History

Essay On Poverty


The one-time prevalent custom of usingill-considered combinations of remedial agents has been thoroughlydiscredited and is generally abandoned by progressive practitioners such arguments as that “laxatives, tonics, carminatives, diuretics arecombined with distinct advantage” have led to the use of irrationalmixtures such as the compound syrup of hypophosphites and the electuaryof theriaca the council is confident that no one who has studied thecauses and treatment of digestive disorders will find occasion toprescribe at one time all the ingredients stated to be contained incarminzym, and certainly not in the fixed proportions present therein the comments in the council report concerning ipecac certainlydoes apply to all active therapeutic agents ipecac was mentioned inthe report because the several constituents of carminzym were essay on poverty underdiscussion and hence it was necessary to point out the futility of thesmall dosage of ipecac in this mixture the announcement that “carminzym has proved of constantly increasingservice” is not convincing the council does not know of a singleclinical study of the action of carminzym under conditions which wouldhave afforded satisfactory evidence of its therapeutic value -- fromthe journal a m a , sept 28, 1918 phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report on phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp hasbeen adopted by the council and authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp 125 is sold by the charlesh phillips chemical co , new york according to the published formula, each fluidram contains. Phosphoric acid 2 minims potassium phosphate } magnesium phosphate } calcium phosphate } 2-1/4 grains ferric phosphate } quinin muriate equal to nearly 1/2 gr bi-sulph 1/4 grain strychnin 1/120 grain flavoring, glycerin and syrup, q s 125 the evolution of “phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp ”from “phillips’ wheat phosphates” may be interesting every oneknows that therapeutics tends to fashions, and “phillips’ wheatphosphates” appears to have had its inception as the result of theobservation that super-refined white flour contains less phosphatesthan the corresponding amount of wheat it was assumed that suchflour must be deficient in an essential constituent, and the wheatphosphates preparation was apparently designed to fill the want it wasexploited for the relief of numerous conditions that were supposed, without satisfactory evidence, to result from this deficiency wheniron, quinin and strychnin mixtures became the vogue a quarter of acentury ago, it was only natural to ride on the wave of popularityand the already widely advertised “wheat phosphates” was furtherenhanced-- commercially-- by the addition of the iron, quinin andstrychnin, the amount of alkaloid added being practically negligible those who are not familiar with the various phases of the phosphorus, phosphoric acid, lactophosphate, lecithin, nuclein and glycerophosphatepropaganda are referred to a report of the council on pharmacy andchemistry in the journal a m a , sept 30, 1916, p 1033 essay typical claims made for the preparation are. “with marked beneficial action upon the nervous system to be relied on where a deficiency of the phosphates is evident ” “ brace those tired nerves and aid that worn stomach with phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine ” “the maintenance of a satisfactory blood pressure level free from intervals of depression may be accomplished by the use of phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine compound in appropriate doses ” “the quantities of quinin and strychnin in this preparation are so well balanced that they relieve the depression and fatigue from mental or physical exertion, without the necessity of recourse to alcoholic stimulation ” “the other ingredients of phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine-- phosphoric acid, and the phosphates of potash, magnesia, lime, and iron-- are the most rational as well as convenient means of administering these tissue remedies, and of introducing phosphorus-- the vitalizing constituent of the nervous system-- into the organism ”the action of such a mixture as a whole is practically that of the sumof the actions of its constituents the therapeutic action of strychninand quinin are described in every text-book of therapeutics, but itis necessary to distinguish carefully between the various conditionsin which these alkaloids have been used without discrimination, andthose conditions in which they have been proved to be of value while both have been widely used in a great variety of conditions, neither is of proved value in more than a distinctly limited rangeof diseases the manufacturers of phillips’ phospho-muriate ofquinine comp seem to appeal to the less discriminating who use thesealkaloids without any definite conception of exactly what they seekto accomplish with them quinin, although used by the uncritical in ahost of diseases, has a definite field of usefulness in the treatmentof malaria, both prophylactic and curative, but the required dose inthe treatment of malaria is thesis times larger than that recommended inthe phillips’ preparation the claim that the “strychnin and quininin this preparation are so well balanced that they produce a mild, buoyant effect, so advantageous, instead of alcoholic stimulation, torelieve depression and fatigue from mental or physical exertion” isnonsensical, if, indeed, it is not mendacious balderdash calcium and potassium have important functions in the body, but anydeficiency that may arise is usually attributable to an inability ofthe body