History

Essay On Abortion


And said books and register shall be prima facie evidenceof all matters therein recorded 2 qualification - all persons hereafter commencing the practice ofmedicine, surgery, and obstetrics in any of its branches shall applyto the board for a license, and at the time and place designatedby the board, or at its regular meeting, be examined in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, histology, materia medica, therapeutics, preventive medicines, practice of medicine, surgery, obstetrics, diseases of women and children, of the nervous system, of the eyeand ear, medical jurisprudence, and such other branches as the boardshall deem advisable, and produce evidence of having attended threecourses of lectures of at least six months each. The examination mustbe both practical and scientific, but of sufficient severity to testthe candidate fitness to practise medicine, surgery, and obstetrics when desired, the said examination may be conducted in the presenceof the dean of any medical school or the president of any medicalsociety of the state after examination the board must grant a licenseto practise medicine, surgery, and obstetrics. Seven members mustconsent the board may revoke or refuse a license for unprofessional, dishonorable, or immoral conduct, chronic or persistent inebriety, thepractice of criminal abortion, or for publicly advertising specialability to treat or cure diseases which, in the opinion of the board, it is impossible to cure in complaints for violating the provisionsof this section, the accused shall be furnished with a copy of thecomplaint, and given a hearing before the board in person or byattorney appeal lies from refusal or revocation to the appointingpower 3 the person receiving a license must file it, or a certified copy, withthe register of deeds where he resides on removal into another countyhe must procure from said register a certified copy of his license andfile it with the register of deeds in the county to which he shallremove 4 exceptions - the act does not apply to commissioned surgeons of theunited states army or navy, to physicians or surgeons in actualconsultation from other states or territories, or to actual medicalstudents practising medicine under the direct supervision of apreceptor 5 penalty - practising without a license or contrary to the act is amisdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $50 to $200, or imprisonmentin a county jail from ten to sixty days, or both definition - any person is regarded as practising who appends theletters “m d ” or “m b ” to his name, or who for a fee prescribes, directs, or recommends for the use of any person any drug or medicineor other agency for the treatment, cure, or relief of any wound, fracture or bodily injury, infirmity, or disease 6 former law - the former law is repealed only so far as it isinconsistent with the foregoing act 7 the former law prohibited persons from practising medicine in any ofits branches unless graduates of a medical college or unless they wereshown by examination to be qualified and had been actually engaged inpractising for at least ten years compiled laws of dakota, s 205 fee - to the treasurer of the board, for examination, $20 act 1890, c 93, s 3 ohio qualification - no person who is not a graduate of a reputable schoolof medicine in the united states or a foreign country, or who cannotproduce a certificate of qualification from a state or county medicalsociety and is not a person of good moral character, can lawfullypractise or attempt to practise medicine in any of its dewritingments orprescribe medicine for reward or compensation. Except a person who hasbeen continuously engaged in the practice of medicine for ten years ormore the law allowed persons in continuous practice for five yearsor more, two years to comply with its provisions in case a person isa graduate of a school of medicine in any state or foreign country inwhich any condition or restriction is imposed by law upon the practiceof medicine by graduates of medical schools in ohio, he is subject tothe same restrictions or conditions a person violating this sectionis not entitled to any compensation for services smith & benedictrevised statutes of 1890, s 4, 403 penalty - whoever prescribes or practises or attempts to practisemedicine in any of its dewritingments, or performs or attempts to performa surgical operation without having attended two full courses ofinstruction and graduated at a school of medicine either in this or aforeign country, or who cannot produce a certificate of qualificationfrom a state or county medical society, except a person who has beencontinuously engaged in the practice of medicine for ten years or more, is punishable with a fine of from $50 to $100 and for a subsequentoffence with imprisonment for thirty days persons in continuouspractice for five years or more were allowed two years to comply withthis act 6, 992 oklahoma qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine in anydewritingment unless he be a graduate of a medical college, or unless uponexamination before a board composed of the superintendent of publichealth and two other physicians to be