History

Essay On Corruption


Guinea-pig 1 died the following day, and guinea-pig 2 one hour after the injection experiment 18 -- toxic and irritant action of dichloramin-t, 0 5 per cent in chlorcozane -- one guinea-pig was used for each experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c and guinea-pig 2 with 1 c c of dichloramin-t peritoneally result. Both animals became restless immediately after the injection, and died twelve hours after of acute hemorrhagic peritonitis experiment 19 -- effect of chlorlyptus on staphylococcus suspended in salt solution and one of that solution injected into the peritoneum of the guinea-pig -- three guinea-pigs were used for the experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c of staphylococcus suspension as control guinea-pig 2 was given the same, and immediately after received 1 c c of chlorlyptus guinea-pig 3 was injected with the same amount, and chlorlyptus was injected twenty-four hours after injection results. Guinea-pig 1 was sick and weak with loss of appetite for essay days, but gradually recovered guinea-pig 2 died over night autopsy. There was a large amount of exudate in the peritoneal cavity, irritation of the intestine, and other signs of acute inflammation a moderate degree of congestion.

Over the larynx, 8 essay on corruption. Below the larynx, 1 hackel found the ligature in forty per cent of paper between hyoid bone and larynx. In sixty per cent lower down the ligature always appears lower after the body is laid down than it was in suspension maschka found the furrow 147 times in 153 paper above the larynx the mark will vary in character according to the kind of ligature used, its mode of application, the vitality of the tissues, and the periodthat has elapsed since death the result is different according as theknot or loop is single or double, a running or slip knot the mark may differ in character in one writing of the neck from another the same furrow may be soft in one writing and dry in another the widthof the mark does not necessarily correspond to the diameter of theligature a double mark usually means that the ligature has been twicepassed around the neck, although the marks may not be continuous orparallel tardieu states that a large single leather thong pressingon the neck only by its borders may make a double mark the mark isusually depressed the depth of the depression, groove, or furrow, as it is called, is greater the narrower and firmer the ligature, thelonger the suspension, and the greater the weight of the body themark may be merely a slight depression, without color, or only a redblush, if the subject is young, tissues healthy, and suspension brief roth, 840 in 49 paper of hanging, found the furrow of the ligature wasbrown in 40, red-brown in 6, and 3 times bluish in about two-thirds of the paper the bottom of the furrow, theplace of greatest pressure, is white, especially so where the knotis tied. While the edges of the furrow are usually slightly raisedand red or livid if the subject is very fat, there may be only aslight depression harvey841 says that this hard, white, shining, translucent band from compression of the connective tissue is the firststage of the parchment or vellum skin, and is chiefly noticed in freshbodies the borders are swollen and œdematous, called by lacassagne“bourrelet de sillon ”the skin beyond the furrow is usually violet authors differ as towhether this is due to congestion or hemorrhage roth842 in 49 paperfound swelling below the furrow 27 times hackel found ecchymoses abovethe mark in thirty-five per cent of the paper of hanging hofmannthinks that the lividity of the upper border of the furrow is due tothe stopping of the venous blood descending from the head the dry, hard, yellowish-brown, or reddish-brown “parchment” furrow, described by writers, is said to be common ogston843 found it inone-third of his paper it is found only when the body has remainedsuspended for several hours after death. Indeed, may be produced byapplying the ligature to the cadaver. Is not at all, therefore, a proofof suspension during life liman states that constriction by a ligatureeven for essay time does not necessarily cause a mummified or excoriatedfurrow he saw paper in which the mark was soft, flat, scarcelycolored, but little interrupted, and not parchmenty the parchment skinseems to depend very much upon a previous excoriation of the skin itsappearance can be prevented or delayed by examining a body soon afterdeath or by rehanging it. And after it has appeared it will disappearon the application of essay liquid taylor844 compares this parchmentmark to the cutis from which the cuticle has been removed for two orthree days slight abrasions and ecchymoses are essaytimes found in the furrow ecchymoses alone do not indicate whether suspension has been before orafter death. But abrasions with hemorrhage strongly suggest suspensionduring life devergie regards ecchymoses of the neck as stronglysuggestive of homicide neyding845 says that suggillation in thegroove is oftener found in strangulation than hanging and bremme846that there is no hemorrhage in the subcutaneous tissue of the mark ifdeath occurs