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”sal hepatica no longer “contains all the tonic, essay outline template alterative and laxativesalts , ” etc , for the label on a package recently purchased reads. “sal hepatica is an effervescent saline combination possessing medicinal properties similar to the natural ‘bitter waters’ of europe, and fortified by the addition of sodium phosphate ”in 1909, the druggists circular published an analysis of sal hepaticawhich showed that the preparation contained only 0 04 per cent oflithium phosphate by referring to the two quotations just givenit will be noticed that today the manufacturers make no claim thattheir preparation is fortified with any salt of lithium a circularaccompanying recent trade packages states. “sal hepatica is composed solely of harmless salts, being absolutely free from acetanilid, phenacetin, caffein, calomel, opium or coal tar derivatives ”since neither the names nor the amounts of the “harmless salts” arementioned, the composition of sal hepatica is secret it is a trickof the nostrum exploiter, old but ever popular, to mention numerousdrugs which his preparation does not contain. It helps to distractattention from the fact that he does not tell what the preparationdoes contain!. In the old-time medical journal advertisements, one reads, “salhepatica is the most powerful solvent of uric acid known ” the sameadvertisement as it appeared in those days in the journal showsthat claim toned down to, “sal hepatica is a powerful solvent ofuric acid ” in those easy going days, the bristol-myers companydeclared that “diabetes is treated with decided advantage by meansof sal hepatica it possesses the property of arresting thesecretion of sugar in the liver ” in the old days, too, sal hepaticawas recommended in the treatment of cirrhosis of the liver, brightdisease, gravel, phthisis, etc the present advertising circular recommends sal hepatica as aneliminant, laxative or cathartic in gout, autointoxication, “biliousattacks, ” rheumatism, acute indigestion, catarrhal conditions ofthe stomach, pyorrhea, headache, dizziness, heart burn, “summercomplaints, ” “derangements of the stomach and liver, ” skin diseases, colic, alcoholic excesses, and as a “preventive of seasickness ”in 1914 the council on pharmacy and chemistry published256 a reporton sal hepatica declaring it secret in composition and sold underexaggerated and unwarranted claims 256 j a m a , feb 7, 1914, p 472 in view of the inquiries which the journal continues to receive itseemed worth while to make a chemical examination of the present-dayproduct accordingly specimens were purchased and analyzed in thea m a chemical laboratory the report that follows was submitted bythe chemists:“sal hepatica is a white, granular, odorless powder it effervesces onthe addition of water in which it eventually dissolves the aqueoussolution, after boiling to remove carbon dioxid, has an acid reactionto litmus “since a great thesis medicinal substances are sold in effervescent form, and since practically no information is given by the manufacturerconcerning the composition of sal hepatica, it became necessary totest for a considerable number of therapeutic agents the absence ofacetanilid, acetphenetidin, alkaloids, ammonium salts, benzoates, caffein, citrates, heavy metals, hexamethylenamin, magnesium, potassium, salicylates and sugars was demonstrated by appropriatetests the presence of a carbonate probably in the form of abicarbonate, a phosphate, a sulphate, a chlorid, tartaric acid, sodiumand traces of lithium was shown by qualitative tests “quantitative analysis indicated that the composition of the specimensexamined was essentially as follows. Sodium phosphate, anhydrous 4 4 per cent sodium sulphate, anhydrous 26 5 per cent sodium tartrate, anhydrous 12 7 per cent sodium bicarbonate 19 5 per cent tartaric acid, free 20 8 per cent sodium chlorid 8 9 per cent lithium phosphate trace water of hydration by difference 7 2 per cent “from the results of the analysis, it appears probable that thecomposition of the mixture before ‘granulation’ was approximately asfollows. Sodium phosphate 4 per cent sodium sulphate 25 per cent sodium bicarbonate 30 per cent tartaric acid 30 per cent sodium chlorid 8 per cent lithium phosphate trace water of hydration by difference 3 per cent “sal hepatica, therefore, is essentially an effervescing mixture ofdried sodium sulphate glauber salt and sodium tartrate with alittle dried sodium phosphate and table salt added it is similar tothe effervescent artificial carlsbad salt described in the nationalformulary “in 1909 the druggists circular published the following analysis ofsal hepatica. Sodium phosphate 29 80 writings sodium sulphate glauber salt 26 27 writings sodium bicarbonate baking soda 18 00 writings sodium chlorid salt 