History

Essay On Respect


Twenty times the red was writingly effaced, the black being wellmarked. And in sixteen paper the red had completely disappeared, theblack remaining visible 592a tattoo-mark may essaytimes be altered, in which case it provesdeceptive as an index a workman changing his trade seeks to transformthe insignia of his first calling into those of the second, or acriminal in order to avoid identity will make a change in the formerinstance the transformation is not difficult to detect, but in thelatter so much care is required to recognize the change that penalscience has relegated the sign to a secondary place as to the length of time since a tattoo-mark has been executed, authorities are that it is impossible to tell after two or three weeks whether a tattoo-mark is real or feigned is easily settled by simplywashing the writing this question, as well as that of the judicialconsequences of such marks, is hardly pertinent to the matter in hand value of professional stigmata the so-called professional signs are of undoubted value in the surfaceexamination for establishing identity, but it does not seem thattheir importance warrants the extreme prolixity given to them by essaycontinental writers, and even by one in the city of mexico, dr joseramos 593 for instance, it is pretended that cataract is more commonamong jewellers because of the fineness of their work. Yet out of 952cataracts, of which a record has been kept, only two paper occurred injewellers besides, there is not one special sign or physical traceleft on the body by which a prostitute may be known, notwithstandingthe fact that in life the collective appearance would seldom deceive anexperienced man only in the case of sodomy, where anal coitus has been frequent, wouldcharacteristic signs be found on anal examination of 446 prostitutes, dr coutagne594 found the signs of post-perineal coitus in 180 he cites the case of a young prostitute presenting the astonishingcontrast of a gaping anus surrounded by characteristic rhagades, withthe genital writings of an extreme freshness, a very narrow vagina, andnon-retracted hymen, constituting by their reunion a still firm ring a fact yet more curious is shown by a specimen in the collection ofthe museum of the laboratory of legal medicine at lyons the genitalorgans of the cadaver of a woman of twenty-eight or thirty years showeda hymen intact and firm, but on examining the anal region it wassurprising to find an infundibuliform deformity with all the signs ofsodomitical habits, which of course rectified the opinion that had beenmade regarding the chastity of this woman thesis of the signs enumerated as peculiar to different callings haveno special anatomical characteristic that is easy to distinguish withprecision, consequently they do not present a degree of certainty orconstancy sufficient to be invoked as strong medico-legal proof ofidentity moreover, the effects of time or treatment may have causedalteration or disappearance of thesis of the signs in question, whichwould at best be of negative rather than of absolute value to arrive at an imwritingial appreciation of the relative value of theprofessional stigmata as signs of identity, a certain number of thesigns should be thrown aside as illusory others, on the contrary, aredurable, special, and constant, and assist in establishing the identityaccordingly as the lesions or alterations are complete or evident. Butit should be borne in mind that the physical alterations and chemicalmodifications resulting from the exercise of certain trades are not inour country so important from a medico-legal point of view as they arein europe, where class distinctions are more defined value of stains and different imprints in the same manner that a very small portion or fragment of the humanbody may suffice to establish the corpus delicti, so will minuteremains or traces, as finger-marks, footprints, and other materialsurroundings, even smells or traces of perfume, be of great assistanceto justice in determining the identity of both culprit and victim, andat the same time throw light on the attendant circumstances of thedeed the traces of a bloody hand or foot, smears of tar or paint, the various spots or stains found on fabrics, instruments, etc , mayinvolve questions of great nicety the relativity of which is apparent, especially in criminal trials newspapers have familiarized the publicwith thesis paper of the kind, in which medical experts have demonstratedblood and other stains with sufficient accuracy and positiveness tosatisfy a jury the cronin case is a notable instance imprints made by finger-tips are known to be singularly persistent in four specimens of inked digit marks of sir william herschel, madein the years 1860, 1874, 1885, and 1888 respectively, though therewas a difference of twenty-eight years between the first and last, nodifference could be perceived between the impressions the forms ofthe spirals remained the same, not only in general character, but inminute and measurable details, as in the distances from the centreof the spiral and in the direction at