History

Essay On Stereotypes


Itthe advertising in medical journals, in circular letters, etc yet, the food and drugs act offers no check or curb on false statements orfraudulent claims made for proprietary or “patent medicines” in anyother place than the trade packages a few weeks ago the journal called attention to a flagrant case offraud. And at that time it said, “it is justifiable to assume thatwhen any man, whatever his business, admits in court that he has madefraudulent claims and then continues to make the same claims throughchannels that are not controlled by penal enactment, that manstandard of business ethics is such that the public needs protectionagainst it there are thesis such men in the ‘patent medicine’ world theonly way in which the public may properly be protected against beingdefrauded in such paper is for the federal food and drugs act to haveits scope extended to cover all advertising of the products comingunder the purview of the act ”-- from the journal a m a , march 17, 1917 tekarkin edward percy robinson “cure” for cancerfrom various writings of the country the journal has received a sixteenpage pamphlet, therapeutic leaves the publication, which hasa saffron colored cover, is said to be published by the nationalbio-chemical laboratory, mount vernon, n y the national bio-chemicallaboratory seems to be a style used by dr edward percy robinson the“editorial offices” of therapeutic leaves are given as “501 knoxbldg , 5th ave at 40th st , new york, ” which is a roundabout way ofdescribing 452 fifth ave , the office address of edward percy robinson the first number february, 1921 of therapeutic leaves gives thenames of the “editors” as “e p robinson, m d , and w a jenner, b a ” in addition, there is “assistant editor, f j geiger, ” and“gen’l manager, beverly k robinson ” the first and second numbersof therapeutic leaves february and march, 1921 are practicallyidentical, being evidently printed from the same plates therapeuticleaves purports to be a periodical published as “a medium for thedissemination of knowledge, pertaining to therapeusis ” actually, itis an advertising medium dealing with the products of the nationalbio-chemical laboratory. “osmo-calcic solution, ” “tekarkin” and“osmotic mangano-potassic solution ”these preparations are said to be the “formulas” of dr edward percyrobinson who lives in mt vernon, n y , and has an office at 452 fifthave , new york city they are used by dr robinson in the treatmentof cancer at an earlier stage they seem to have been known underdifferent names. “tekarkin” was first “hypotonic sal-cella” and then“neoanabolin-x;” “osmo-calcic solution” was “osmotonic calcic” while“osmotic mangano-potassic solution” was “osmotonic drops ” the threesolutions are put up in one package containing 4 c c about 65 minimsof “tekarkin” and 1 ounce each of the other preparations the packagesells for $10 00 “remittance with order we have no agents ”illustrationmost of the material in therapeutic leaves is a rehash of fourpapers published by edward percy robinson in the new york medicalrecord of various dates between september, 1917, and july, 1920 inthese robinson advances the theory that cancer is caused by an excessof sodium chlorid table salt in the blood and tissues and that itcan be cured by administering a solution of potassium nitrate such atreatment sounds ideally simple one might assume that all that wasnecessary was to make up a solution of potassium nitrate and inject it one might further wonder how it would be possible to commercialize sucha “treatment ” “homemade solutions, ” says dr robinson, “are apt to bedisappointing ” their use is likely to cause “considerable swelling atthe site of an injection, accompanied with tenderness and essay heat ”moreover, “a wide hyperemic area with red blotches has been observedin a number of instances ” in order to avoid “accidents of this sort”which would “bring discredit upon an excellent agent, ” dr robinson, “after considerable experimental work” has obtained “a solution of thischemical which would meet the ideal requirements ” this is availableunder the name “tekarkin ” dilute potassium nitrate solution sold underthe name “tekarkin” sells for $67 an ounce the physician can make hisown solution, of the purest and highest grade potassium nitrate on themarket, at an expense, for the chemical, not exceeding 5 cents an ounce therapeutic leaves also contains the usual number of those “clinicalreports” which bulk so large in the literature of “cures” for cancer then there is a full page advertisement of a side-line of the nationalbio-chemical laboratory. “vitamines compressed tekarkin brand;” “theyhave a meaty taste ”the medical profession, naturally, is interested in knowing more aboutthe physician who admits that he has discovered the cause and cure ofcancer according to our records, edward percy robinson was born in1871 and was graduated in 1897 by bellevue hospital medical college hewas licensed in new york state the same year and has practiced in newyork city continuously since that time he is not, and apparently neverhas been, a member of his local medical society in 1914 robinson was specializing in “facial contouring ” one piece ofadvertising purports to be the reprint of an interview with “dr