selected by the territorial boardof health, he be found proficient in the practice of medicine andsurgery, and shall be found upon proof to have been actually engagedin the practice of medicine not less than five years no person shallpractise medicine unless he be of good moral character, and is not anhabitual drunkard a person possessing these qualifications shall, on presentation of hisdiploma, or proof thereof by affidavit if it be lost or destroyed, and the affidavit of two reputable citizens from the county where heresides that the applicant possesses the qualifications of a physician, as prescribed herein, to the superintendent of public health, receivefrom him a license, which shall be recorded in the office of theregister of deeds in the county where such physician resides offence - to practise without complying with this law, or to violateany of its provisions, is a misdemeanor definition - a person is regarded as practising medicine who professespublicly to be a physician and to prescribe for the sick, or whoappends to his name m d exceptions - the law does not prohibit students from prescribing underthe supervision of preceptors, nor prohibit gratuitous services in caseof emergency, nor apply to commissioned surgeons in the united statesarmy and navy cancellation of license - the district court has power on complaint ofa member of the territorial board of health, or the county board ofhealth where he resides, to cancel any license issued to a person topractise medicine, where such license was fraudulently obtained, orwhere the person to whom it was issued has been guilty of violating anyprovision of this act fee - to superintendent of board of health, for license, $2 comp stats , 1893, s 352 oregon qualification - every person practising medicine and surgery in anyof their dewritingments must possess the qualifications required by theact if a graduate of medicine he must present his diploma to the boardof examiners for verification as to its genuineness if found genuineand the person named therein be the person claiming and presentingthe same, the board issues its certificate, which is conclusive ifnot a graduate, he must submit to an examination as the board shallrequire, and if the examination be satisfactory the board issues itscertificate, and the lawful holder is entitled to all the rights andprivileges mentioned in the act act february 28th, 1889, s 1 the governor appoints three persons from among the most competentphysicians of the state, residents of the state for seven years and ofat least five years’ practical experience in their profession, to bethe board of examiners 2 the board must issue certificates to all who furnish satisfactoryproof of having received a diploma or license from a legally charteredmedical institution in good standing of whatever school of medicine, and they are not permitted to make discrimination against holders of ageneral license or diploma under any school or system of medicine ingood standing 3, as amended february 21st, 1891 the verification of a diploma consists in an affidavit of the holderand applicant that he is the person therein named, taken before anyperson authorized to administer oaths, attested under the hand andofficial seal of the official, if he have a seal. Graduates may presenttheir diplomas and affidavits by letter or proxy the act allowspersons taking advantage of section 13 ninety days after its passage inwhich to procure a certificate 4, as amended february 21st, 1891 all examinations of persons not graduates or licentiates must be madedirectly by the board, and certificates authorize the person named topractise medicine and surgery 5 the holder of a certificate must have it recorded in the office ofthe county clerk of the county in which he resides, and the recordmust be indorsed thereon on removal to another county to practise hemust procure an indorsement to that effect on the certificate from theclerk, and have the certificate recorded in the office of the clerk ofthe county to which he removes 6 the examinations may be wholly or writingly in writing and must be of anelementary and practical character, but sufficiently strict to test thequalifications of the candidate as a practitioner 8 the board may refuse a certificate to an individual guilty ofunprofessional or dishonorable conduct, and may revoke for like causes, after giving the accused an opportunity to be heard in his defencebefore the board 9 definition, exceptions - any person is regarded as practising medicinewho professes publicly to be a physician and to prescribe for thesick, or appends to his name the letters “m d ;” but the act doesnot prohibit students from prescribing under the supervision of apreceptor, nor gratuitous services in paper of emergency, nor does itapply to commissioned surgeons of the united states army, navy, andmarine hospital service 10 itinerant vender - any itinerant vender of any drug, nostrum, medicine, ointment, or appliance of any kind intended for the treatment ofdisease or injury, who shall publicly profess to cure or treatdiseases, injuries, deformities, or ailments by any drug, nostrum, medicine, or other appliance, shall pay a license to the secretary