to utilize that which is supplied, for there is seldom anydeficiency of these salts in the food, and when they are needed theyare best supplied as simple solutions of the salts in appropriate doseswithout all of the other constituents of phillips’ phospho-muriate ofquinine comp phosphoric acid exerts practically the same actions as other mineralacids, hydrochloric being usually preferred for internal administrationin certain forms of indigestion, aside from which they are seldom usedas such in the more recent literature for phillips’ phospho-muriate of quininecomp , we find the attempt to utilize the well known craze aboutphosphorus, which has been through so thesis phases, every one of whichhas had its day and has been discarded the phosphoric acid and phosphates present in phillips’ phospho-muriateof quinine are of no more value in nervous diseases than is simplesodium phosphate which does not require the addition of a host of otheringredients for its action as a matter of fact, the phosphates ofcalcium and potassium present in a dose of phillips’ phospho-muriate ofquinine are probably devoid of appreciable effect in practically allconditions to pretend that one who suffers from physical and nervous exhaustioncan be materially benefited by this mixture is sheer nonsense and isunworthy of a moment consideration by a clinician who is called on totreat such patients iron is useful in anemia, as every one knows iron has practically noother field of usefulness in therapeutics when it is indicated itshould be administered in a simple form, such as the pill of ferrouscarbonate, for example, and not in a “shotgun” mixture that is quite aslikely to do harm as good the claim that a satisfactory level of blood pressure can be maintainedby phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine is mentioned only to condemnas the limit of impudent therapeutic claims it is an insult to theintelligence of any practitioner to pretend that any known agent orcombination of remedial agents can maintain a uniform blood pressure inany one of innumerable conditions in short, phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp is a complex andirrational mixture exploited by means of unwarranted claims it isa survival of the old days of therapeutic chaos when impossible andfantastic chemical formulas were gravely published and as solemnlyaccepted without question, and also without the slightest understandingon the writing of thesis. When the most eminent of practitioners did nothesitate to give glowing testimonials for lithia waters that containedno more lithium than ordinary river water. When no therapeutic claimwas too preposterous to receive acceptance, no theory too nonsensicalto justify the use of all manner of claptrap mixtures for all manner ofconditions -- from the journal a m a , oct 19, 1918 b iodine and b oleum iodine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report on “b iodine” and “b oleum iodine, ” together with the reply submitted by themanufacturer and a discussion thereon by the referee in charge of thepreparations w a puckner, secretary specimens of b iodine and b oleum iodine b iodine chemical companyand an advertising pamphlet were sent to the council by john bohlander, a m , m d , with the declaration. “well knowing the value of iodin in surgical operations and dressings, prompted me for the benefit of my fellow physicians as well as myself, and for humanity sake, to make iodin my master-piece in chemistry “after several years of diligent work in my private laboratory i succeeded in discovering a new product of iodin-- nitrogen, hydrate of iodin ”while “b iodine” is said to be nitrogen hydrate of iodin and “b oleumiodine” a 5 per cent solution thereof, the examination made by prof a h clark of the university of illinois, school of pharmacy workingin the a m a chemical laboratory, indicates that the first is asimple mixture of iodin and ammonium iodid, and the second a solutionof iodin in liquid petrolatum the council adopted the report of thea m a chemical laboratory which appears below and declared b iodine and b oleum iodine inadmissible to new and nonofficial remediesbecause:1 the composition is incorrectly declared b iodine is not a newlydiscovered iodin compound, “nitrogen hydrate of iodine, ” but a mixtureof iodin and ammonium iodid b oleum iodine is not a 5 per cent solution of b iodine as suggested by the statement on the label andin the advertising, but a solution of iodin in liquid petrolatumcontaining about 0 85 per cent of iodin 2 since b iodine is a mixture of iodin and ammonium iodid, itssolution in water will have the properties of other solutions of iodinmade by the aid of iodid, such as a dilution of tincture of iodin or ofcompound solution of iodin lugol solution hence, the therapeuticclaim that b iodine “being of a colloidal nature has the advantage ofbeing more readily absorbed and taken up by all cellular structure, thus getting a perfect cellular medication of iodine, ” is unwarranted 3 the names “b iodine” and “b oleum iodine” are not descriptive ofthe pharmaceutical mixtures to which they are applied 4 b iodine and b oleum iodine are unessential modifications ofestablished articles b iodine has no advantage over tincture of iodinor compound solution of iodin as more convenient of transportation, the medical dewritingment of the u s army supplies its field hospitalswith a mixture of iodin and iodid ready for solution in water, eitherin tablet form or in powdered form in tubes solutions of iodin inliquid petrolatum may be readily prepared reports council pharm andchem , 1917, p 88 contribution from the a m a chemical laboratory b iodine products a h