History

Essay On Man Pope


Hence, if theformer proportion is the true one, in giving an amount of hydragoginwhich ensures the full therapeutic effect of the digitalis, one wouldadminister an almost certainly fatal amount of strophanthus whateverthe proportion of strophanthus may be, however, the administrationof a mixture of digitalis and strophanthus in fixed proportions isindefensible at times it is advisable to follow one of these drugswith the other in the treatment of cardiac disease the simultaneousadministration of the two continuously in fixed proportions, however, is injudicious, because of the great difference between their rates ofabsorption and in their activity after they enter the blood stream theaction of digitalis, moreover, persists much longer than does that ofstrophanthus an advertising circular contains the following claim. “the well-known diuretic properties of digitalis, strophanthus and squills are greatly enhanced by the addition of the oxysaponin ”this is not true saponins are not synergistic with digitalistherapeutically. On the contrary, they exert a purely deleteriousaction on the heart when they enter the circulation the symptoms of cardiac disease are often difficult to distinguishfrom the toxic actions of the digitalis bodies since these bodiesmust often be given to the point of beginning toxic action in orderto induce the full therapeutic effects, it is obvious that theadministration of a mixture of digitalis, strophanthus, saponin andactive principles of squill is especially liable to induce serioustoxic effects which cannot be distinguished from the symptoms of thedisease hydragogin is a shotgun mixture of semisecret composition. It ismarketed under a therapeutically suggestive name, and advertised bymeans of unwarranted therapeutic claims it is therefore in conflictwith rules 1, 6, 8 and 10 the council held hydragogin ineligible fornew and nonofficial remedies -- from the journal a m a , sept 4, 1915 filudine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfiludine is said to be prepared by j l chatelain, paris, and issold in this country by geo j wallau, inc , new york it is offeredas a remedy for “biliary insufficiency, ” “hepatic insufficiency, ”“intestinal dyspepsia, ” “all affections of the liver diabetes, cirrhosis, cancer, etc , ” “malaria, ” “obesity” and “tuberculosis ”no quantitative information is furnished as to the composition of thepreparation and there are noteworthy discrepancies in the variousstatements regarding the ingredients in one number of “treatment, ”a self-styled “review” of medical literature actually devoted toadvertising the preparations sold by wallau, we are told that “this product filudine is a more concentrated and potent extract of the liver, with which is combined an extract of the spleen the liver and the spleen are so intimately interdependent, that the addition of a splenary extract to the liver extract is a signal improvement from which a synergistic action results thiarféine is also added, as it helps essaywhat to combat the anaemia from which all diabetics suffer more or less ”thiarféine is said to be “thiomethylarsinate of caffein, a new salt discovered by m chatelain ”another circular, which gives an imposing formula for “thiarféine” or“thiomethylarsinate of caffein, ” states that “sulphurated methylarsinate is an arsenical preparation devoid of all toxicity on account of the intimate joining of its composing writings ”and that “filudine can never be contraindicated ”a statement of composition in a later number of “treatment, ” however, says that biliary extracts are components, in addition to the liver andspleen extracts moreover, thiarféine, the “new salt discovered by m chatelain, ” is no longer “thiomethylarsinate, ” but “thiocinnamate ofcaffein”. And a new formula is furnished for it we are told that “methyl-arsinate cannot be used in paper where fever is present ” “m chatelain at first studied the action of thiomethylarsinate. Clinical and physiological experimentation led him, however, to adopt thiocinnamate of caffein, of greater activity and with no contraindications ”nevertheless the same absence of contraindications was urged infavor of filudine when it was said to contain the now discardedthiomethylarsinate of caffein the following are essay of the unwarranted and even absurd claims.