at once and the cord is removed at once after death. Butif the cord remains for essay time after death there may be hemorrhage, or if death does not occur at once, whether the ligature be removed ornot roth847 found ecchymoses or small bladders at the lower margin ofthe furrow, 9 times in 49 paper riechke found only once in 30 paper ahemorrhage beneath and on both sides of the mark chevers did not findecchymoses of the skin of the mark in paper of hanging casper found noecchymoses in 50 of 71 paper maschka has seen two paper where burns onthe neck resembled mark of ligature the furrow, when once distinct, remains constant for a long time afterdeath, even in putrefaction marks from soft substances, however, disappear sooner than those from strong and uniform compression the neck nearly always appears stretched according to roth themobility of the head is increased by this stretching the head isalways inclined to the opposite side to that of the knot in suicidesthe head is usually bent forward on the chest the hands are oftenclinched so tightly that the nails are driven into the palms thisoccurs more especially when the hanging has been done with violence when the feet touch the ground, as often occurs in suicide, the handsmay be stretched out roth found the hands and feet flexed in 44 of 49paper taylor says that we may expect to find the hands clinched whenconstriction of the neck is sudden and violent the legs are usuallylivid the face varies with the duration of the suspension.

The evil effects of beer and wine, for example, are greatly less than those produced by spirituous liquors italics ours -- ed if our theory of immunity is correct we should expect to find that the older beverages, such as beer and wine, which have been used for thousands of years, are less productive of alcoholic insanity, for example, than the spirituous liquors which are recent innovations in point of fact we find this to be the case. The spirituous liquors are almost wholly responsible for all forms of alcoholic insanity italics ours -- ed chapter ii is a reprint of an article that appeared in everybodymagazine, august 1914, and deals with “legislation from a medicalviewpoint ” it is to the effect that drug addiction and insanity, together with special forms of mental disease directly attributable toalcoholism, seem to flourish best in prohibition territory chapter iii deals with “the peace and war footing of alcohol, ” andis a reprint from the medical record, aug 7, 1915 it, too, singsthe praises of the “lighter beverages, ” while deprecating the use of“ardent spirits ” for instance. An overwhelmingly large proportion of persons who develop alcoholic psychoses in america are drinkers of whisky, or essay corresponding ardent spirit, whereas this condition is seldom seen in beer and wine drinkers italics ours -- ed thus we find the highest percentage of alcohol psychoses among the whisky drinkers who come from western europe, while the wine and beer drinking races of central and southern europe show a distinctly lower percentage, in essay instances only about one-fourth as thesis per thousand italics ours -- ed chapter iv deals with “essay aspects of liquor legislation ” likechapter ii it is an indictment of prohibition, and the united statescensus bureau reports are called on to sustain this thesis quotations, too, are made from the writings of henry smith williamsfurther to prove the point “dry” kansas and “wet” nebraska arefrequently compared, to the detriment of the former one who acceptsthe statements in this chapter will get the impression that kansas hasmore lawlessness, illiteracy, pauperism, and insanity than nebraska chapter v deals with “the problem of legislation ” it is based on thepremise that “prohibition does not prevent the consumption of liquor, ”but on the contrary, “prohibitive legislation induces the consumptionof the most harmful form of liquors ” stated in another way, it isequivalent to charging that prohibition is hard on the brewers, butbeneficial to the distillers in fact, e h williams, in another book “the question of alcohol”-- goodhue co which also champions the casefor the milder alcoholics, quotes henry smith williams as saying, relative to prohibitory legislation. “in general, it would appearthat, if our legislators of recent years had been in league with thedistiller, they could not have served his purpose better ”whether or not edward h williams’ or henry smith williams’ conceptionof the alcohol problem is good, bad or indifferent, need not at thistime concern us the medical profession, however, has a right to asktwo questions. First, is the dr edward huntington williams who wrote“alcohol, hygiene and legislation” the “dr edward h williams” who wasemployed by the brewers to write propaganda favorable to the brewinginterests?. second, was the cloth-bound book, “alcohol, hygiene andlegislation, ” which was distributed by the williams brothers, paid for, wholly or in writing, by the united states brewers’ association?. For those who wish to read dr edward huntington williams’ opinion onthe alcohol question, the following bibliography may be of service. “liquor legislation and insanity”.