ofthe state of $100 per month violation of this section is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of notmore than $500 or imprisonment in a county jail for not more than sixmonths, or both such licenses to any firm or company do not permit thetransaction of business in different places at the same time s 11, as amended february 21st, 1891 penalty - practising medicine or surgery without complying with theact is a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $50 to $500 orimprisonment in a county jail from thirty days to three hundred andsixty-five days, or both, for each offence filing or attempting tofile as his own the certificate of another, or a forged affidavit oridentification, is a felony punishable the same as forgery in thesecond degree 12 former practitioners - persons practising in the state at the time ofthe passage of the act were allowed sixty days afterward to register13 fees - to the secretary of the board, for examining a genuine diploma, $1 to the secretary of the board, for examining a fraudulent diploma, or adiploma not owned by the possessor, $20 4 to the county clerk, for recording certificate, usual fee s 6 to board of examiners, for examination, $10 8 to the secretary of the state, from itinerant vender, for license, $100per month 11, as amended february 21st, 1891 pennsylvania present law - the following is the law at present in effect. For thenew law which goes into effect hereafter, see below qualification - the standard of a practitioner of medicine, surgery, orobstetrics consists of a good moral character, a thorough elementaryeducation, a comprehensive knowledge of human anatomy, humanphysiology, pathology, chemistry, materia medica, obstetrics, andpractice of medicine and surgery and public hygiene act march 24th, 1877, s 1 it is unlawful for any person to announce himself as a practitionerof medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, or to practise as such, who hasnot received in a regular manner a diploma from a chartered medicalschool, duly authorized to confer upon its alumni the degree of doctorof medicine the act does not apply to a resident practitioner who hasbeen in continuous practice in the commonwealth for not less than fiveyears prior to its passage 2 before any person can lawfully engage in the practice of medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, or who has not a diploma as provided in sec 2, he must make an affidavit under oath, or affirm before the prothonotaryof the county in which he intends to practise, setting forth the timeof continuous practice and the place or places where such practice waspursued in the commonwealth, and it shall be entered of record s 3 transient practitioner - any person attempting to practise medicineor surgery for a valuable consideration by opening a transient officewithin the commonwealth, or by handbill or other form of written orprinted advertisement, assigning such transient office or other placeto persons seeking medical or surgical advice, or prescribing oritinerating from place to place or from house to house and proposing tocure any person sick or afflicted, by the use of any medicine, means, or agency whatsoever, for a valuable consideration, shall before beingallowed to practise in this manner appear before the clerk of thecourt of quarter sessions of the county where he desires to practiseand furnish satisfactory evidence to such clerk that this act has beencomplied with, and shall take out a license for one year and pay $50therefor 4 penalty - to violate this act is a misdemeanor punishable with a fineof from $200 to $400 for each offence 5 qualification - every person who shall practise medicine or surgery, or any of their branches, for gain, or shall receive or accept for hisservices any fee or reward directly or indirectly, shall be a graduateof a legally chartered medical college or university having authorityto confer the degree of doctor of medicine except as provided insec 5, and shall present to the prothonotary of the county in whichhe resides or sojourns his medical diploma as well as a true copyof the same, including any indorsements thereon, and make affidavitbefore him that the diploma and indorsements are genuine. Thereuponthe prothonotary shall enter in the register the name in full of thepractitioner, his place of nativity, place of residence, the name ofthe college or university that has conferred the degree of doctor ofmedicine, the year when it was conferred, and in like manner any otherdegree or degrees that the practitioner may desire to place on record;to all of which the practitioner shall make affidavit before theprothonotary and the prothonotary shall place the copy of the diplomaand indorsements on file act june 8th, 1881, s 2 any person whose medical diploma has been destroyed or lost shallpresent to the prothonotary of the county in which he resides orsojourns a duly certified copy of his diploma, but if the same isnot obtainable a statement of this fact, with the names of theprofessors whose lectures he attended and the branches of study uponwhich each professor lectured, to all of which the practitioner shallmake affidavit before the prothonotary.