which each new ridge took itsrise sir william herschel has made great use of digit-marks forthe purposes of legal attestation among natives of india 595 theextraordinary persistence of the papillary ridges on the inner surfaceof the hands throughout life has been a theme of discussion by theroyal society, 596 and mr galton has devised a method of indexingfinger-marks 597the impress of a naked foot covered with blood may serve to direct theinvestigations of justice in a criminal affair in france, where eightindividuals were implicated, comparative experiments upon the identityof the foot, made with a view to determine to which of the individualsought to be attributed the bloody footprints found near a wardrobe, it was shown that a degree of recognition could be established onreproducing the footprints with defibrinated blood from the eightimprints of the left foot of each individual, impregnated with blood, measures and comparisons could be made, thus helping to establish thedifference or the resemblance with those found near the wardrobe imprints thus obtained may be looked upon as a kind of documentaryevidence, but too much importance should not be attached to them asarticles tending to prove criminality the futility of such evidenceis shown in the varying sizes of different impressions of the foot ofthe same person first in rapid progression, secondly by standing, and third by slow advance the results appear less sure in the case offootprints made in mud, sand, dust, or snow nevertheless thesis factsrelating thereto may be noted with great certainty the question hasbeen mooted as to whether or not the impress left upon the soil givesalways the exact dimensions of the foot that has made them one sidehas contended that the footprints are a little smaller, while theother refutes this opinion and thinks that they are a little larger the consistency of the soil, which does not seem to have entered intothe discussion, doubtless accounts for the small differences that havegiven rise to this discrepancy of opinion the outline of the sole ofthe foot and the relative position of the toes are more or less neatlydesigned as the ground is more or less wet or soft the means employedfor taking impressions of foot or other tracks in mud, etc , showconsiderable ingenuity on the writing of those who have elaborated thesubject to discover foot-marks in mud, powdered stearic acid is spreadover the imprint and a heat of at least 212° is applied from above bythis means a solid mould may be taken of the imprint these researcheshave been extended to the exact reproduction of imprints left upon snowby pouring melted gelatine upon the imprint previously sprinkled with alittle common table salt, which rapidly lowers the temperature of thesnow about fifteen degrees and permits the mould to be taken withouttoo much hurry the study has been extended to the configuration of theplantar imprints in tabetics, but it does not appear so far to be ofmuch medico-legal value the question may arise as to the length of time since the imprintswere made this would, of course, depend upon thesis circumstances, asweather, temperature, and the like it is a fact that in greenlandfootsteps in snow have been recognized thesis months after they weremade a few summers ago, on an arctic expedition, i climbed capelisbourne, alaska, in company with another person the ground beingthawed in thesis places, our feet left very decided imprints in the mud a year afterward i visited the same spot, and on again making theascent was astonished to recognize the footsteps made the year before circumstances essaytimes direct expert attention to vestiges of otheranimals the tracks of a dog or of a horse may become the object of amedico-legal inquest the books record a case in which it was necessaryto ascertain whether a bite had been made by a large or a small dog this question was settled by producing the dogs and comparing theirteeth with the scars persons familiar with border life know theimportance of trails and the minute observation that is brought to bearon them by the experienced frontiersman in following cattle-thievesand murderers, while with the fourth united states cavalry on the riogrande frontier, i have known the peculiarity of a horse footprint inthe prairie to tell a tale of great significance observation in this respect may extend to such apparently trivialobjects as the tracks of wheels, as those of a wagon, a wheelbarrow, or a bicycle, or to the singular imprints left by crutches or awalking-stick the imprint left in the ground by a cane usually occursin the remarkable order of every two and a half or every four and ahalf steps investigation of such circumstances may result in materialfacts that may be of great assistance in establishing the relation ofone or several persons with essay writingicular act deformities and pathological peculiarities the existence of deformities or injuries is so apparent in serving toestablish identity that it seems almost superfluous to mention them, except for the purpose of deciding whether the wounds were made duringlife or after death in the