clark, ph g , b s “b iodine” products are marketed by the b iodine chemical company, cincinnati, ohio. John bohlander, a m , m d , is said to be thediscoverer they consist of “b iodine, ” “b oleum iodine, ” and “b aqua iodine ” b iodine and b oleum iodine were submitted to thecouncil in a circular submitted by the b iodine chemical company, b iodine issaid to be “nitrogen hydrate of iodin ” it is claimed that “coming incontact with water, h₂o, a chemical change takes place forming hydrooxid of iodin, the nitrogen of the nitrogen hydrate of iodin escaping, the balance taking up one of oxygen of the water its companion, theh₂, escaping at the same time with the nitrogen then combining with theremainder of the water to form the solution of hydrogen oxid of iodin;so you can readily see that you really have a pure water of iodin, nothing but the h, the o and the i ”-- from the journal a m a , feb 1, 1919 b iodineaccording to the circular, b iodine is soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and ether also it. “has odor, taste, melting and boiling point, same as regular iodin, has a great affinity for water and will respond to all the tests of iodin appears in a bluish black granulated mass or powder when heated in vaporating dish will throw off large purple volumes of iodin leaving a slight white crystalline precipitate, which on continuous heating will entirely disappear with careful manipulation you can get prismatic needle point like crystals, looking like spores of glass, these dissolving in water will yield pure iodin coloring the water iodin “pharmacologic, therapeutical and physiological action.

2 the statement that eachdram contains “the equivalent” of 1-1/2 grains of the combined iodids, potassium and calcium, accounts for but 12 of the 72 grains of “thecombined salts” per fluidounce declared in the preceding quotation. 3 the circular mentions the presence of a drug-- prickly ash-- notdeclared on the label and, finally 4 none of the “formulas” gives thequantities of all of the several constituents it is evident from these “formulas” that the tilden company continuesits policy of concealment and mystification as exemplified in the paperof hydrocyanate of iron, tilden discussed in the journal, june 19, 1909, p 2008, febrisol the journal, june 29, 1912, p 2043 andrespirazone the journal, june 14, 1913, p 1899 in the circular just quoted “the conquest of syphilis”, all hope forthe syphilitic is declared to rest in mercury and iodin, and it isimplied that only through elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp is itpossible to obtain the greatest good from these drugs “were the cleansing influences of these two drugs mercury and iodin unavailable to the luetic patient, he, truly, would be as pitiable an object as the leper “modern pharmacy has devised no better means of utilizing these anti-syphilitics than elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp tilden with or without mercury the elixir, in proper dosage, acts in specific fashion and is adapted for use in all stages of the disease “in the early months elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp tilden with mercury is a trustworthy weapon and the physician need have no fear but that it will subjugate the disease “when the virulent stage is passed elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp tilden without mercury may be given the patient with every assurance that medicine most aggressive measures are being resorted to from time to time, up to the very end of the time honored three years’ period of treatment, it is well to put the patient back on the bichloride, using for this purpose the form of the elixir administered in the first stages of the disease “this regime will indubitably antidote the virus of syphilis and eradicate from the organism its every vestige ”while it seems incredible that any physician would jeopardize thehealth-- even the life-- of a patient by accepting this boastfulmagniloquence as sound therapeutic advice, still the fact that certainmedical journals lend their advertising pages to advertisements fortilden elixir with the caption “the conquest of syphilis” makes itincumbent on the council to record its condemnation of the employmentof this unscientific, semisecret mixture it is recommended that elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp “withoutmercury” and “with mercury” be held in conflict with rule 1 secrecyof composition, rule 6 unwarranted therapeutic claims and rule 10 unscientific composition -- from the journal a m a , nov 6, 1915 lecithin preparations omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report was sent to the manufacturers of the variouslecithin preparations mentioned therein as the replies of themanufacturers were obviously written from the commercial point ofview and did not affect the council conclusion that lecithin, whenindicated, would be given more advantageously in the form of yolk ofegg than in the less pure manufactured product, the council directedthat the report be published, together with extracts from the repliesof the manufacturers w a puckner, secretary commercial lecithin preparations are at best very impure substances;all are more or less altered from the original composition evenwith great care, the methods of extraction and drying always produceconsiderable decomposition. And in essay paper the phosphorus andnitrogen contents bear but little relation to the theoretical values long, j h. Jour am chem soc , xxx, 881 mclean, hugh. Chem abstracts, may 20, 1915 there is not the slightest reliable evidencethat commercial lecithin has any advantage over the lecithin containedin natural foods.