This is especially seen inwritings after essay on man pope a surgical operation 6 manner of burial - when a body is buried in low ground in a damp, swampy, clay soil, decomposition advances rapidly, as also when thegrave is shallow so the body can be exposed to constant variations oftemperature a porous soil impregnated with animal and vegetable matterfavors putrefaction, as also burying a body without clothes or coffin;this is especially seen where infants have been thrown into the groundand loosely covered with earth circumstances retarding putrefaction 1 the temperature - below 32° f and above 212° f putrefaction isentirely arrested the rapidity of the change considerably lessens asthe temperature advances above 100° f a remarkable instance of thepreservative power of cold is given by adolph erman, who states thatthe body of prince menschikoff, a favorite of peter the great, exhumedafter ninety-two years’ burial in frozen soil, had undergone hardly anychange buried in hot sand as is seen in the desert, a body putrefiesvery slowly and generally becomes mummified 2 moisture - absence of moisture retards decomposition in the dryair of the desert bodies have been preserved for a long period of time 3 air - if access of air to a body be prevented in any way by itsinclosure in a coffin, by closely fitting clothes, or by completeimmersion in water, putrefaction is retarded 4 age - adults and old people decompose more slowly than children males are said to change less rapidly than females, lean people thanfleshy ones 5 cause of death - putrefaction is delayed after death from chronicdiseases unless they are associated with dropsy poisoning by alcohol, chloroform, strychnine, and arsenic retard putrefaction in the lattercase the putrefactive changes seem to stop after they have oncecommenced, and often a result very similar to mummification is seen death from the mineral acids, especially sulphuric, appears to delayputrefaction 6 manner of burial - putrefaction is retarded by burial a shorttime after death. By interment on high ground, in dry, sandy, orgravelly soil. By having the grave deep, over six feet in depth ifpossible by the body being well wrapped and secured in a tight coffin, a lead one being the best in this respect lime or charcoal appliedfreely about a body will retard decomposition, as will also injectionof the body through the arteries with such substances as arsenic, chloride of zinc, or antimony the ultimate effect of putrefactionis to reduce all bodies to inorganic compounds, chiefly water, ammonia, and carbon dioxide three conditions are necessary for itsestablishment, 1 a given temperature, 2 moisture, 3 free accessof air the order in which the various organs and tissues undergodecomposition, as given by casper, who has investigated the subjectcarefully, is as follows. Trachea and larynx, brain of infants, stomachand intestines, spleen, omentum and mesentery, liver, brain of adults, heart and lungs, kidney, bladder and œsophagus, pancreas, largevessels, and last of all the uterus as the result of putrefaction, fluids, generally blood-stained, collectin the serous cavities of the body, and should not be confoundedwith serous effusions occurring during life so also the softeningof the organs and tissue resulting from decomposition should becarefully distinguished from those resulting from inflammation thesecadaveric softenings are most frequently found in the brain, spleen, and gastro-intestinal mucous membrane inflammatory softenings aredifferentiated by being rarely general but almost always limited, bythe substance of the inflamed writing being infiltrated with serum orpus and showing traces of vascular injection in doubtful paper thepathologist should have recourse to the microscope as the result of putrefaction, various changes take place in the mucousmembrane of the stomach and intestines which simulate the effectsof poisons the color of the stomach varies from red, which becomesbrighter on exposure to the air, to a brown, slate, or livid purple wecan only presume that these color-changes are the result of irritantpoisons when they are found in non-dependent writings and writings not incontact with organs engorged with blood, when they are seen soon afterdeath, and when the membrane is covered with coagulated blood, mucus, or flakes of membrane effects on putrefaction of submersion in water there are certain modifications of the putrefactive changes when bodieshave been submerged in water in the first place, the changes are muchless rapid. They often do not show themselves until about the twelfthday, and then as discolorations appearing generally first about theears and temples, then on the face, from which they spread to the neck, shoulders, chest, abdomen, and finally to the legs this is almost theinverse order of the putrefactive changes in bodies exposed to the air as a result of the formation of gases, the body in a short time becomesbuoyant. After floating on the surface of the water for a time, thegases escape and the body sinks, rising a second time when fresh gashas formed the rapidity of decomposition in water varies, being most rapid whenthe temperature is from 64° to 68° f stagnant as well as shallow waterfavors putrefaction if a body becomes coated with mud the change isdelayed submersion in a cesspool also retards it, and the conditionsare such as to favor the formation of adipocere after a body has been removed from the water an exposure of a very fewhours to the air causes rapid decomposition, so that in twenty-fourhours more marked changes may occur than would have resulted from afortnight longer submersion the face soon becomes bloated and black, so that identification is well-nigh impossible it is quite importantin medico-legal paper to estimate the time which has elapsed sincedeath in bodies found submersed in water the following are the variouschanges ordinarily seen at different periods of time, as estimated bydevergie, who has especially investigated the subject:first four or five days - little change. Rigor mortis may persist, writingicularly if the water is cold fourth or fifth day - skin of the ball of the thumb and littlefinger, also the lateral surface of the fingers, begins to whiten thiswhitening gradually extends to the palms of the hands and soles of thefeet the skin of the face will appear softened and of a more fadedwhite than the rest of the body fifteenth day - face slightly swollen and red.