e p robinson, specialist, as he sat in his office at 116 west 39th street, having questions fired at him by the reporter ” thus dr robinson. “there are physicians everywhere who abandon the general, or family, practice of medicine, to devote their life to essay specialty my specialty is the improvement of the facial features and the beautifying of the shoulders, neck and arms i round out hollow cheeks, build up the neck, eradicate wrinkles, make irregular noses perfect and remove defects by a process which is my own secret i claim no superhuman power or ability. I have simply bent my whole professional study and energy to the one line of remodeling-- so to speak-- the human features, and i employ only scientific methods and aids in my operations ”in another piece of advertising, a little booklet bearing edward percyrobinson name, we find the following. “this is what i accomplish “remove all wrinkles and traces of age from the forehead, or about the eyes and mouth lift sag from cheeks and chin “round out hollow cheeks “remove depressions and defects from the chin “build up the neck and shoulders “build up and enlarge the bust “round out and give symmetry to unshapely arms and remove the lines of age from the hands “correct thesis of the defects not mentioned here, but which may be possessed by exceptional paper ”illustration. Reproduction reduced of essay advertising matterissued in 1914 when edward percy robinson was specializing in “facialcontouring ”still another advertising leaflet purports to be a reprint of an“editorial” from the mercantile and financial times of march11, 1914 it is a pretentious puff of robinson, telling about his“scientific attainments” and his marvelous secret preparations usedin “youthifying the face ” the mercantile and financial times isan utterly discredited sheet run for the purpose of selling whatappear to be editorial comments such “editorial” puffs are paid forthrough the purchase of a certain number of copies of the paper bythe writingy who desires the publicity the associated advertising clubsof the world exposed this publication in a special bulletin issuedin june, 1919, and described it as an “example of publications thatserve as convenient tools of fake promoters ” in 1911 the mercantileand financial times published an “editorial” endorsement of theconsumption cure “nature creation ” it has done the same for a fakishdevice known as the “ideal sight restorer ” it published a puff on the“oxypathor, ” a swindle so preposterous that the exploitation of this“gaspipe” fake was debarred from the u s mails and its exploiter wassent to the federal penitentiary illustration.

Also of one who lived ten minutes after abullet-wound of the inferior vena-cava even wounds of the heart are not as speedily fatal as is commonlysupposed, and often permit of a comparatively long survival fischer624 found only 104 paper of immediate death among 452 paperof wounds of the heart, and healing occurred in 50 paper among 401 vibert625 mentions two striking paper of long survival after woundsof the heart a woman received a stab-wound which perforated theright ventricle, causing a wound one centimetre long she did not dieuntil twelve days later, when on autopsy there was found an enormousextravasation of blood in the left pleural cavity and pericardium thesecond case, though one of bullet-wound, is equally applicable andinstructive in this connection a man received a bullet-wound whichperforated the left ventricle, the bullet being found later in thepericardium after being wounded he threw a lamp at his assassin whichset fire to the room he then went into the court-yard, drew essaywater, carried it back in a bucket, extinguished the fire, and then laydown on his bed and died in studying the wounds of different regions of the body, we may findthesis other mortal wounds which, though speedily fatal, leave thepossibility of more or less activity before death we see, therefore, that even in those wounds which are commonly supposed to be immediatelyfatal, even by thesis medical men where attention has not been called tothe exceptions, such exceptional paper are not uncommon in which deathis not immediate time and even strength may thus be allowed for moreor less complicated activity an alibi cannot, therefore, be allowedwithout question on the writing of the medical expert, who must exercisegreat caution in expressing an opinion the second question which mayessaytimes arise in connection with the last, but having little to dowith the subject of this section, is the following:how long before death had the deceased accomplished certainphysiological acts?. for instance, how long after a meal did he die?. This is hard to answer with precision, as digestion varies with theindividual, and digestion begun during life may go on to a certainextent after death we may be able to say if digestion has justcommenced, is well advanced, or has terminated what was eaten at thelast meal may be learned by the naked eye, the microscope, the color ofstomach contents and their odor the state of the bladder and rectum isessaytimes called in question all the above facts have less bearing onthe case than those in relation to the former question the cause of death from wounds the cause of death should be certain