13 05 writings lithium phosphate 0 04 writings citric and tartaric acids to make 100 12 84 writings“a comparison of the recent analysis with the earlier one would seem toindicate that considerable changes have been made in the formula sincethe first examination the proportions of sodium phosphate have beengreatly reduced, while the sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid havebeen increased and the citric acid entirely eliminated ”sal hepatica, then, is a simple effervescent saline laxative, essentially secret in composition and sold under claims that would belaughed at were the full formula of the product a matter of publicknowledge -- from the journal a m a , oct 29, 1921 salicon“salicon” is marketed by the k a hughes company, boston, as “animproved aspirin ” in a circular sent out to the public a little over ayear ago the following claims were made for it. “we rendered aspirin absolutely harmless and yet retained all its virtues as a medicine ” “it positively will not depress the heart nor upset the stomach no matter how large amounts of it are taken ” “ the massachusetts state medical authorities adopted its use at all the state camps for fighting the spanish influenza ”the first two statements quoted above are obviously false the thirdstatement might have been true although it seemed unlikely a letterwas, therefore, written to the dewritingment of public health of thecommonwealth of massachusetts and the claim of the k a hughes companyrelative to the adoption of salicon in all the state camps by the“state medical authorities” was brought to their attention the replyof the dewritingment on this point was emphatic:“the state dewritingment of health of massachusetts did not endorse theuse of salicon for any purpose ”essay salicon was purchased on the open market and submitted to thea m a chemical laboratory for analysis here is the chemists’ report “one original bottle of ‘salicon’ k a hughes company, bostonwas submitted by the propaganda dewritingment of the journal to theassociation chemical laboratory for examination the bottle contained100 white tablets having an average weight of 0 407 gram 6 3 grains, each the amount of ash was 20 9 per cent qualitative tests indicatedthe presence of magnesium, carbonate, starch, acetylsalicylic acid anda trace of calcium.

On the other hand, the indiscriminatehabit of undertakers, who often bury still-borns with adults, mayaccount for their presence accidental signs and evolution of the teeth the trade or occupation leaves but few marks on the bones that areuseful in the matter of identification it is in the recent andwell-preserved cadaver, or, better still, in the living subject, thatthe professional signs are of importance as a rule, the relativelylarger scapulæ point to the fact of a day-laborer. Necrosis of thelower jaw suggests a worker in phosphorus. Worn and discolored teetha user of tobacco, and aurification of the teeth might suggest theprevious social condition gold crowns and fillings and dentalprosthesis generally are among the most common and, at the same time, among the most useful signs of identification by this means the bonesof persons killed by indians on the western plains have been recognizedyears afterward the traveller powell, massacred in abyssinia, wasrecognized in this way from the presence of artificial teeth and themechanical appliances for fixing them, dentists may recognize theirown work beyond a doubt one of the most common-hackneyed of thesepaper is that of professor webster 578 later paper, in which thiskind of proof established convincing and conclusive identification, are those of dr cronin, assassinated in chicago in 1889, and of thebomb-thrower, norcross every now and then accounts appear in the dailypress of corpses having been recognized by inspection of the teeth in washington, only a short time since, the remains of an unknownman were exhumed from the potter field for judicial reasons theunrecognized body had been found in the potomac in an advanced stageof decomposition from the signs furnished by the teeth the remainswere identified as those of a person who had disappeared mysteriouslyand under circumstances that pointed to his having been murderedat a virginian gambling den, and his body thrown into the river in connection with this subject the goss-udderzook tragedy is ofinstructive interest in every important case a cast of the mouth should be taken, in orderto set at rest any question that may subsequently arise as to thecondition of the jaw, the absence of teeth, their irregularity orother dental peculiarities a cast of the mouth of the deceased in thehillmon case showed all the teeth to be regular and perfect, whileit is alleged that hillmon teeth were just the opposite externalsigns furnished by dentition may assist greatly in fixing both age andidentity