But upon sundry othersas well timber as fruit trees, plentifully in woody groves, and thelike, through all this land time it flowers in the spring-time, but the berries are not ripeuntil october, and abides on the branches all the winter, unless theblackbirds, and other birds, do devour them government and virtues this is under the dominion of the sun, ido not question. And can also take for granted, that which grows uponoaks, writingicipates essaything of the nature of jupiter, because an oakis one of his trees. As also that which grows upon pear trees, andapple trees, writingicipates essaything of his nature, because he rulesthe tree it grows upon, having no root of its own but why that shouldhave most virtues that grows upon oaks i know not, unless because itis rarest and hardest to come by. And our college opinion is in thiscontrary to scripture, which saith, god tender mercies are overall his works. And so it is, let the college of physicians walk ascontrary to him as they please, and that is as contrary as the eastto the west clusius affirms that which grows upon pear trees to beas prevalent, and gives order, that it should not touch the groundafter it is gathered. And also saith, that, being hung about theneck, it remedies witchcraft both the leaves and berries of misseltodo heat and dry, and are of subtle writings. The birdlime doth molifyhard knots, tumours, and imposthumes. Ripens and discusses them, anddraws forth thick as well as thin humours from the remote writings ofthe body, digesting and separating them and being mixed with equalwritings of rozin and wax, doth molify the hardness of the spleen, andhelps old ulcers and sores being mixed with sandaric and orpiment, it helps to draw off foul nails. And if quick-lime and wine lees beadded thereunto, it works the stronger the misselto itself of the oak as the best made into powder, and given in drink to those that havethe falling sickness, does assuredly heal them, as matthiolus saith:but it is fit to use it for forty days together essay have so highlyesteemed it for the virtues thereof, that they have called it lignumsanctiæ crucis, wood of the holy cross, believing it helps the fallingsickness, apoplexy and palsy very speedily, not only to be inwardlytaken, but to be hung at their neck tragus saith, that the fresh woodof any misselto bruised, and the juice drawn forth and dropped in theears that have imposthumes in them, doth help and ease them within afew days moneywort, or herb twopence descript the common moneywort sends forth from a small threadyroot divers long, weak, and slender branches, lying and running uponthe ground two or three feet long or more, set with leaves two at ajoint one against another at equal distances, which are almost round, but pointed at the ends, smooth, and of a good green colour at thejoints with the leaves from the middle forward come forth at everypoint essaytimes one yellow flower, and essaytimes two, standing each ona small foot-stalk, and made of five leaves, narrow-pointed at the end, with essay yellow threads in the middle, which being past, there standin their places small round heads of seed place it grows plentifully in almost all places of this land, commonly in moist grounds by hedge-sides, and in the middle of grassyfields time they flower in june and july, and their seed is ripe quicklyafter government and virtues venus owns it moneywort is singularlygood to stay all fluxes in man or woman, whether they be lasks, bloody-fluxes, bleeding inwardly or outwardly, or the weakness of thestomach that is given to casting it is very good also for the ulcersor excoriations of the lungs, or other inward writings it is exceedinglygood for all wounds, either fresh or green, to heal them speedily, and for all old ulcers that are of spreading natures for all whichpurposes the juice of the herb, or the powder drank in water whereinhot steel hath been often quenched. Or the decoction of the green herbin wine or water drank, or used to the outward place, to wash or bathethem, or to have tents dipped therein and put into them, are effectual moonwort descript it rises up usually but with one dark green, thick andflat leaf, standing upon a short foot-stalk not above two fingersbreadth. But when it flowers it may be said to bear a small slenderstalk about four or five inches high, having but one leaf in the middlethereof, which is much divided on both sides into essaytimes five orseven writings on a side, essaytimes more. Each of which writings is smalllike the middle rib, but broad forwards, pointed and round, resemblingtherein a half-moon, from whence it took the name. The uppermost writingsor divisions being bigger than the lowest the stalks rise above thisleaf two or three inches, bearing thesis branches of small long tongues, every one like the spiky head