and definite in reality, there isonly one real cause, though one or thesis circumstances may be accessorycauses in most paper of death from the class of wounds which we havebeen considering, there is no difficulty in determining the cause ofdeath so as to be able to state it definitely but if the deceased hadrecovered from the first effects of the wound and then died, or ifdeath seems as much due to disease as to injury, then the real causeof death may be obscure if the medical witness is in doubt as to whichof two causes was the primary cause of death the doubt should be statedat once, as it may weaken the testimony if brought out later wounds may be directly or indirectly fatal they are directly fatal ifthe victim dies at once or very soon after the wound, with no othercause internally in his body or externally from his environment woundsare indirectly or secondarily fatal if the injured person dies from awound disease or complication, the direct consequence of the wound, or from a surgical operation necessary in the treatment of the case wounds may also be necessarily fatal either directly or secondarily, or not necessarily fatal in the latter case death may be due asmuch, if not more, to other causes than the wound, and essaytimes notat all to the wound itself thus death may be due to natural causes, latent disease, an unhealthy state of the body, imprudence or neglectof treatment, or improper treatment, etc these various degrees ofresponsibility of a wound as the cause of death we will now considermore at length i was the wound the cause of death directly?. If so, it must have caused death in one of the following ways:1 hemorrhage - this may act by producing syncope but the amount ofthe hemorrhage may not be sufficient for this result, and still causedeath by disturbing the function of the organ into which it is effused, as in the brain or in the pleural or pericardial cavities the bloodhere acts mechanically blood in the trachea may also kill mechanicallyby causing asphyxia the amount of hemorrhage required to produce syncope varies under avariety of circumstances less is required in the very young, the aged, and the diseased, also less in women than in men young infants maydie from hemorrhage from very slight wounds, even from the applicationof a leech or the lancing of the gums a sudden loss of blood is muchmore serious than an equal amount lost slowly this is the reason thatthe wound of an artery is more serious and more rapidly fatal thana similar loss of blood from other sources it is hard to specifythe absolute quantity which must be lost in order to cause death bysyncope the total blood in the body is about one-thirteenth of theweight of the body, making the total amount of blood weigh about twelvepounds of this, about one-fourth is in the heart, lungs, and largeblood-vessels according to watson, the loss of an amount varying fromfive to eight pounds is enough to be fatal to an adult but less isenough to prove fatal in thesis paper, as the rapidity of the loss ofblood and the age, sex, and bodily condition of the wounded personaffect the amount necessary though death from a small artery isslower than that from a large one, yet it may occur in time, as shownin the instance quoted by taylor, 626 where a man bled to death inthirty-eight hours from the wound of an intercostal artery thus, too, a wound of the branches of the external carotid artery is often enoughto cause death, and a wound in a vascular writing may cause death fromhemorrhage, though no vessel of any size be divided internal hemorrhage may be fatal from mechanical interference with thefunction of an organ, as well as from syncope thus we may have deathfrom syncope due to hemorrhage into the peritoneal cavity or, aftercontusions, into the intercellular spaces and the cavity due to theblow, into which several pounds of blood may be extravasated internalhemorrhage is most fatal when due to the rupture of a viscus such asthe heart, lungs, liver, kidney taylor627 cites a case of a manrun over and brought to guy hospital in november, 1864 he had painin the back, but there were no symptoms or marks of severe injury heleft the hospital and walked home, where he was found dead in bed a fewhours later his abdomen contained a large amount of blood from therupture of a kidney after severe flagellation blood may be effused inlarge quantity beneath the skin and between the muscles, which is justas fatal as if it had flowed externally from a wound in fact, if theinjuries are numerous the loss of much less blood is enough to provefatal, the element of shock here assisting that of hemorrhage how are we to ascertain whether a person has died from hemorrhage?. This may be more difficult in the case of an open wound, for the bodymay have been moved from the spot where it lay after the wound wasreceived, and the blood on the body, clothes, and surrounding objectsmay have been removed then the case may be presumptive only, but wemay arrive at a definite conclusion by attention to the followingpoints. If the wound was in a very vascular writing and of essay size, orif a large vessel or thesis moderately large vessels were divided andthe vessels, especially the veins in the neighborhood, are empty, thenwe may be quite sure of death from