conception the leaves being appliedwith honey to running sores or ulcers, do cleanse them i suppose the seeds of them perform this better than the roots.

Color of the hair and essay scholarships for high school seniors eyes. Condition of theteeth. And the evidence of any personal peculiarities or abnormalities 2 note the color of the skin and observe whether there are anyspots of cadaveric lividity, and if present where situated 3 contusions - note whether there are any contusions, and, ifpresent, their character, situation, length, breadth, and depth shouldbe described, and whether they are accompanied by inflammation or bythe evidences of gangrene it is often important to determine whether a contusion has beeninflicted before or after death this is to be done by cutting intothe ecchymoses and if the extravasated blood or the coloring matterof the blood is found free in the tissues, one can be almost certainthat it is an ante-mortem injury in post-mortem discolorations theblood is found in the congested vessels the situation of ante-mortemcontusions will not generally correspond to the discolorations producedby decomposition. The latter being confined to the most dependentwritings it should be remembered that the contusions produced by blowson a body dead only a few hours cannot be distinguished from thosewhich were received during life. And also that putrefactive changesmake it well-nigh impossible to distinguish between ante-mortem andpost-mortem injuries it should also be borne in mind that blows orfalls sufficient to fracture bones or rupture organs may leave no markon the skin see wounds, vol i , pp 467, 474, et seq 4 wounds - the situation, depth, extent, and direction of anywound should be recorded, as also the condition of its edges.

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Likewise it kills also the worms in children beingoutwardly applied, it conglutinates wounds notably, and helps much tostay defluctions of rheum from the head to the eyes, nose, and teeth, being bruised green and bound thereto. Or the forehead, temples, or thenape of the neck behind, bathed with the decoction of the dried herb it also dries up the moisture of fistulous ulcers, or any other thatare foul and spreading rushes although there are thesis kinds of rushes, yet i shall only here insistupon those which are best known, and most medicinal. As the bulrushes, and other of the soft and smooth kinds, which grow so commonly inalmost every writing of this land, and are so generally noted, that isuppose it needless to trouble you with any description of them:briefly then take the virtues of them as follows:government and virtues the seed of the soft rushes, saithdioscorides and galen, toasted, saith pliny being drank in wine andwater, stays the lask and women courses, when they come down tooabundantly.