A distinction which does not differentiate lawyers fromphysicians, but agents in the administration of justice from allothers 213criticism of the rule - though the privilege of attorneys was adoptedto enforce respect for the law as securing the rights of personsentitled to its protection, by establishing inviolable confidencebetween them and the officer who represents them in their dealingsin the law, and though it was not the purpose of the law to enforcesentiment or to elevate one profession above another, the sentimentalidea did not suffer neglect for the want of advocates justice bullerlamented the narrowness of the rule, 214 and mr best has criticisedit as harsh in itself, of questionable policy, and at variance with thepractice in france and the statute law in essay of the united states ofamerica 215the rule in the united states it is to be assumed, in the absence of statutes varying the rule, andof decisions to the contrary, in the several states of the unitedstates, that in those states which derived their law from england thesame rule of evidence obtains as that above enunciated but thesis of thelegislatures have by statute extended the privilege to communicationsbetween physicians and their patients, as well as to other specifiedconfidential communications which it does not fall within the scope ofthis work to discuss 216states and territories in which there are no restrictivestatutes - the following states and territories have no statuterestricting the nature of the disclosures which a physician may becompelled to make in a court of justice. Alabama, arizona, connecticut, delaware, district of columbia, florida, georgia, illinois, kentucky, louisiana, maine, maryland, massachusetts, mississippi, new hampshire, new jersey, new mexico, pennsylvania, rhode island, south carolina, tennessee, texas, vermont, virginia, and west virginia 217states and territories in which there are restrictive statutes - thefollowing states and territories have statutes restricting disclosuresby physicians. Arkansas, california, colorado, idaho, indiana, indianterritory, iowa, kansas, michigan, minnesota, missouri, montana, nebraska, nevada, new york, north carolina, north dakota, ohio, oklahoma, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, wisconsin, andwyoming 218the rule in united states courts - in trials at common law in thecourts of the united states, the laws of the several states, exceptwhere the constitution, treaties, or statutes of the united statesotherwise require or provide, are regarded as rules of decision 219section 858 of the revised statutes of the united states prescribesrules with reference to competency notwithstanding color and interestof witnesses, and in actions by or against executors, administrators, or guardians, and then provides that “in all other respects the laws ofthe state in which the court is held shall be the rules of decision asto the competency of witnesses in the courts of the united states intrials at common law, and in equity and admiralty ” accordinglyit has been held by the supreme court of the united states that inan action in the circuit court of the united states for the southerndistrict of new york, on a policy of life insurance, the evidence of aphysician, inadmissible under section 834 of the new york code of civilprocedure, was properly excluded 220 but in criminal prosecutions inunited states courts, the privilege secured by state statutes does notavail 221the statutes as the effect of these statutes depends largely upon their language, the construction put upon the law in one state is chiefly serviceablein interpreting that of another state in those writingiculars where thetwo are similar statutory declarations of policy - a comparative view of the severallaws shows that in the following states and territory there aredeclarations of policy prefixed to the prohibition of disclosures, that show the reason of the enactment, namely. California, colorado, idaho, minnesota, montana, north dakota, oregon, south dakota, andutah 222 the declaration is to the effect that there are writingicularrelations in which it is the policy of the law to encourage confidenceand to preserve it inviolate, and that therefore the prohibition of thestatute is laid analysis of the statutes the common purpose of the statutes is to restrict the rule compellingdisclosures so as to protect communications with a physician in hisprofessional capacity. But the limit to which the protection isextended differs in the various states an analytic comparison of thestatutes tends to show how far the interpretation of one is useful inconstruing another i nature of the exclusion - in california, idaho, minnesota, montana, north dakota, oregon, south dakota, utah, and washington thestatutes apply only to testimony in civil actions 223 the otherstatutes make no distinction between civil and criminal proceedings the active words are of course different in the several statutes, butthey indicate a purpose to extend a privilege that the person entitledto it may insist