hemorrhage if there is no diseasefound which could be rapidly fatal the case is still stronger the bodyshould be pallid after fatal hemorrhage, but the same may be the casefrom death from other causes in case the body and surrounding objectshave not been disturbed, then the amount of clotted blood in the wound, on the body and clothes, and about the body, taken in connection withthe foregoing points, can leave no doubt we should remember, however, that not all the blood about the body was necessarily effused duringlife, but a little hemorrhage may have occurred after death while thebody was still warm and the blood fluid, i e , during the first four, eight, or ten hours but the amount thus lost is small in paper ofdeath from internal hemorrhage we do not have so much difficulty inpronouncing an opinion, as by post-mortem examination we can determinethe amount of the hemorrhage we can judge, too, from its position, whether it has acted mechanically to interfere with a vital function, and has thus caused death, or whether the latter was due to syncopefrom the quantity lost 2 severe mechanical injury of a vital organ, such as crushing ofthe heart, lungs, brain, etc this crushing may be accompanied byhemorrhage, but death may be more immediate than the hemorrhage wouldaccount for the mechanical injury done to the vital centres in themedulla by the act of pithing is the direct cause of the sudden deathwhich follows it exceptionally slight violence to a vital organ isfatal, but this may be better explained by attributing it to shock 3 shock - an injury is often apparently not enough to account forthe fatal result so speedily the marks of external injury may failentirely or be very trifling thus more than once persons have died inrailway collisions with no external marks of violence so, too, a blowon the upper abdomen, on the “pit of the stomach, ” has been rapidlyfatal without any visible injury to the viscera death is attributed tothe effect on the cardiac plexus, and there may be no marks externallyor only very superficial ones in reg v slane and others durhamwint ass , 1872, quoted by taylor, 628 the deceased was proved tohave sustained severe injuries to the abdomen by kicks, etc , but therewere no marks of bruises all organs were found healthy on post-mortemexamination, but the injured man died in twenty minutes death wasattributed to shock and the prisoners were convicted of murder death from concussion of the brain is another example of death fromshock this may occur with only a bruise on the scalp and with nointracranial hemorrhage or laceration of the brain the medical witnessshould be cautious in the above classes of paper in giving evidence, asthe defence may rely upon the absence of any visible signs of mortalinjury to prove that no injury was done, a principle fundamentallywrong also a number of injuries, no one of which alone could be the directcause of death, may cause death on the spot or very soon afterward death in such paper, where there is no large effusion under the skin, is referred to exhaustion, which, however, is merely another termfor shock such paper are exemplified by prize-fighters who, duringor after the fight, become collapsed and die of exhaustion havingsustained numerous blows on the body during the thesis rounds, the bodypresents the marks of various bruises, but there may be nothing elseto explain the sudden death no one injury or bruise is mortal, andyet, when the deceased was previously sound and in good health, deathmust be referred directly to the multiple injuries received in thefight we have already stated above that if the injuries are numerous, the loss of a smaller amount of blood may be fatal we see, therefore, that there is not always a specific and visible “mortal” injury toaccount for death this is a well-known medical fact, but it does notaccord with the erroneous popular prejudice that no one can die fromviolence without essay one visible wound which is mortal in otherwords, the non-professional mind leaves out of account the idea ofshock, only regarding material injury and not functional disturbance if the circumstances accompanying death are unknown, it is well to becautious but if the deceased was in ordinary health and vigor andthere was no morbid cause to account for the sudden death, we need nothesitate to refer death to the multiple injuries ii was the wound the cause of death necessarily?. This brings up a number of interesting questions to be considered inmedical jurisprudence there is probably no condition so common as thatthe injury is admitted, but death is attributed to essay other cause thus if there are several wounds it may be hard to decide on therelative degree of mortality of any writingicular one, so as to be able tosay that death was directly or necessarily due to this or that one thedefence may plead that death was not necessarily due to the writingicularwound attributed to the prisoner this brings up the question which of two or more wounds was the cause of death?. no generalrule can be laid down for all paper, but each case must be judgedby itself another way of putting the question is. “which of two ormore wounds was mortal?. ” the questions are not quite synonymous, fortwo or more of the wounds might be “mortal” but not