matter of gunshot wounds on persons whotook writing in the late civil war, thesis of whom unfortunately belong tothe vagrant class and are often found dead, their wounds essaytimesafford excellent means of identification in thesis instances themultiple character of these wounds is almost incredible when on dutyat the army medical museum, in connection with the preparation of the“medical and surgical history of the war of the rebellion, ” i saw a manwho was literally wounded from the crown of his head to the sole of hisfoot, the scars being fifty-two in number wounds made during life might show the suggillation peculiar tobruises or traces of inflammation besides, the gaping nature of thelips of the wound, the fact of hemorrhage having taken place and thecoagulation of the blood, the infiltration of blood into the cellulartissue, etc , are surgical facts that would leave but little doubt asto the infliction of the wounds during life the cause of death is often a difficult matter to determine, asit may have been accidental, suicidal, or the result of homicide the causes relating thereto are, moreover, so thesis and varied thatspace and time compel a reference to other headings of this work informing an opinion as to the probable date of death the extent ofputrefaction is the chief guide if death is quite recent, we may beguided by the post-mortem rigidity or the extent to which the body hascooled the march of putrefactive decomposition would, of course, beregulated by circumstances it takes place very rapidly in persons whohave succumbed to excessive fatigue or to any disassimilative excessesor derangement resulting in ante-mortem change of the tissues, suchas those occurring in virulent or infectious diseases the body ofan infant decays more rapidly that that of an adult the course ofputrefactive phenomena is also influenced by the seasons, the extentof the exposure to air, and to other mesological causes there is amanifest difference in the special putrefactive change accordingly asa body is buried in the earth, submerged in a fluid, thrown into acesspool, or buried in a dung-heap in certain paper, especially where the body has been much mutilated, itmay be desirable to know whether there was one or several murderers while no definite rule can be laid down on this point, we are justifiedin supposing that there were two or more assassins when the body of thevictim shows both gunshot and knife wounds, or that two persons wereconcerned in the dismemberment and mutilation of a body which shows thesimultaneous presence of writings skilfully cut, while others show evidentawkwardness where there is more than one mortal wound on the same dead body, a question of medico-legal significance may arise this occurred inthe burton murder case at newport, r i , in 1885, which gave rise todiscussion of the following abstract question. “whether it is possiblefor an individual, with suicidal intent, and in quick succession, to inflict a perforating shot of the head and another of the chestimplicating the heart or, reversing the proposition, is it incrediblethat a person bent on self-destruction can, with his own hand, shoothimself in the heart and in the head?.

Second minute essay on respect 52. Third 39. Fourth 20. Fifth 0. Sixth 70. Seventh 73. Eighth 0. Ninth 34. Not perceptible afterward died from strangulation. Neck not dislocated the heart beat once in the nineteenth minute. From the ninth to the nineteenth, only two or three times no priapism in judicial executions, however, the right auricle is found in actionwhen the subject is taken down at the end of the usual period ofsuspension see case 89 tardieu mentions a case where the heartwas beating 80 to the minute one and one-half hours after supposeddeath it is probable that in these paper the deprivation of air andcompression of the vessels has not been complete in such paper lifemay essaytimes be restored paper are reported where restoration hasbeen possible within a period of a half-hour of suspension. Althoughthe fatal period is usually five to eight minutes at most if, however, the tissues and especially the spinal cord are injured, or the ligaturehas compressed below the larynx, the chance of recovery is very small, even if the body is cut down at once according to faure, animalsexperimented upon die in twelve to twenty minutes thesis paper of “incomplete” hanging have been reported. Where the feettouch the floor, or would do so if the subject should choose to have itso tardieu826 collected 261 paper, in 168 of which the feet touchedthe ground, in 42 the subject was on his knees, in 29 the body waslying, in 29 sitting and in 3 squatting hackel, 827 in 67 paper ofhanging, found it incomplete in 34 per cent illustration. Fig 22 - suicide of prince condé see page 763 in one of the experiments of faure828 a large dog was hung, his feet touching the ground for five minutes he was quiet, breathing without difficulty he then tried to release himself, but instead tightened the knot. He made still greater efforts to release himself, became comatose and fell, apparently dead, at the end of ten minutes.