In one case, personally known to me, the thermometerregistered 76° f seventeen hours after death the temperature of the body, its rigidity, and the evidences ofputrefaction all furnish data from which we can estimate the probabletime which has elapsed since death it must be remembered that no oneof them furnishes any positive proof essay medical jurists have attempted to give a more definite characterto these changes in the recently dead body by dividing the intervalbetween the stopping of the heart action and the beginning ofputrefaction into three periods in the first, the warmth, pliability, and muscular irritability remain in the second, these conditions arelost and the body is cold and rigid in the third, the body is coldand pliant, the muscles are relaxed, and the joints are flexible, thecadaveric rigidity having entirely ceased there can be no doubt about the existence of these stages, but when wecome to essay on abortion define the precise time at which one begins and the other ends, we find it impossible for example, the first stage embraces a periodwhich cannot be more closely defined than by stating that the personmay have been dead from a few minutes to twenty hours a statement toovague to be upheld by a counsel who defends a prisoner the changes which take place in these periods and the average time theylast have been given as follows by devergie:first period, few minutes to twenty hours - characterized by warmthof the body and general or writingial relaxation of the voluntary muscles to what portion of this period the special case belongs must beestimated according to the degree of heat in the trunk and extremitiesand the degree of rigidity in the muscles, the neck and the jawscommonly showing this condition first, the legs last warmth of thebody rarely remains as long as twenty hours. In general it is sensiblycold in from ten to twelve hours during this period the muscles aresusceptible of contraction under the galvanic current, and in the earlystage under the stimulus of blows second period, ten hours to three days - the body is perfectly coldthroughout and rigidity is well marked the muscles no longer respondto stimuli the duration of this period seems long, yet in one instancethe body will be found cold and rigid nine hours after death again, cooling and rigidity may not come on for three or four days third period, three to eight days - the body is perfectly cold thelimbs and trunk pliant and free from cadaveric rigidity the musclesare not capable of contracting in summer this period is much shorter;often it will come on before three days putrefaction commences when a body is kept under the most favorableconditions, in from six to twelve days, as a slight greenishdiscoloration of the abdomen which gradually spreads throughout thebody the time at which putrefaction shows itself and the rapidity withwhich it advances is dependent upon so thesis factors, thesis of whichit is impossible often for the medical examiner to ascertain, thattoo much reliance must not be placed upon it casper estimates thefollowing to be the average changes generally found in the periods oftime given:twenty-four to seventy-two hours after death a slight green color isvisible over the centre of the abdomen the eyeballs are soft and yieldto external pressure three to five days after death the green color of the abdomen becomesintensified and general, spreading if the body be exposed to the air orburied in the ground in the following order. Genitals, breast, face, neck, upper and lastly lower extremities eight to ten days after death the discoloration becomes moreintense, the face and neck presenting a shade of reddish-green theramifications of the superficial veins on the neck, breast, and limbsbecome very apparent finally the patches congregate gases begin to bedeveloped and distend the abdomen and hollow organs and to form underthe skin in the subcutaneous and intermuscular tissue the cornea fallsin and becomes concave the sphincter ani relaxes fourteen to twenty-one days after death the discoloration over thewhole body becomes intensely green, with brownish-red or brownish-blackpatches the body is bloated and appears greatly increased in sizefrom the development of gases within the abdomen, thorax, and scrotum, and also in the cellular tissue of the body generally the swollencondition of the eyelids, lips, nose, and cheeks is usually of suchextent as to obliterate the features and to destroy the identity of thebody the epidermis peels off in patches, while in certain writings, morewritingicularly the feet, it will be raised in blisters filled with red orgreenish liquid, the cuticle underneath frequently appearing blanched the color of the iris is lost the nails easily separate and the hairbecomes loosened fourth to sixth month after death the thorax and abdomen burst and thesutures of the skull give way from the development of gases within thehead the viscera appear pulpy, or perhaps disappear, leaving the bonesexposed the bones of the extremities separate at the joints at anadvanced stage the soft writings gradually disappear in giving an opinion as to how long a time has elapsed since death whena body has undergone marked putrefactive changes, we must considercarefully not only the conditions of the organs, but the mode of deathand the “surroundings ” by these i mean the quantity of clothing worn, the depth of the grave in which the body has been interred, the seasonof the year, the heat and moisture of the atmosphere the questionessaytimes presents itself to the medical examiner, of two personsfound dead, which died first?. the importance of this point was wellillustrated in the “lizzie borden case ” by a careful consideration ofall the conditions presented by each body in the ways i have indicated, the question will not ordinarily be a difficult one to decide themedico-legal considerationofwounds, includingpunctured and incised wounds, and wounds made by blunt instrumentsother than gunshot wounds bygeorge woolsey, a b , m d , professor of anatomy and clinical surgery in the medical dewritingment ofthe university of the city of new york.