of the adder tongue, of a brownishcolour, which, whether i shall call them flowers, or the seed, i wellknow not which, after they have continued awhile, resolve into a mealydust the root is small and fibrous this hath essaytimes divers suchlike leaves as are before described, with so thesis branches or topsrising from one stalk, each divided from the other place it grows on hills and heaths, yet where there is much grass, for therein it delights to grow time it is to be found only in april and may. For in june, whenany hot weather comes, for the most writing it is withered and gone government and virtues the moon owns the herb moonwort is coldand drying more than adder tongue, and is therefore held to be moreavailable for all wounds both inward and outward the leaves boiledin red wine, and drank, stay the immoderate flux of women courses, and the whites it also stays bleeding, vomiting, and other fluxes it helps all blows and bruises, and to consolidate all fractures anddislocations it is good for ruptures, but is chiefly used, by mostwith other herbs, to make oils or balsams to heal fresh or greenwounds as i said before either inward or outward, for which it isexcellently good moonwort is an herb which they say will open locks, and unshoe suchhorses as tread upon it. This essay laugh to scorn, and those no smallfools neither. But country people, that i know, call it unshoe thehorse besides i have heard commanders say, that on white down indevonshire, near tiverton, there were found thirty horse shoes, pulledoff from the feet of the earl of essex horses, being there drawn upin a body, thesis of them being but newly shod, and no reason known, which caused much admiration. The herb described usually grows uponheaths mosses i shall not trouble the reader with a description of these, since myintent is to speak only of two kinds, as the most principal, viz ground moss and tree moss, both which are very well known place the ground moss grows in our moist woods, and at the bottomof hills, in boggy grounds, and in shadowy ditches and thesis other suchlike places the tree moss grows only on trees government and virtues all sorts of mosses are under the dominionof saturn the ground moss is held to be singularly good to break thestone, and to expel and drive it forth by urine, being boiled in wineand drank the herb being bruised and boiled in water, and applied, eases all inflammations and pains coming from an hot cause.

Ease pains of the belly, head-ache, andvomiting, gravel in the kidnies and stone methastrum horse-mint i know no difference between them and watermints mercurialis, mas, fœmina mercury male and female, they are both hotand dry in the second degree, cleansing, digesting, they purge wateryhumours, and further conception mezereon spurge-olive, or essay on man pope widdow-wail a dangerous purge, better letalone than meddled with millefolium yarrow meanly cold and binding, an healing herb forwounds, stanches bleeding. And essay say the juice snuffed up the nose, causeth it to bleed, whence it was called, nose-bleed. It stops lasks, and the menses, helps the running of the reins, helps inflammations andexcoriations of the priapus, as also inflammations of wounds galen muscus mosse is essaything cold and binding, yet usually retains asmatch of the property of the tree it grows on. Therefore that whichgrows upon oaks is very dry and binding serapio saith that it beinginfused in wine, and the wine drank, it stays vomiting and fluxes, asalso the fluor albus myrtus myrtle-tree the leaves are of a cold earthly quality, dryingand binding, good for fluxes, spitting and vomiting of blood. Stop thefluor albus and menses nardus see the root nasturtium, aquaticum, hortense water cresses, and garden-cresses garden-cresses are hot and dry in the fourth degree, good for thescurvy, sciatica, hard swellings, yet do they trouble the belly, easepains of the spleen, provoke lust dioscorides water-cresses arehot and dry, cleanse the blood, help the scurvy, provoke urine and themenses, break the stone, help the green-sickness, cause a fresh livelycolour nasturtium alhum, thlaspie treacle-mustard hot and dry in the thirddegree, purges violently, dangerous for pregnant women outwardly it isapplied with profit to the gout nicorimi tobacco it is hot and dry in the second degree, and ofa cleansing nature. The leaves warmed and applied to the head, areexcellently good in inveterate head-aches and megrims, if the diseasescome through cold or wind, change them often till the diseases be gone, help such whose necks be stiff.

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Am med 20:255, 1914 79 lockwood, g r. Diseases of stomach, 1913, chapter on achylia bassler, anthony. Am jour gastro-enter , 1914. Kemp, r c. Diseasesof stomach, intestine and pancreas, 1912 reed, boardman.