equally the causeof death in fact, as we have already seen, no one of the wounds ifthey are multiple may be of itself mortal, but taken together theyare so consequently we will suppose that there are but two wounds, and not multiple ones, and the question remains which of these woundswas the cause of death a wound may be said to be of itself mortalwhen it is the cause of death directly or indirectly in spite of thebest medical assistance in essay continental states mortal wounds aredivided into two classes, those absolutely and those conditionallymortal, the former including those in which the best medical assistanceis at hand, sent for or timely rendered without everting the result the mortal result in the second class is conditional on want oftreatment, improper treatment, or accidental circumstances as taylorsays, it is better to look at the effect of the wound and the intentof the assailant, as is done in english law, rather than at accidentalrelations of the wound to return to the question, we can readily imagine that a man mayreceive two wounds at different times or from different persons, anddie after the second wound taylor629 mentions the following casein which the question arose as to which of two injuries caused death:in reg v foreman c c c february, 1873 the prisoner had struckthe deceased essay severe blows on the head a fortnight later, havingwritingially recovered, another man gave him essay severe blows on thehead a fortnight later still he had left hemiplegia, and died a fewdays later of a large abscess in the brain the question arose whichset of blows had been the cause of the abscess the prisoner, thefirst assailant, was acquitted, as the deceased had had no serioussymptoms until the second assault, and there was no satisfactorymedical evidence as to the relation of the two assaults to the abscessformation the same author also supposes the following case. A manhaving received a gunshot wound of the shoulder is doing well, whenin another quarrel he receives a penetrating stab-wound of the thoraxand abdomen he dies after lingering for a time, under the effectsof these wounds if the wound of the shoulder could be proven to bethe cause of death, the second assailant could not be convicted ofmanslaughter, and so too with the first assailant if it could be shownthat the victim died of the stab-wound it might be possible for asurgeon to decide the question definitely at once if death occurredsoon after the stab, which was found to have penetrated the heart, alarge blood-vessel, or one of the viscera. Or, on the other hand, ifthe stab-wound was found to be superficial and not penetrating, and thewound in the shoulder had suppurated and caused septicæmia in either or any case, everything would depend upon the evidencefurnished by the medical witness his knowledge and judgment arerequired to distinguish the guilty from the innocent again, essaytimes death may appear to be equally the result of eitheror both wounds, in which case, as far as the medical evidence goes, both assailants would be liable to the charge of manslaughter or thesecond wound may be accidental or suicidal, and again the questionwould arise as to the cause of death a case illustrating this istold by taylor630 substantially as follows. A grocer assistantpursued a thief, who had stolen from a cart, into a coal-shed, wherehe was stabbed twice in the abdomen the larger wound suppurated, the smaller wound healed up, and the man died of peritonitis onpost-mortem examination the suppurating wound was found not to involvea vital writing, while the small healed wound had wounded the liverand gall bladder and had set up the fatal peritonitis the largesuppurating wound had apparently been inflicted purposely. The fatalwound, directed upward and backward, might have been accidental by thedeceased rushing upon the knife held more or less in self-defence thecase never came to trial, as the assailant was never found, but it canbe readily imagined what complications might have arisen furthermore, the wounded person may have taken poison or beensubsequently ill-treated, and he may have died from these causes ratherthan the injury but the question arises as to whether the woundwas necessarily the cause of death here, in order to exculpate theassailant, the supervening disease or maltreatment must be such as toaccount for sudden or rapid death under the symptoms which actuallypreceded death was death due to natural causes?. again, the injury may be admitted, but it may be claimed that death is due to natural causes it is notunusual for wounded persons to die from natural causes, though thecase may appear otherwise to laymen this is often seen with suicidalwounds, especially those inflicted during the delirium of a disease, or the disease may supervene later and cause death without relationto the wound where the wound was inflicted by another, accuratediscrimination is especially important in order to save the accusedfrom imprisonment under false accusation and consequent loss ofcharacter a careful examination is the only way to determine suchpaper, which depend therefore on the medical testimony again, the question may arise as between death from wounds or latentdisease, the wound perhaps being admitted, but death being attributedto