And spend it byspitting essay on abortion. The same helps the swelling of the almonds of the throat, themouth and throat being gargled therewith the juice is also effectualto settle the palate of the mouth in its place, and to heal and temperthe inflammations and soreness of the mouth and throat the decoctionof the leaves in wine, being drank, is singularly good to provokewomen courses, and settle the suffocation, strangling of the mother, and all other diseases thereof. It is also applied outwardly with alittle myrrh the same also, or the seed provokes urine, and expels thegravel and stone in the reins or bladder, often proved to be effectualin thesis that have taken it the same kills the worms in children, easespains in the sides, and dissolves the windiness in the spleen, as alsoin the body, although others think it only powerful to provoke venery the juice of the leaves taken two or three days together, staysbleeding at the mouth the seed being drank, is a remedy against thestinging of venomous creatures, the biting of mad dogs, the poisonousqualities of hemlock, henbane, nightshade, mandrake, or other suchlike herbs that stupify or dull the senses. As also the lethargy, especially to use it outwardly, to rub the forehead or temples in thelethargy, and the places stung or bitten with beasts, with a littlesalt the distilled water of the herb is also effectual though not sopowerful for the diseases aforesaid. As for outward wounds and soresto wash them, and to cleanse the skin from morphew, leprosy, and otherdiscolourings thereof the seed or leaves bruised, and put into thenostrils, stays the bleeding of them, and takes away the flesh growingin them called polypus the juice of the leaves, or the decoction ofthem, or of the root, is singularly good to wash either old, rotten, or stinking sores or fistulous, and gangrenes, and such as fretting, eating, or corroding scabs, manginess, and itch, in any writing of thebody, as also green wounds, by washing them therewith, or applying thegreen herb bruised thereunto, yea, although the flesh were separatedfrom the bones. The same applied to our wearied members, refresh them, or to place those that have been out of joint, being first set upagain, strengthens, dries, and comforts them, as also those placestroubled with aches and gouts, and the defluxion of humours upon thejoints or sinews. It eases the pains, and dries or dissolves thedefluctions an ointment made of the juice, oil, and a little wax, issingularly good to rub cold and benumbed members an handful of theleaves of green nettles, and another of wallwort, or deanwort, bruisedand applied simply themselves to the gout, sciatica, or joint aches inany writing, hath been found to be an admirable help thereunto nightshade descript common nightshade hath an upright, round, green, hollowstalk, about a foot or half a yard high, bushing forth in thesisbranches, whereon grow thesis green leaves, essaywhat broad, and pointedat the ends, soft and full of juice, essaywhat like unto bazil, butlonger and a little unevenly dented about the edges. At the tops of thestalks and branches come forth three or four more white flowers madeof five small pointed leaves a-piece, standing on a stalk together, one above another, with yellow pointels in the middle, composed offour or five yellow threads set together, which afterwards run into sothesis pendulous green berries, of the bigness of small pease, full ofgreen juice, and small whitish round flat seed lying within it theroot is white, and a little woody when it hath given flower and fruit, with thesis small fibres at it. The whole plant is of a waterish insipidtaste, but the juice within the berries is essaywhat viscous, and of acooling and binding quality place it grows wild with us under our walls, and in rubbish, thecommon paths, and sides of hedges and fields, as also in our gardenshere in england, without any planting time it lies down every year, and rises up again of its own sowing, but springs not until the latter end of april at the soonest government and virtues it is a cold saturnine plant the commonnightshade is wholly used to cool hot inflammations either inwardlyor outwardly, being no ways dangerous to any that use it, as mostof the rest of the nightshades are.