upon maintaining, with the single exception of thelaw of north carolina, which provides that the presiding judge of asuperior court may compel a disclosure, if in his opinion the same isnecessary to a proper administration of justice essay of the statutes show clearly that it is the patient privilege, and suffer the patient or his representatives to waive it, eitherexpressly or by conduct which the law declares to amount to awaiver 224 others are silent on this subject in california, colorado, idaho, iowa, minnesota, montana, nebraska, nevada, new york, north dakota, ohio, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, and wyoming, it is expressly provided that the patientconsent is necessary before a disclosure will be permitted in colorado, kansas, oklahoma, and oregon, if the patient offer himselfor a physician or surgeon as a witness, that is to be deemed a consent in nevada, in any suit or prosecution for malpractice, if the patientor writingy suing or prosecuting shall require or give consent, and anyphysician or surgeon shall give testimony, then the defendant may callany other physicians or surgeons as witnesses without the consent ofthe patient or writingy suing or prosecuting in ohio and wyoming, if the patient voluntarily testify the physicianmay be compelled to testify on the same subject ii the witness - in indiana, ohio, and wyoming the privilegedwitness is termed a physician. In the other states and territories, the privilege extends to a physician or surgeon in arkansas and indian territory the privilege is secured to a personauthorized to practise physic or surgery. In california, montana, and nevada, to a licensed physician or surgeon. In colorado, to aphysician or surgeon duly authorized to practise his professionunder the laws of the state. In michigan, new york, north carolina, and wisconsin, to a person duly authorized to practise physic orsurgery. In minnesota, oregon, and washington, to a regular physicianor surgeon. In iowa and nebraska, to a practising physician orsurgeon. In the remaining states and territories, these statutes do notin terms distinguish between licensed and unlicensed practitioners 225in new york, by the amendment of 1893 to sec 836 of the code of civilprocedure it is provided that in an action for the recovery of damagesfor a personal injury the testimony of a physician or surgeon attachedto any hospital, dispensary, or other charitable institution, as toinformation which he acquired in attending a patient in a professionalcapacity in such institution, shall be taken before a referee itdoes not appear whether this amendment is intended to take away theprivilege, or merely to regulate the manner of taking such testimonywhen it is otherwise admissible 226iii the evidence - the character of the communications whichare privileged differs under the several statutes in arkansas, california, colorado, idaho, indian territory, michigan, minnesota, missouri, montana, nevada, new york, north carolina, north dakota, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, and wisconsin, they arecharacterized as information. In indiana, as matter committed.

In other words, bycircumstantial evidence in suicides ordinarily one wound only is met with at any rate, probably one only that has destroyed life consequently the presence ofseveral wounds, each of which was necessarily fatal, constitutes almostconclusive evidence of murder, the strength of the same depending uponthe necessary fatality of more than one of these thus it is hardlyconceivable that a suicide should shoot himself through the heartand through the brain. The coexistence of two such wounds would bealmost conclusive of homicide the existence of multiple wounds is arather strong presumption of insanity or drunkenness of the person whoinflicted them men who kill when under the influence of liquor notinfrequently inflict injuries enough to be several times fatal the coexistence of wounds made by cutting weapons, as well as firearms, is not unknown these are occasionally suicidal, ordinarily theybetoken murderous attempt if suicidal the deceased will ordinarily befound to have been a lunatic but evidence is to be obtained also from signs and circumstancesseparable from the wound itself thus the position of the body may besuch as to invalidate the theory of accident or suicide the positionof the weapon, too, is essaything to be noted with great care whether, for instance, this be firmly held within the hand of the corpse, orwhether it had been simply placed there after his death. Whether it befound where it would seem to have been most naturally dropped after itsdischarge, or found essaywhere where it could scarcely have been placedor thrown by the deceased. Whether it be found at such a point that itis clearly evident from other signs it could not have been dropped bythe deceased, since death must have been caused too quickly for him tohave traversed the intervening space evidence from the weapon and projectile evidence of great value may be obtained often from the weapon itself