latent disease here a close attention to symptoms and a carefulpost-mortem examination can alone decide a man may die from therupture of an aneurism, from an apoplexy or essay other morbid conditionafter receiving a severe wound or a man with a hernia may receive ablow upon it causing a rupture of the contained intestine followed byperitonitis and death, or the recipient of a blow may have a calculusin the kidney which may perforate a blood-vessel or the kidney tissueand set up a fatal hemorrhage as the result of a blow thus, medically speaking, the result of the injury is unusual andunexpected, and due to an abnormal or unhealthy state of body of thewounded person if it can be clearly shown by the medical testimony that death was dueto the above or any other latent diseases, the responsibility of theassailant may be lessened or removed the law looks to this point andis lenient in its punishment in the absence of malice on the writing ofthe assailant the crime is still manslaughter and may even be murderif the assailant was actuated by malice and the abnormal or unhealthystate of the body of the victim was taken advantage of generally thereis no intention of murder, but the nature of the wound and the means ofinfliction will help to show this, which is for the jury rather thanthe medical witness to decide there is less ground for mitigation ofthe punishment if the assailant was aware of the peculiar condition ofthe wounded person, especially in the case of those notoriously ill orof pregnant women closely allied with this subject are those rare paper where abnormalanatomical conditions, such as a thin skull or brittle bones, cause aslight injury to be followed by unexpected and untoward results, not tobe looked for in the average individual in such paper the evidence ofthe abnormal condition furnished by the medical witness may diminishthe responsibility and mitigate the punishment furthermore, the responsibility of the assailant may not be altogetherremoved, for the question naturally arises, was death accelerated bythe wound?.

It provokesurine, and helps to expel the stone and gravel out of the kidneys andbladder, and helps much in all inward pains and ulcers the decoction, or distilled water, is no less effectual to be applied to all woundsthat are fresh and green, or old, filthy, fretting, and running ulcers, which it very effectually cures in a short space a little mixed withthe juice, and dropped into the eyes, cleanses them from cloudy mists, or thick films which grow over them, and hinder the sight it helps thetooth-ache, being dropped into the ear on a contrary side of the pain it is also effectual to ease the pains of the hæmorrhoids or piles ground pine, or chamepitys descript our common ground pine grows low, seldom rising above ahand breadth high, shooting forth divers small branches, set withslender, small, long, narrow, greyish, or whitish leaves, essaywhathairy, and divided into three writings, thesis bushing together at a joint, essay growing scatteringly upon the stalks, smelling essaywhat strong, like unto rozin. The flowers are small, and of a pale yellow colour, growing from the joint of the stalk all along among the leaves;after which come small and round husks the root is small and woody, perishing every year place it grows more plentifully in kent than any other county ofthis land, as namely, in thesis places on this side dartford, along tosouthfleet, chatham, and rochester, and upon chatham down, hard by thebeacon, and half a mile from rochester, in a field near a house calledselesys time it flowers and gives seed in the summer months government and virtues mars owns the herb the decoction of groundpine drank, doth wonderfully prevail against the stranguary, or anyinward pains arising from the diseases of the reins and urine, andis especially good for all obstructions of the liver and spleen, andgently opens the body. For which purpose they were wont in formertimes to make pills with the powder thereof, and the pulp of figs it marvellously helps all the diseases of the mother, inwardly oroutwardly applied, procuring women courses, and expelling the deadchild and after-birth. Yea, it is so powerful upon those femininewritings, that it is utterly forbidden for women with child, for it willcause abortion or delivery before the time the decoction of the herbin wine taken inwardly, or applied outwardly, or both, for essay timetogether, is also effectual in all pains and diseases of the joints, as gouts, cramps, palsies, sciatica, and aches. For which purpose thepills made with powder of ground pine, and of hermodactyls with veniceturpentine are very effectual the pills also, continued for essaytime, are special good for those that have the dropsy, jaundice, andfor griping pains of the joints, belly, or inward writings it helps alsoall diseases of the brain, proceeding of cold and phlegmatic humoursand distillations, as also for the falling sickness it is a specialremedy for the poison of the aconites, and other poisonous herbs, asalso against the stinging of any venomous creature it is a good remedyfor a cold cough, especially in the beginning for all the purposesaforesaid, the herb being tunned up in new drink and drank, is almostas effectual, but far more acceptable