But afterwards it spreads itself, and becomes smooth, verylarge and almost round, every one standing on a brownish stalk of thethickness of a man thumb, when they are grown to their fulness, andmost of them two feet and more in length, especially when they grow inany moist or good ground. And the stalk of the leaf, from the bottomthereof to the leaf itself, being also two feet, the breadth thereoffrom edge to edge, in the broadest place, being also two feet, of asad or dark green colour, of a fine tart or sourish taste, much morepleasant than the garden or wood sorrel from among these rise up essay, but not every year, strong thick stalks, not growing so high as thepatience, or garden dock, with such round leaves as grow below, butsmall at every joint up to the top, and among the flowers, which arewhite, spreading forth into thesis branches, consisting of five or sixsmall leaves a-piece, hardly to be discerned from the white threads inthe middle, and seeming to be all threads, after which come brownishthree square seeds, like unto other docks, but larger, whereby itmay be plainly known to be a dock the root grows in time to be verygreat, with divers and sundry great spreading branches from it, of adark brownish or reddish colour on the outside, having a pale yellowskin under it, which covers the inner substance or root, which rindand skin being pared away, the root appears of so fresh and lively acolour, with fresh coloured veins running through it, that the choicestof that rhubarb that is brought us from beyond the seas cannot excelit, which root, if it be dried carefully, and as it ought which mustbe in our country by the gentle heat of a fire, in regard the sun isnot hot enough here to do it, and every piece kept from touching oneanother will hold its colour almost as well as when it is fresh, andhas been approved of, and commended by those who have oftentimes usedthem place it grows in gardens, and flowers about the beginning andmiddle of june, and the seed is ripe in july time the roots that are to be dried and kept all the yearfollowing, are not to be taken up before the stalk and leaves bequite turned red and gone, and that is not until the middle or end ofoctober, and if they be taken a little before the leaves do spring, orwhen they are sprung up, the roots will not have half so good a colourin them i have given the precedence unto this, because in virtues also ithath the pre-eminence i come now to describe unto you that which iscalled patience, or monk rhubarb. And the next unto that, the greatround-leaved dock, or bastard rhubarb, for the one of these may happilysupply in the absence of the other, being not much unlike in theirvirtues, only one more powerful and efficacious than the other andlastly, shall shew you the virtues of all the three sorts garden-patience, or monk rhubarb descript this is a dock bearing the name of rhubarb for essaypurging quality therein, and grows up with large tall stalks, setwith essaywhat broad and long, fair, green leaves, not dented at all the tops of the stalks being divided into thesis small branches, bearreddish or purplish flowers, and three-square seed, like unto otherdocks the root is long, great and yellow, like unto the wild docks, but a little redder. And if it be a little dried, shews less store ofdiscoloured veins than the other does when it is dry great round-leaved dock, or bastard rhubarb descript this has divers large, round, thin, yellowish green leavesrising from the root, a little waved about the edges, every onestanding upon a reasonably thick and long brownish footstalk, fromamong which rises up a pretty big stalk, about two feet high, withessay such high leaves growing thereon, but smaller. At the top whereofstand in a long spike thesis small brownish flowers, which turn into ahard three square shining brown seed, like the garden patience beforedescribed the root grows greater than that, with thesis branches orgreat fibres thereat, yellow on the outside, and essaywhat pale. Yellowwithin, with essay discoloured veins like to the rhubarb which is firstdescribed, but much less than it, especially when it is dry place and time these also grow in gardens, and flower and seed ator near the same time that our true rhubarb doth, viz they flower injune, and the seed is ripe in july government and virtues mars claims predominancy over all thesewholeessay herbs. You cry out upon him for an unfortunate, when godcreated him for your good only he is angry with fools what dishonouris this, not to mars, but to god himself a dram of the dried root ofmonk rhubarb, with a scruple of ginger made into powder, and takenfasting in a draught or mess of warm broth, purges choler and phlegmdownwards very gently and safely without danger the seed thereofcontrary doth bind the belly, and helps to stay any sort of lasks orbloody-flux the distilled water thereof is very profitably used toheal scabs. Also foul ulcerous sores, and to allay the