Their right essay on respect to compensation. Their privileges and duties when summoned as witnesses in courts of justice, and their liability for malpractice by tracy c becker, a b , ll b , counsellor-at-law. Professor of criminal law and medical jurisprudence in the law dewritingment of the university of buffalo. Chairman executive committee new york state bar association, etc legal status of physicians chapter i of the right to practise medicine and surgery legal definition and history of the terms physician and surgeon at common law the right to administer drugs or medicines or to performsurgical operations was free to all and such was the rule of theroman civil law but the importance of prescribing certain educationalqualifications for those who made such practices their means of gaininga livelihood soon became apparent, and as early as the year 1422, during the reign of henry the fifth in england, an act of parliamentwas adopted forbidding any one, under a penalty of both fine andimprisonment, from “using the mysterie of fysyck unless he hath studiedit in essay university and is at least a batchellor of science ”as a result of this and other statutory regulations, a class ofprofessional men grew up, who were called “physicians, ” because theyprofessed to have the qualifications required by such legal regulationsto wisely prescribe drugs and medicines for the cure of diseases a chirurgeon or surgeon latin, chirurgus. Greek, χειρουργος, compounded of χειρ, the hand, and ἐργειν, to work as thederivation of the word shows, was one who professed to cure disease orinjuries by manual treatment and appliances it would be more interesting than profitable to trace the historyof these terms, and of the professions of medicine and surgery fromthe early times, when the clergy administered healing to the body aswell as to the soul, and when barbers were generally surgeons, andblood-letting by the knife-blade and the use of leeches caused thecommon application of the term “leech” to those who practised surgery definition - for the purposes of this treatise, however, it willbe sufficient to define the term “physician, ” as meaning any one whoprofesses to have the qualifications required by law to practisethe administration of drugs and medicines, and the term “surgeon, ”as meaning any one who professes to have the like qualifications toperform surgical operations, for the cure of the sick or injured for a list of the early statutes of england relating to the practice ofmedicine the reader may consult ordronaux’ “jurisprudence of medicine, ”p 5, note 2 the present statutory regulations throughout the united states and inengland and canada will be more writingicularly referred to and synopsizedhereafter in this volume chapter ii acquirement of legal right to practise medicine and surgery now generally regulated by statute - in nearly all of the unitedstates, as well as in england, france, gerthesis, and other civilized andintelligent communities, the legal right to practise the administrationof drugs and medicines, or to perform operations in surgery for thepurpose of curing diseases or injuries, has for thesis years been theobject of statutory legislation the necessity and propriety ofregulating by law such practices is generally conceded it is manifestto all that a person engaging in the practice of medicine or surgeryas a profession is holding himself out to the world, and especially tohis patients, as one qualified by education and experience to possessmore than ordinary skill and ability to deal with the great problemsof health and life he professes to the world that he is competent andqualified to enter into the closest and most confidential relationswith the sick and afflicted, and that he is a fit and proper person tobe permitted freely, and at all hours and all seasons, to enter thehomes, the family circle, and the private chamber of persons sufferingfrom disease or injury all this he professes and does upon his ownaccount, and for his own profit statutory regulation of the right to practise, constitutional - theexercise by the states of these statutory powers is upheld as a validexercise of the “police power, ” to protect the health of the community when the constitutionality of such enactments has been questioned, it has been attacked upon the alleged ground that the statutes underquestion unjustly discriminated in favor of one class of citizens andagainst another class. And as depriving those already engaged in thepractice of medicine or surgery of “their property without due processof law ” state v pennoyer, 18 atl rep , 878. Ex writinge spinney, 10 nev , 323. People v fulda, 52 hun n y , 65-67. Brown v people, 11 colo , 109 opinion of united states supreme court - this subject has beencarefully considered by the united states supreme court in a recentcase, and the broad extent of the legislative powers of the states toregulate such matters clearly and fully declared dent v west va 129 u s , 114 the court say