first of all, from the position in which it is found, as stated above;second, from a careful examination of itself it should be notedwhether there be any blood upon it, and whether this be so fresh asnot to have caused any rust. Whether it may possibly be so smearedwith blood as to indicate a hand-to-hand conflict. Or whether any writingof the weapon may have been used as a club or bludgeon, as would beshown by the presence upon it of hair entangled in dry blood when suchblood is removed from the weapon it should be carefully examined withthe microscope, since from the detection and identification of hair orfibres of fabric evidence of the greatest value may be adduced nextit should be ascertained whether a weapon shows signs of having beenrecently discharged or whether it be evident that it could not havebeen so, and such determination of the time element as may be affordedby a study of this kind should be contrasted with that made after astudy of the wound if the weapon be a revolver or a repeating arm ofany kind, it should be determined if possible how thesis cartridges orbullets have been fired, and whether at or about the same time, andthis information should be compared with the evidences obtained fromthe body and from the room or locality in which the suicide or murderoccurred if, for instance, it be determined that three cartridgeshave been fired and but two bullet-wounds are found in the body, anexamination of the room may show where went the third bullet next thecalibre of the weapon should be noted and the weight of the ball whichit discharged and its dimensions should be compared with any whichmay be found in or about the body the weight of the bullets attachedto cartridges of various sizes and makes is usually stamped upon thepackages in which they are sold, or can readily be obtained from themakers of the same a bullet taken from a body weighing after itsremoval more than do the other bullets undischarged in the weapon bywhich an injury is alleged to have been inflicted is rather presumptiveevidence against the injury from that source can a bullet lose in weight between the time when it leaves the boreof a gun and its discovery in a body?. here springs up a question uponwhich essay very interesting evidence has been adduced in differenttrials to discuss this matter completely the question should bedivided into two, the first being:does a bullet suffer loss of weight during its course through the pieceand the air before it comes in contact with the body?. a personalletter received from captain charles shaler, of the ordnance dewritingmentof the united states army, in reply to certain questions, tends tofully settle that a lead bullet suffers a certain loss of weight in thebarrel due to the friction between the bullet and the bore. This isknown as “leading” and varies according to circumstances “patching”the bullet is often resorted to in order to reduce the leading;lubrication is also practised the fusing of a bullet takes placeespecially with lead bullets a ball which has been writingly fused inthe bore will lose the fused portions in the bore or in flight, andwill move irregularly on account of the resulting irregularity of form a 45-calibre, 500-grain service bullet, lead alloyed with tin, wasweighed without lubricant and was found to weigh 500 5 grains it wasthen lubricated in the cannelures and was fired into a butt composed ofthree barrels placed end to end and filled with sawdust tho bullet wasrecovered, no lubricant being found in the cannelures, and re-weighed, the weight obtained being 485 5 the loss of weight was, therefore, 15 grains or three per cent, essay of which may have been due to thebullet penetrating the sawdust a german-silver “jacketed” 30-calibrebullet, weighing before firing 231 grains, fired without lubrication, when recovered and re-weighed was found to have suffered a loss ofweight of one-half grain or one-quarter of one per cent the other writingof the main question is:does the bullet lose in weight in its course through the body?. thisis, of course, intended to pertain only to those instances in whichthere is no evidence of splitting or division of the bullet, andrefers only to the effect of friction or attrition june 5th, 1878, in saratoga county, mrs jesse billings was accidentally killed by abullet her husband was arrested and tried for murder on the firsttrial he was acquitted a second trial, however, was held, and essayvery interesting expert testimony was brought out on matters pertainingto these questions the medical evidence is published in full by dr lewis balch, of albany, in the transactions of the medical societyof the state of new york for 1881 the rifle from which the bulletwas supposed to have been fired was found in a well, and was sworn tohave belonged to jesse billings in it was found a cartridge of thetype known as the commercial long no 44 this gun became an importantfactor in the case, and most of the evidence as to whether it was theweapon with which the murder had been committed was referred to themedical