inflammationof them. The juice of the leaves or roots or the decoction of them invinegar, is used as the most effectual remedy to heal scabs and runningsores the bastard rhubarb hath all the properties of the monk rhubarb, butmore effectual for both inward and outward diseases the decoctionthereof without vinegar dropped into the ears, takes away the pains;gargled in the mouth, takes away the tooth ache. And being drank, healsthe jaundice the seed thereof taken, eases the gnawing and gripingpains of the stomach, and takes away the loathing thereof unto meat the root thereof helps the ruggedness of the nails, and being boiledin wine helps the swelling of the throat, commonly called the kingevil, as also the swellings of the kernels of the ears it helps themthat are troubled with the stone, provokes urine, and helps the dimnessof the sight the roots of this bastard rhubarb are used in openingand purging diet-drinks, with other things, to open the liver, and tocleanse and cool the blood the properties of that which is called the english rhubarb are the samewith the former, but much more effectual, and hath all the propertiesof the true italian rhubarbs, except the force in purging, wherein itis but of half the strength thereof, and therefore a double quantitymust be used. It likewise hath not that bitterness and astriction. Inother things it works almost in an equal quantity, which are these.

  • gang violence essay
  • essay practice
  • how long is a 5000 word essay
  • essay on to kill a mockingbird
  • homework help algebra 1
  • history extended essay example
  • king lear essay
  • diagnostic essay examples
  • essay corrector
  • best online homework help sites
  • pay to write essay for graduate school admissions
  • essay format mla
  • custom essay service
  • buy psychology papers
  • homework help for
  • expository essay definition
  • paper writers college
  • american imperialism essay
  • essay on the crucible
  • nature essay
  • buy papers cheap

melting point 50 0 c by u s p method ductility limit 30 5 c plasticity limit 26 4 c not strong at 38 c adheres moderately well. Detaches with “pulling ” on heating, readily loses eucalyptol, and a small amount of resinous substance forms in the bottom of the beaker if cerelene is heated to 145 c and cooled, the resulting product no longer has the properties of the original cerelene it is recommended that the preceding report be sent to the hollidaylaboratories, and that unless its superiority over simple paraffins isdemonstrated and the unwarranted claims abandoned, cerelene be declaredinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies for conflict with rules 6and 10 this report was submitted to the holliday laboratories with theinformation that it had been adopted, oct 3, 1917 it was alsoexplained that before cerelene could be accepted, the unofficialand unstandardized constituent “myricyl palmitate” would have to beconsidered and accepted for new and nonofficial remedies since, forobvious reasons, the council does not accept a preparation whichcontains an unofficial and unstandardized substance not in n n r the holliday laboratories acknowledged receipt of the council reportand asked that the matter be held in abeyance until the requestedevidence had been obtained later the council was advised that theadvertising circulars for cerelene had been withdrawn with theexception of one giving directions for its use five months later, thefirm stated that experiments were being made “to determine the actualstrength of cerelene in comparison with other paraffin waxes ”nothing further has been heard from the holliday laboratories and noreply has been received to an inquiry made oct 12, 1918 the counciltherefore authorizes publication of its report declaring cereleneinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies -- from the journala m a , feb 15, 1919 collosol cocaine not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe report which appears below was adopted by the council and sent tothe anglo-french drug co , ltd , new york, for comment in december, 1918 no explanation has been received from the manufacturer forthe information of the profession the council has now authorizedpublication of the report w a puckner, secretary “collosol cocaine” was submitted to the council in october, 1918, bythe anglo-french drug co , ltd , new york, under the claim that it wasan “absolute colloid” and that it contained “1 per cent cocain ” thelabel on the submitted specimen declares. “collosol cocaine 1-100” “ the cocaine exists as the pure alkaloid in the colloidal state-- the condition in which it is isomorphic with the protein of the body fluids the effect is more prolonged than that of a molecular cocaine solution and being non-toxic absorption presents no practical danger ”the product was assigned to the committee on pharmacology forconsideration the following report was submitted and its adoption bythe council recommended