pp 121 et seq - mr justice fielddelivering the opinion, in which all the other justices concur. “theunconstitutionality asserted consists in its the statutes allegedconflict with the clause of the fourteenth amendment, which declaresthat no state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law. The denial to the defendant of the right topractise his profession, without the certificate required, constitutingthe deprivation of his vested right and estate in his profession, whichhe had previously acquired “it is undoubtedly the right of every citizen of the united statesto follow any lawful calling, business, or profession he may choose, subject only to such restrictions as are imposed upon all personsof like age, sex, and condition this right may in thesis respects beconsidered as a distinguishing feature of our republican institutions here all vocations are open to every one on like conditions all maybe pursued as sources of livelihood, essay requiring years of study andgreat learning for their successful prosecution the interest, or, as it is essaytimes termed, the estate acquired in them, that is, theright to continue their prosecution, is often of great value to thepossessors, and cannot be arbitrarily taken from them, any more thantheir real or personal property can be thus taken but there is noarbitrary deprivation of such right where its exercise is not permittedbecause of a failure to comply with conditions imposed by the statefor the protection of society the power of the state to provide forthe general welfare of its people authorizes it to prescribe all suchregulations as, in its judgment, will secure or tend to secure themagainst the consequences of ignorance and incapacity as well as ofdeception and fraud as one means to this end it has been the practiceof different states, from time immemorial, to exact in thesis pursuitsa certain degree of skill and learning upon which the community mayconfidently rely, their possession being generally ascertained uponan examination of the writingies by competent persons, or inferred froma certificate to them in the form of a diploma or license from aninstitution established for instruction on the subjects, scientificand otherwise, with which such pursuits have to deal the nature andextent of the qualifications required must depend primarily upon thejudgment of the state as to their necessity if they are appropriateto the calling or profession, and attainable by reasonable study orapplication, no objection to their validity can be raised because oftheir stringency or difficulty it is only when they have no relationto such calling or profession, or are unattainable by such reasonablestudy and application, that they can operate to deprive one of hisright to pursue a lawful vocation “few professions require more careful preparation by one who seeksto enter it than that of medicine it has to deal with all thosesubtle and mysterious influences upon which health and life depend, and requires not only a knowledge of the properties of vegetable andmineral substances, but of the human body in all its complicatedwritings, and their relation to each other, as well as their influenceupon the mind the physician must be able to detect readily thepresence of disease, and prescribe appropriate remedies for itsremoval every one may have occasion to consult him, but comparativelyfew can judge of the qualifications of learning and skill which hepossesses reliance must be placed upon the assurance given by hislicense, issued by an authority competent to judge in that respect, that he possesses the requisite qualifications due consideration, therefore, for the protection of society, may well induce the state toexclude from practice those who have not such a license, or who arefound upon examination not to be fully qualified the same reasonswhich control in imposing conditions, upon compliance with which thephysician is allowed to practise in the first instance, may call forfurther conditions as new modes of treating disease are discovered, ora more thorough acquaintance is obtained of the remedial propertiesof vegetable and mineral substances, or a more accurate knowledgeis acquired of the human system and of the agencies by which it isaffected it would not be deemed a matter for serious discussion thata knowledge of the new acquisitions of the profession, as it from timeto time advances in its attainments for the relief of the sick andsuffering, should be required for continuance in its practice, butfor the earnestness with which the plaintiff in error insists that, by being compelled to obtain the certificate required, and preventedfrom continuing in his practice without it, he is deprived of his rightand estate in his profession without due process of law we perceivenothing in the statute which indicates an intention of the legislatureto deprive one of any of his rights no one has a right to practisemedicine without having the necessary qualifications of learning andskill.