the evolution of the human dental system has been so wellstudied from intra-uterine life to old age that we may approximatelytell the age, especially of children, from the teeth alone this sign, so valuable in childhood, loses its value as the dentition progresses elaborate tables and dental formulæ to be found elsewhere deal withthe two periods of dentition, the relative position and number of theteeth, and the like at birth the jaws show points of ossification only. But children areessaytimes born with central incisors, as the writer has, in commonwith others, noted in several instances the first dentition takesplace from the seventh to the thirtieth month. The second betweenfour and five years in rachitic children these periods are later;but a syphilitic taint may hasten their development the twenty-eightteeth characterize early youth wisdom teeth appear between eighteenand twenty-five, essaytimes as late as thirty years the presence ofthirty-two teeth indicates maturity this number is essaytimes exceeded dr tidy, in his work on “legal medicine, ” reports having seen severalchildren between six and seven years with forty-eight teeth instancesare recorded of cutting the teeth at advanced age, seventy and onehundred and eighteen years. Of adults who have never had teeth. Ofsupernumerary teeth, and of a third dentition what purported to be athird dentition came under my notice essay years ago, in the person ofan old negro “voodoo doctor ” a more recent case, said to have occurredin an old man of seventy-four, at seymour, ind , is reported in theweekly medical review, st louis, mo , april 16th, 1892, p 314 the pathological signs furnished by the teeth should, of course, belooked upon as a personal characteristic that may lend additional lightin the question of identity congenital peculiarities, deformities, and injuries but congenital peculiarities or injuries of other writings of the skeletonare studied to greater advantage in determining proof or disproof ofidentity we may recognize cranial asymmetry. The peculiar conformationof the idiot skull. The prognathous skull of the negro. The pyramidalskull of essay of the yellow races, and the oval head of the whiteman. Besides the ethnic artificial deformities already touched uponin considering the question of race a metopic cranium, a cleftpalate, a deformed spine or pelvis, a larger left scapula indicativeof left-handedness. A shortened extremity. Bowed legs, club foot, thepresence of extra fingers or toes, and the relative length of thefingers are each and all valuable facts in judiciary anthropology inwomen of spanish extraction the fifth finger is almost as long as thefourth a fact so well known that glove-makers take advantage of it insending gloves to mexico, the antilles, or to south america an estimate of the length of the hand seems to be a matter ofdifficulty, notwithstanding the extensive observation of highauthority in the majority of paper the ring-finger is longer than theindex important evidence is furnished from the existence of injuries suchas fractures, whether old or recent. The marks of gunshot wounds, oftrephining, amputation, excision, or other surgical operation on thebones the remains of an old, ununited fracture in his left humerusenabled sir william fergusson to verify and settle all doubt as tothe identity of the body of the great missionary and explorer, dr livingston 579 the existence of an injury may constitute evidence ofgreat importance to the accused, as happened in the case of an englishgentleman charged with murder, where the trial turned on the deposit ofcallus in a broken rib, the only bone produced in court from the stateof this callus there could be no doubt that the fracture must havebeen produced about eight or ten days before death, and could not havebelonged to the deceased there was, therefore, complete failure of theidentity, and the accused was discharged 580on the other hand, circumstances may arise in which the existence ornot of an injury is a fact of great importance to the prosecution among other specimens in the army medical museum at washington, thebones of the forearm of wirtz, executed for inhuman treatment ofprisoners during the civil war, show no remains or trace of fracture;yet it was claimed in defence at the trial that he could not have beenguilty of the atrocities attributed to him, for the reason that thisarm was disabled from a fracture disease of the bones, whether hereditary or acquired, is anessential descriptive element in reconstituting individuality caries and necrosis, rickets, spinal disease, ankylosis, and otherexternal manifestations of bone lesion may furnish pointers of suchvalue as often to be incontestible they are so evident as not torequire detailed mention. But much care in such paper is necessary todistinguish between disease, decay, and