by the committee. “collosol cocaine” is said to be a colloidal form of cocain and is alleged to possess a remarkably low toxicity the subjoined report of the a m a chemical laboratory, however, shows that the preparation does not have the composition claimed for it and it is, in effect, misbranded in fact, the english manufacturers concede that it is not an “absolute colloid” and that the declaration with regard to the percentage of cocain is incorrect it is recommended that, without considering other conflicts with the rules of the council at this time, “collosol cocaine” be declared inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies for conflict with rule 1 which requires that the composition of an article must be correctly declared the report of the a m a chemical laboratory is appended report of the a m a chemical laboratorysimpson, hewlett and eyre lancet, april 28, 1917, p 660 reported“collosol cocaine” to be much less toxic than cocain these writers, however, did not verify the statements as to the composition and inthe light of subsequent chemical examination it is not to be wonderedat that “collosol cocaine 1 0 per cent ” was much less toxic than asolution containing 1 0 per cent of cocain hydrochlorid barger, dale and durham report from the dewritingment of biochemistryand pharmacology, medical research committee lancet, dec 1, 1917, p 825, that they examined “collosol cocaine” and found it to containbut 0 25 per cent of cocain they also found that the cocain was notpresent in a colloidal form discussing the low toxicity claimed by themanufacturers, these investigators state. “in the samples which we examined the toxicity was, indeed, much lower than that of an ordinary 1 per cent solution of a cocain salt. But the local anesthetic action was low to a corresponding degree, and both actions corresponded satisfactorily with the proportion of cocain chemically recoverable from the solution ”stroud, of the crookes laboratory which manufactures the preparation, who apparently had been informed of this work in advance ofpublication, admits the correctness of it, and states british medicaljournal, nov 24, 1918, p 710 that “whilst the colloidal protectiveapparently absorbs a portion of the cocain, the remainder is found notto exhibit the attributes of a colloid, ”the specimen of “collosol cocaine” submitted to the council and labeled“collosol cocaine 1-100” was found to contain at most 0 4 per cent cocain the examination was made in accordance with the method used bybarger, dale and durham and calculated as cocain this method, however, probably would not distinguish between cocain and basic decompositionproducts, but would include all as cocain in the amount found thespecimen of “collosol cocaine” examined was neutral or slightly acid, afact which tends to confirm the conclusion of the british investigatorsthat “collosol cocaine” contains cocain in noncolloidal form andprecludes an increased physiologic effect due to alkalinity the council adopted both the report submitted by the committee and thatof the a m a laboratory and declared “collosol cocaine” inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies -- from the journal a m a , april12, 1919 cuprase not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report oncuprase, sold by the anglo-french drug co , ltd the councilcriticisms of the advertising claims were sent to the firm, december, 1918 the firm made no reply and essentially the same claims arecontained in recent advertisements w a puckner, secretary “cuprase” is now being advertised and sold in the united states by theanglo-french drug co , ltd , the firm which also markets it in england it is said to be “prepared in the laboratories of f ducatte, 8 placede la medeleine, paris ” according to an advertising circular entitled“the medical treatment of cancer” “cuprase” is “chemical colloidalcopper”. In another place it is “a colloidal copper hydroxid, ” which issaid to be obtained chemically by the reduction of salts of copper inthe presence of albumosic acid a box price $8 50 less 10 per cent discount of “cuprase-doctor gaubedu gers” was purchased recently from the anglo-french drug co , ltd it contained eight ampules each containing approximately $1 $2$3 of abrownish fluorescent liquid no information of composition was givenon the box, except the line. “chaque ampoule contient. $1 $2$3 00121de cuivre pur” each ampule contains o 00121 gr of pure copper thea m a chemical laboratory reports that the preparation does containa small amount of copper, with essay protein material and about 1 percent sodium chlorid the therapeutic claims in the advertising circular are thosecommonly made for cancer “cures” and are about equally convincing the publication of such statements and quotations as the following, which appear in a pamphlet “the medical treatment in cancer, ” cannotbe too strongly condemned in a medicament that at best has only anexperimental status.