experts the defence in the first trial claimed that all thelead fired was found in mrs billings’ head on the second trial thesame claim was not made, but that it was a smaller bullet than a 44and its weight less than 220 grains. That in consequence this riflecould not have been that from which the shot was fired, for it onlycalled for a 44 ball, and that it would have thrown a bullet withsuch force that it must have gone entirely through the head theyfurther claimed that powder-marks and grains of powder were found inthe window-sash, showing that the weapon was fired near the window, andthat the hole in the glass was not large enough to admit a full-sized 44 ball the verdict was mainly won upon these statements a questionfor the medical experts to answer was, what would be the effect uponthe skull of a 44-calibre ball fired from a ballard rifle, the ballweighing 220 grains and the charge of powder being 28 grains?. also whatwould be the effect upon the ball?. experts from the ordnance corps andfrom the rifle factories were able to testify that the bullet foundin mrs billings’ head was originally a 44-calibre ball. Also thatits markings showed the peculiar left-handed twist used in riflingthis writingicular arm the defence maintained that it could not havebeen a 44, claiming that the hole in the window-pane showed that theoriginal window produced in court was no criterion, since from repeatedhandling the hole made by the bullet had become enlarged and changedin shape both of the experts for the defence believed that the ballcould not make a hole smaller than itself when passing through glass this necessarily supposes that the ball after being fired is the samecalibre as before, which, as shown above, is not always the case sodr balch fired forty-five rounds from the billings rifle with 220grains of lead and 28 grains of powder the shots were fired throughglass set in sashes, the glass being 28×13¼, double thick and americanmake the rifle was discharged at varying angles and at distancesvarying from two to seventy feet, and he obtained one shot where thehole made would not admit a full-sized ball his summary was as follows. Balls unable to pass through 1 balls writingly passed 3 balls passed 18 cartridge passed 21 glass broken out 2 total 45other rounds were fired from a colt navy revolver, old style, 36calibre, at distances varying from ten to twenty feet the holes madewere so large that the barrels and ramrods could be passed withouttouching the examination of the one instance noted above where theaperture in the glass was smaller than the ball is explained by balchas follows. “a ball conoidal in form, passing with great velocity, strikes glass, penetrates, but does not break the glass at the point ofentrance the point struck is instantly disintegrated, and so rapid isthe stroke that it has not time to call upon the surrounding writingiclesfor support. Hence the smallness of the hole as glass is made itvaries in elasticity. Essay writings which are to be cut into panes coolfaster than others a bullet striking the portion of the glass whichhas cooled quickly strikes an object which will yield essaywhat to theforce.

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Same journal, 1884, xl , p 487 - boy, age 12, inspireda pin-dart in essay on poverty trying to blow it through a blowgun violent cough, gasping for breath, lividity of face for a few minutes. Symptomssubsided leaving slight cough the dart had lodged in right bronchusbeyond first bifurcation, as shown by hissing, fluttering sound in bothinspiration and expiration tracheotomy the dart could not be reached at a later date the dart was brought up into the mouth by a strongexpiration 15 writingridge. Same journal, 1890, li , p 303 - child, 4 months old, found dead. Fluid, writingly digested milk in air-passages 16-41 biggs and jenkins. Same journal, 1890, lii , p 30 - reportof thesis paper of fatal suffocation from foreign bodies, etc boy, age15 collar-button in larynx boy, age 10 mass of butter in larynx boy, age 5 bronchial gland discharged into trachea at bifurcation boy, age 3 screw in larynx boy, age 5 rubber balloon with whistleattached. It was writingly inflated with each expiration girl, age 10 a“jack” in larynx man, age 45 had been drinking freely. Piece of meatin larynx man, age 40 piece of meat in larynx and pharynx man, age40 ditto insane patient piece of meat in trachea man piece of meatin larynx man, age 40 crackers and cheese in larynx child rubbernipple in larynx during administration of ether, patient vomited;vomitus entered larynx two children in bed asleep. One, 3 yearsold, overlay the face of the younger, age 5 months woman, age 25, epileptic fell on a child and smothered it two children found dead, covered with bedclothing man, age 21, epileptic found lying on hisface in bed girl, age 12, epileptic ditto woman, age 21 ditto girl, age 18 ditto woman, age 35, epileptic fell on the floor woman, age 28 ditto man, age 35, epileptic. Vomited while in spasm;vomitus entered larynx from dr janeway.