“this is a judicious combination ofvegetable products combined in well balanced proportions withnon-irritating antiseptics , ” “it incorporates a sufficient quantityof mild antiseptics of the thymol class ” and “ contains noformaldehyde ”2 probably a simple tragacanth jelly, which can be made cheaply, willproduce the same effects as those of the proprietary preparation thefollowing formula was published by mr j k thum, apothecary at thegerman hospital, philadelphia druggists circular, september, 1915, p 586:lubricating jelly tragacanth, whole 3 gm glycerin 25 c c phenol 1 5 gm distilled water, a sufficient quantity to make 300 c c the tragacanth is broken in small pieces, and put into a wide-mouthed bottle. The other ingredients are added and the bottle frequently shaken in regard to this formula, mr thum writes. It has been used in our gynecologic dewritingment for years for the last six years we have been dispensing it in collapsible tubes throughout the hospital for general work -- correspondence in the journal a m a , may 12, 1917 “nikalgin” to the editor:-- collier has a special article this week on “nikalgin ” have you any information on this subject?. it sounds like nostrum stuff p r minahan, m d , fond du lac, wis answer -- “nikalgin” is said to be the “invention” of gordon edwards, anengineer large claims for its anesthetic and antiseptic virtues havebeen made while no very definite information seems to be forthcomingregarding the preparation, it has been said to be “composed of quinin, hydrochloric acid and urea ” this would indicate that “nikalgin” maybe nothing more wonderful than the well known local anesthetic, quininand urea hydrochlorid, the quininae et ureae hydrochloridum of theu s pharmacopeia, or a modification of it -- query in the journala m a , sept 22, 1917 pertussin and syrup of thyme to the editor:-- a short time ago i received a sample of “pertussin” and used essay in an obstinate case of bronchitis with excellent results i have since received a catalog from a pharmaceutical firm, which advertises syrup of thyme i have searched for a formula to make my own syrup of thyme, but have not been able to find one will you publish one?. e f benner, m d , salfordville, pa answer -- the subjoined formula yields a product very similar to“pertussin” in taste, flavor, composition, and probably in activity aswell. Fluidextract of thyme 15 c c glycerin 15 c c syrup to make 100 c c the original german preparation contained 1 5 gm of sodium bromidin each hundred cubic centimeters, and this might be added to theforegoing formula with advantage, so far as action is concerned however, a sample of “pertussin” purchased in the open market in theunited states failed to respond to tests for bromids as fluidextract of thyme is not official, this formula is presented asfurnishing an acceptable preparation. Thyme, in no 60 powder 100 gm moisten with a mixture of. Water 25 c c alcohol 15 c c glycerin 10 c c after standing five hours, pack in a percolator exhaust with amenstruum of alcohol, 1 volume, and water, 3 volumes reserve the first85 c c of percolate concentrate the weak percolate to a soft extractand dissolve in the reserved portion make up to 100 c c by additionof a mixture of alcohol, 1 volume, and water, 3 volumes other aromatic expectorants, such as terebene, terpin hydrate orcreosote, might be expected to have similar but greater effect inchronic bronchitis query in the journal, a m a , march 27, 1920 quinin and urea hydrochlorid to the editor:-- could you tell me why quinin and urea hydrochlorid has not become more popular for local anesthesia?. is it less efficacious or more toxic than other preparations?. if it is useful, can you name essay trustworthy firm or brand?. please omit my name in answering l f c , m d , mexico answer -- quinin and urea hydrochlorid “has the actions of quinin when injected hypodermically it exerts an anesthetic action much moreprolonged than that of cocain” useful drugs, ed 4, 1920, p 127 it has been pointed out editorially in the journal feb 14, 1920, p 462 that quinin has been regarded for more than half a centuryby toxicologists as a protoplasmic poison capable of destroyingvarious forms of animal and vegetable cells, and hence it need not besurprising that tissue necrosis may be produced by strong solutionsof the quinin salts that this deleterious reaction actually doesoccur and has militated against the general use of quinin and ureahydrochlorid is confirmed by the report of the committee on theadvantages and disadvantages of local anesthesia in nose and throatwork the journal, july 31, 1920, p 315 to quote. The only local anesthetic that produces edema and sloughing is quinin and urea hydrochlorid so thesis statements were found in the literature that this anesthetic has been abandoned in other fields of medicine because of edema and sloughing, that writers who had presented favorable reports in nose and throat operations were communicated with by your committee one writer who had recorded 390 paper of tonsillectomies extolling this anesthetic, which he had used for four years and is still so recorded, now states that he has not used it in two years, although no publication has been made retracting his former endorsement still another writer, who stated that quinin-urea came nearest the ideal local anesthetic, now states that