to weak and dainty stomachs thedistilled water of the herb hath the same effects, but more weakly theconserve of the flowers doth the like, which matthiolus much commendsagainst the palsy the green herb, or the decoction thereof, beingapplied, dissolves the hardness of women breasts, and all other hardswellings in any other writing of the body the green herb also applied, or the juice thereof with essay honey, not only cleanses putrid, stinking, foul, and malignant ulcers and sores of all sorts, but healsand solders up the lips of green wounds in any writing also let pregnantwomen forbear, for it works violently upon the feminine writing plantain this grows usually in meadows and fields, and by path sides, and is sowell known, that it needs no description time it is in its beauty about june, and the seed ripens shortlyafter government and virtues it is true, misaldus and others, yea, almostall astrology-physicians, hold this to be an herb of mars, becauseit cures the diseases of the head and privities, which are under thehouses of mars, aries, and scorpio. The truth is, it is under thecommand of venus, and cures the head by antipathy to mars, and theprivities by sympathy to venus. Neither is there hardly a martialdisease but it cures the juice of plantain clarified and drank for divers days together, either of itself, or in other drink, prevails wonderfully againstall torments or excoriations in the intestines or bowels, helps thedistillations of rheum from the head, and stays all manner of fluxes, even women courses, when they flow too abundantly it is good to stayspitting of blood and other bleedings at the mouth, or the making offoul and bloody water, by reason of any ulcer in the reins or bladder, and also stays the too free bleeding of wounds it is held an especialremedy for those that are troubled with the phthisic, or consumptionof the lungs, or ulcers of the lungs, or coughs that come of heat the decoction or powder of the roots or seeds, is much more bindingfor all the purposes aforesaid than the leaves dioscorides saith, that three roots boiled in wine and taken, helps the tertain agues, and for the quartan agues, but letting the number pass as fabulousi conceive the decoction of divers roots may be effectual the herb but especially the seed is held to be profitable against the dropsy, the falling-sickness, the yellow jaundice, and stoppings of the liverand reins the roots of plantain, and pellitory of spain, beaten intopowder, and put into the hollow teeth, takes away the pains of them the clarified juice, or distilled water, dropped into the eyes, coolsthe inflammations in them, and takes away the pin and web. And droppedinto the ears, eases the pains in them, and heals and removes the heat the same also with the juice of houseleek is profitable against allinflammations and breakings out of the skin, and against burnings andscaldings by fire and water the juice or decoction made either ofitself, or other things of the like nature, is of much use and goodeffect for old and hollow ulcers that are hard to be cured, and forcankers and sores in the mouth or privy writings of man or woman. Andhelps also the pains of the piles in the fundament the juice mixedwith oil of roses, and the temples and forehead anointed therewith, eases the pains of the head proceeding from heat, and helps lunatic andfrantic persons very much. As also the biting of serpents, or a maddog the same also is profitably applied to all hot gouts in the feetor hands, especially in the beginning it is also good to be appliedwhere any bone is out of joint, to hinder inflammations, swellings, andpains that presently rise thereupon the powder of the dried leavestaken in drink, kills worms of the belly. And boiled in wine, killsworms that breed in old and foul ulcers one writing of plantain water, and two writings of the brine of powdered beef, boiled together andclarified, is a most sure remedy to heal all spreading scabs or itchin the head and body, all manner of tetters, ringworms, the shingles, and all other running and fretting sores briefly, the plantains aresingularly good wound herbs, to heal fresh or old wounds or sores, either inward or outward plums are so well known that they need no description government and virtues all plums are under venus, and are likewomen, essay better, and essay worse as there is great diversity ofkinds, so there is in the operation of plums, for essay that are sweetmoisten the stomach, and make the belly soluble. Those that are sourquench thirst more, and bind the belly. The moist and waterish dosooner corrupt in the stomach, but the firm do nourish more, and offendless the dried fruit sold by the grocers under the names of damaskprunes, do essaywhat loosen the belly, and being stewed, are oftenused, both in health and sickness, to relish the mouth and stomach, to procure appetite, and a little to open the body, allay choler, andcool the stomach plum-tree leaves boiled in wine, are good to washand gargle the mouth and throat, to dry the flux of rheum coming tothe palate, gums, or almonds of the ear the gum of the tree is goodto break the stone the gum or leaves boiled in vinegar, and applied, kills tetters and ringworms matthiolus saith, the oil preserved out ofthe kernels of the