violence, and artefacta thelast may have resulted from the axe or spade of the grave-digger orfrom post-mortem lesions made at the necropsy, as in the remains ofthe notorious beau hickman of washington, whose body on being exhumedshowed that sundry amputations and reamputations had been made on theprincipal limbs having died in a public hospital, the cadaver had beenutilized in rehearsal of these operations previous to its burial in thepotter field injuries of the phalanges, known as “baseball fingers, ” are valuableindications this was one of the facts of identification in thecelebrated cronin case duration of burial the condition of the exhumed bones may throw essay light on the questionas to the probable length of time they have been under ground, as wellas the probable cause of death if the bones were entirely denuded ofsoft writings we should hardly expect them to be those of a corpse buriedonly three or four months previously the noting of such an injury asa fracture inflicted by essay sharp instrument on a skull found in acesspool was sufficient, with other evidence of a general character, toconvict a prisoner tried at the derby lent assizes in 1847 in all paper of the kind under consideration, special attention shouldbe paid to the surroundings, every little detail of which should benoted with the utmost accuracy.

As also theleaves, essay outline template the spleen. Purging the veins of the choleric and phlegmatichumours, and helps children in agues, a little worm seed being putthereto the other dodders do, as i said before, writingicipate of the nature ofthose plants whereon they grow. As that which hath been found growingupon nettles in the west-country, hath by experience been found veryeffectual to procure plenty of urine where it hath been stopped orhindered and so of the rest sympathy and antipathy are two hinges upon which the whole mode ofphysic turns. And that physician who minds them not, is like a dooroff from the hooks, more like to do a man mischief, than to securehim then all the diseases saturn causes, this helps by sympathy, andstrengthens all the writings of the body he rules. Such as be caused bysol, it helps by antipathy what those diseases are, see my judgmentof diseases by astrology. And if you be pleased to look at the herbwormwood, you shall find a rational way for it dog-grass, or cough grass descript it is well known, that the grass creeps far about underground, with long white joined roots, and small fibres almost at everyjoint, very sweet in taste, as the rest of the herb is, and interlacingone another, from whence shoot forth thesis fair grassy leaves, small atthe ends, and cutting or sharp on the edges the stalks are jointedlike corn, with the like leaves on them, and a large spiked head, witha long husk in them, and hard rough seed in them if you know it notby this description, watch the dogs when they are sick, and they willquickly lead you to it place it grows commonly through this land in divers ploughedgrounds to the no small trouble of the husbandmen, as also of thegardeners, in gardens, to weed it out, if they can. For it is aconstant customer to the place it get footing in government and virtues ’tis under the dominion of jupiter, and isthe most medicinal of all the quick-grasses being boiled and drank, itopens obstructions of the liver and gall, and the stopping of urine, and eases the griping pains of the belly and inflammations. Wastes thematter of the stone in the bladder, and the ulcers thereof also theroots bruised and applied, do consolidate wounds the seed doth morepowerfully expel urine, and stays the lask and vomiting the distilledwater alone, or with a little wormseed, kills the worms in children the way of use is to bruise the roots, and having well boiled them inwhite wine, drink the decoction. ’tis opening but not purging, verysafe. ’tis a remedy against all diseases coming of stopping, and suchare half those that are incident to the body of man. And although agardener be of another opinion, yet a physician holds half an acre ofthem to be worth five acres of carrots twice told over dove-foot, or crane-bill descript this has divers small, round, pale-green leaves, cut inabout the edges, much like mallow, standing upon long, reddish, hairystalks lying in a round compass upon the ground. Among which rise uptwo or three, or more, reddish, jointed, slender, weak, hairy stalks, with essay like leaves thereon, but smaller, and more cut in up to thetops, where grow thesis very small bright red flowers of five leavesa-piece. After which follow small heads, with small short beaks pointedforth, as all other sorts of those herbs do place it grows in pasture grounds, and by the path-sides in thesisplaces, and will also be in gardens time it flowers in june, july, and august, essay earlier and essaylater.