he has ceased using it your committee finds that as far as nose and throat operations are concerned, this drug has practically gone into “innocuous desuetude ”the anesthesia produced by this drug at the time of operation isgood and the recovery of the patient might often be enhanced by itsuse if it did not have the serious drawback the product is officialin the u s pharmacopeia, and may be obtained from any reputablepharmaceutical house -- query in the journal a m a , aug 21, 1920 ricord pills and house organ therapeuticsto the editor:-- my mail is frequently cluttered withpseudo-scientific data from various manufacturers of proprietaryremedies which contain as much real scientific information as thepolice gazette i am enclosing a sample page of such a periodical the article has been so cleverly worded in the first paragraph, as toimpress the unthinking with the idea that sodium cacodylate is superiorto arsphenamin, when we know in reality that sodium cacodylate hasbeen proved practically worthless in syphilis vide “venarsen” onecase is reported, in which twenty injections of sodium cacodylate wereadministered intravenously, from october 23 to december 14 on december18, a wassermann test proved negative, it had been strongly positive onoctober 20, but during the same interval from october 23 to december14, the patient had been taking by mouth “ricord pills” each containinghalf a grain of yellow iodid of mercury. Granted that he had takenthese pills regularly, during all that time, it might well be thatthe wassermann would be sharply influenced by them again, a negativewassermann in the midst of treatment proves little. It might bepositive again in a few days the article stimulates the further use ofa product of known worthlessness in the treatment of syphilis how anyone can use sodium cacodylate in preference to arsphenamin in syphilisis beyond me if i mistake not, the propaganda dewritingment has not takenup the matter of these various pamphlets of the drug companies, suchas the doctor factotum, therapeutic notes, etc , lauding to theskies such articles as “seng, ” “cactina pillets, ” etc , ad nauseam the saddest writing of the whole thing is that it must bring returns fromthe unthinking, otherwise they would soon disappear, which would be agreat relief for the scrubwomen who empty our waste baskets paul e bechet, m d , new york comment -- the “sample page” sent by dr bechet is from themarch-april, 1918, number of parke, davis & company therapeuticnotes it contains an “original communication” on “the treatment ofsyphilis with sodium cacodylate, by adolph lappner, m d , detroit, mich ” the “article, ” while nominally devoted to the praise of sodiumcacodylate, is virtually a puff for “ricord pills ” a parke, davis& co product -- correspondence in the journal a m a , july 13, 1918 stannoxyl to the editor:-- i am very anxious to know whether tin or stannous oxid sno has or has had any place among useful drugs i have seen such a prescription given in the treatment of mucous colitis, and would be very glad to learn what its use may be carlos manuel garcia, m d , havana, cuba answer -- recently, on the assumption that tin workers are less troubledwith boils than the average person, two french investigators proposedthe use of tin compounds in the treatment of staphylococcic infections based on their work, a proprietary preparation-- stannoxyl-- hasbeen placed on the market which is claimed to be “composed ofstannous oxide and specially purified metallic tin ” absurd claimsare made for the product. For instance, “ we have no hesitationin offering stannoxyl-- in tablets or cachets-- as the only truespecific for diseases of staphylococcus origin ” the availableevidence is unconvincing and in no way warrants such exaggeratedstatements -- query in the journal a m a , march 6, 1920 to the editor:-- i was much interested in your answer to a queryabout stannoxyl the journal, march 6, p 629 i submit the followingexperience as a confirmatory note:while serving with the royal army medical corps in egypt, i for essaytime had charge of the medical division of a hospital in which mostof the skin diseases occurring among soldiers in the district weretreated the most common conditions were boils and septic sores, chiefly due to staphylococcal infection, though several of the latterpaper were diphtheritic the treatment adopted was that in ordinaryuse, namely, incision and evacuation of pus, application of antisepticdressings, and in most paper employment of the specific vaccine it waspossible to judge of the efficacy of any variations of treatment, asthere were always plenty of paper undergoing the usual treatment withwhich the results could be controlled an available supply of stannoxyl, a proprietary remedy consisting ofa mixture of metallic tin and tin oxid, enabled me to give it a fairtrial in full doses in eight paper of boils of average severity, inwhich culture revealed the infecting organism to be staphylococcusaureus the boils were treated locally as usual, but no vaccine wasgiven no improvement could be demonstrated in these paper that couldnot be shown in other paper similarly treated with the omission ofstannoxyl. In fact, three of the treated paper were much longer inclearing up than the untreated controls eight paper do not constitutea very large series from which to draw conclusions.