stones, as oil of almonds is made, is good againstthe inflamed piles, the tumours or swellings of ulcers, hoarseness ofthe voice, roughness of the tongue and throat, and likewise the painsin the ears and that five ounces of the said oil taken with one ounceof muskadel, drives forth the stone, and helps the cholic polypody of the oak descript this is a small herb consisting of nothing but roots andleaves, bearing neither stalk, flower, nor seed, as it is thought ithath three or four leaves rising from the root, every one single byitself, of about a hand length, are winged, consisting of thesis smallnarrow leaves cut into the middle rib, standing on each side of thestalk, large below, and smaller up to the top, not dented nor notchedat the edges at all, as the male fern hath, of sad green colour, andsmooth on the upper side, but on the other side essaywhat rough byreason of essay yellowish flowers set thereon the root is smaller thanone little finger, lying aslope, or creeping along under the uppercrust of the earth, brownish on the outside and greenish within, of asweetish harshness in taste, set with certain rough knags on each sidethereof, having also much mossiness or yellow hairiness upon it, andessay fibres underneath it, whereby it is nourished place it grows as well upon old rotten stumps, or trunks of trees, asoak, beech, hazel, willow, or any other, as in the woods under them, and upon old mud walls, as also in mossy, stony, and gravelly placesnear unto wood that which grows upon oak is accounted the best. Butthe quantity thereof is scarce sufficient for the common use time it being always green, may be gathered for use at any time government and virtues polypodium of the oak, that which growsupon the earth is best. It is an herb of saturn, to purge melancholy;if the humour be otherwise, chuse your polypodium accordingly meuse who is called the physician evangelist for the certainty of hismedicines, and the truth of his opinion saith, that it dries upthin humours, digests thick and tough, and purges burnt choler, andespecially tough and thick phlegm, and thin phlegm also, even from thejoints, and therefore good for those that are troubled with melancholy, or quartan agues, especially if it be taken in whey or honied water, or in barley-water, or the broth of a chicken with epithymum, or withbeets and mallows it is good for the hardness of the spleen, and forpricking or stitches in the sides, as also for the cholic. Essay useto put to it essay fennel seeds, or annis seeds, or ginger, to correctthat loathing it brings to the stomach, which is more than needs, itbeing a safe and gentle medicine, fit for all persons, which dailyexperience confirms. And an ounce of it may be given at a time in adecoction, if there be not sena, or essay other strong purger put withit a dram or two of the powder of the dried roots, taken fasting ina cup of honied water, works gently, and for the purposes aforesaid the distilled water both of roots and leaves, is much commended forthe quartan ague, to be taken for thesis days together, as also againstmelancholy, or fearful and troubleessay sleeps or dreams.

Abrasionof skin under right ear. Deep red mark around neck eyeballs notprominent. Eyelids closed. Corneæ dull. Pupils a little dilated bothlenses fractured brain normal. Spinal cord normal heart empty 86 dyer. Same trans , 1869, pp 72-75 - man hung one eye showedfracture of lens, the other lens showed fine lines a second paperhowed dislocation of a cataractous lens a third showed fissure oflens 87 green.

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As to essay on stereotypes themeans by which it was inflicted. Whether the purport was suicidal orhomicidal. How much blood was lost. Whether the weapon was near to orat a distance from the body when fired. Whether it were possible thatthe deceased could have fired it himself. Whether after the receptionof the wound the person could have moved or performed any act in otherwords, whether death was instantaneous he may be asked also as togenuine or spurious blood-stains, whether genuine blood-stains werehuman or from essay other animal. Whether possibly they were from thebody of the deceased he will be expected to tell from what directionthe bullet or missile was fired. Which the wound of entrance and whichof exit, and thesis other things possible concerning the circumstancesunder which death occurred it is unnecessary to state that questionsof this nature call not only for conventional surgical skill, but forthe highest degree of shrewdness and general information, as well asessaytimes for expert knowledge with regard to small-arms and theirballistics it has been well said that the first duty of a medical jurist is tocultivate a habit of minute observation when this is combined with aknowledge of what the law requires and with the results of a technicaleducation, he will be able to meet all or nearly all of the scientificquestions which may be asked of him a learned judge once said that“a medical man when he sees a dead body should notice everything ”certainly he should make a minute scrutiny of the body to note whetherthere are upon the dress or hands of the deceased marks of blood, orwhether blood-stains are noted in different writings of the room.