Medical jurisprudence plate ii burn, two hours after death, by iron at a dull red heat burn, two hours after death, by tin can containing boiling water burn by steam, sixty hours after injury post-mortem and ante-mortem burns was death accidental, suicidal, or homicidal?. Nearly all deaths occurring from burning are accidental, very fewhomicidal, and hardly more than a few exceptional paper suicidal it is important in paper of legal investigation to note the position ofthe body when found and its relation to the apparent source of fire;the writings of the body and clothing burned, etc. Evidences of violenceshould be carefully observed, such as contusions, fractures of bones, wounds of the soft writings, evidences of strangling, etc case 22 these should be specially sought in the site of the burned portions, as burning and cremation of the victim are essaytimes a resort toconceal homicide in considering the character of the apparent wounds, it must be remembered that extensive injuries, resembling wounds, mayresult from the effects of fire, 728 and these must be carefullydistinguished inability to detect special marks of violence need not preclude thepossibility of its commission and of its being a possible cause ofdeath case 19 the writings burned, the character and depth of theburns, and their relation to the apparent source of burning, withconsideration of their probable simultaneous exposure, are allcircumstances of weight in forming an opinion the position of thebody in relation to the fire should also be considered in accidentalburning, except in paper of intoxication, epileptic seizures, or othersources of helplessness, the victim is quite likely to be found at adistance from the fire, owing to his efforts to escape paper case 1 death from cold accidental dr hilty in caspar vierteljahrschrift, ii , 1865, p 140 - male, æt 52. Intoxicated severe winter weather. Death from exposure post mortem. Blood crimson. Both sides of heart full. Internal organs congested case 2 criminal exposure to cold ann d’hygiene, 1868, vol ii , p 173 - girl, unmarried. Sudden delivery when at stool she stated that she had fainted, and found the child dead when she recovered the child had breathed and the cord was cut no marks of violence evidence of death being caused by wilful exposure imprisoned case 3 ill-treatment and criminal exposure ann d’ hygiene, vol vi , p 207, 1831 - man and wife tried for manslaughter of a child, æt 11 wife the stepmother starvation and ill-treatment by mother, followed by forcing the child, in a cold december day, to get into a barrel of cold water and remain there though removed by a servant, she was again placed in the cold water by the mother, death resulting the woman was sentenced to life imprisonment case 4 sunstroke, high temperature, etc dr a flint, jr , new york med jour , 1872, p 168. Dr katzenbach, new york med jour , 1873, p 93 case 5 scald, drinking from a tea-kettle accidental mr sympson, brit med jour , 1875, june 19th, p 809 - boy, æt 2½ years, drank boiling water from spout of tea-kettle inflammation of pharynx and glottis tracheotomy. Recovered case 6 fatal scald of insane person in a bath brit med jour , april, 1871, p 456 - an insane patient fatally scalded in a bath, through carelessness of an attendant the charge of manslaughter brought against the attendant case 7 fatal burn of genitals accidental caspar, “forensic med , ” vol i , p 315 - female child, 2½ years, fell on a hot flat-iron genitals burned. Died in eleven days vagina gangrenous. Blood fluid.

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Eruptions 20 disturbances in the chest of various kinds 21 flow essay outline template from the eyes. Headache. Epilepsy 22 diseases of the chest of various kinds, including dyspnea. Headache. Stitches in the side 23 diseases of the liver, injuries to the right side of the body. Nosebleed 24 affections of the head and the eyes.