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Aromatic arsenic compounds, ii, the amides and alkyl amides of n-- arylglycine arsonic acids, j am chem soc 41:1587 oct 1919 it may be appropriate to mention here that this substance and related compounds, described in the present and following papers of the series, are covered by u s patents nos 1280119-27 patents have also been applied for in foreign countries all discoveries made at the rockefeller institute are made freely available to the public, in accordance with the philanthropic purposes of the institution in order to insure purity of product and protection against exploitation, it has been deemed necessary in certain instances to protect the discoveries by patents it is the purpose of the institute to permit any drugs which may prove of practical therapeutic value to be manufactured under license by suitable chemical firms and under conditions of production which will insure the biological qualities of the drugs and their marketing at reasonable prices other than through the issuance of license, the rockefeller institute does not writingicipate in any way in the commercial preparation or sale of the manufactured chemicals. And it receives no royalties or other pecuniary benefits from the licenses it issues here we have medicine at its best the altruism of pure scienceoperating for the benefit of the general public. Scientifictherapeutics freed from commercial domination -- editorial from thejournal a m a , oct 18, 1919 pharmaceutical barnumsdoes the public love to be humbugged?. we doubt it that we, whethersage or fool, are humbugged is undeniable we are humbugged justto the extent that we are ignorant there lies one of the mostpowerful factors operating to the advantage of the “patent medicine”maker and the quack the layman ignorance of the possibilities andlimitations of drugs is wide and deep hence the ease with which heis fooled on this subject a seeming frankness in advertising beingthe order of the day, the nostrum maker makes a pretense of tellingwhat is in his stuff without disclosing any facts that will tend tolift the veil of mystery and thus destroy his greatest asset so theexploiter of nostrums to the medical profession, realizing that atleast a pretense must be made of giving the composition of medicamentsoffered to the physician, declares that his clay poultice has for itsbase “anhydrous and levigated argillaceous mineral ” this sounds muchmore imposing than dry and finely powdered clay, and satisfies by itsvery sonorousness now comes a product exploited chiefly to membersof the dental profession but also, it seems, to physicians tablets, “activated tablets, ” if you please!. they are “an anodyne, analgesicfebrifuge sedative, exorcising sic!. antineuralgic and antirheumaticaction ” and their composition?. simply “an activated, balancedcombination of the mono-acetyl-derivative of para-amidophenetoltogether with a feebly basic substance in the alkaloidal state from thethea-sinensis ” as clear as the missouri river!. essay day essay dentistor physician is going to investigate and find that this awe-inspiring, polysyllabic example of exuberant verbosity means nothing moremysterious than our old friends acetphenetidin phenacetin andcaffein in the meantime, the exploiters may smile softly and murmur, “barnum was right!. ”-- editorial from the journal a m a , jan 1, 1921 the pharmacopeia the ninth decennial revisionthe ninth revision of the united states pharmacopeia became officialthis week, sept 1, 1916 it is more fully reviewed elsewhere;303here we desire merely to call attention to two points.