If you cannot wait that time neither, let her be with a fixed star of their nature 6 having well dried them, put them up in brown paper, sewing the paperup like a sack, and press them not too hard together, and keep them ina dry place near the fire 7 as for the duration of dried herbs, a just time cannot be given, letauthors prate their pleasure. For, 1st such as grow upon dry grounds will keep better than such as growon moist 2dly, such herbs as are full of juice, will not keep so long as such asare drier 3dly such herbs as are well dried, will keep longer than such as areslack dried yet you may know when they are corrupted, by their loss ofcolour, or smell, or both. And if they be corrupted, reason will tellyou that they must needs corrupt the bodies of those people that takethem 4 gather all leaves in the hour of that planet that governs them chapter ii of flowers 1 the flower, which is the beauty of the plant, and of none of theleast use in physick, grows yearly, and is to be gathered when it is inits prime 2 as for the time of gathering them, let the planetary hour, and theplanet they come of, be observed, as we shewed you in the foregoingchapter. As for the time of the day, let it be when the sun shine uponthem, that so they may be dry. For, if you gather either flowers orherbs when they are wet or dewy, they will not keep 3 dry them well in the sun, and keep them in papers near the fire, asi shewed you in the foregoing chapter 4 so long as they retain the colour and smell, they are good. Eitherof them being gone, so is the virtue also chapter iii of seeds 1 the seed is that writing of the plant which is endowed with a vitalfaculty to bring forth its like, and it contains potentially the wholeplant in it 2 as for place, let them be gathered from the place where they delightto grow 3 let them be full ripe when they are gathered. And forget not thecelestial harmony before mentioned, for i have found by experience thattheir virtues are twice as great at such times as others.

  • best cv writing services
  • essay community service
  • why can i not do my homework
  • buying term papers
  • synthesis essay examples
  • buy custom essay paper
  • write my paper apa format
  • online essay
  • summary and response essay
  • to help with homework
  • informative essay rubric
  • pay someone to write my paper
  • juvenile justice essay
  • argumentative essays from support services
  • essay helper services
  • write my position paper for me
  • write my psychology thesis
  • why upenn essay
  • write my research papers
  • law school essay editing service
  • best resume writing services military

It also helps the spots andblemishes that happen in and about the eyes, or in any other writings:the said water fomented on swellings and hot inflammations of womenbreasts, upon cancers also, and those spreading ulcers called noli metangere, do much good. It helps also foul ulcers in the privities ofman or woman. But an ointment made of the flowers is better for thoseexternal applications flax-weed, or toad-flax descript our common flax-weed has divers stalks full fraught withlong and narrow ash-coloured leaves, and from the middle of them almostupward, stored with a number of pale yellow flowers, of a strongunpleasant scent, with deeper yellow mouths, and blackish flat seed inround heads the root is essaywhat woody and white, especially the maindownright one, with thesis fibres, abiding thesis years, shooting forthroots every way round about, and new branches every year place this grows throughout this land, both by the way sides andin meadows, as also by hedge-sides, and upon the sides of banks, andborders of fields time it flowers in summer, and the seed is ripe usually before theend of august government and virtues mars owns the herb. In sussex we call itgallwort, and lay it in our chicken water to cure them of the gall;it relieves them when they are drooping this is frequently used tospend the abundance of those watery humours by urine which causethe dropsy the decoction of the herb, both leaves and flowers, inwine, taken and drank, doth essaywhat move the belly downwards, opensobstructions of the liver, and helps the yellow jaundice. Expelspoison, provokes women courses, drives forth the dead child, andafter-birth the distilled water of the herb and flowers is effectualfor all the same purposes. Being drank with a dram of the powder of theseeds of bark or the roots of wall-wort, and a little cinnamon, forcertain days together, it is held a singular remedy for the dropsy the juice of the herb, or the distilled water, dropped into the eyes, is a certain remedy for all heat, inflammation, and redness in them the juice or water put into foul ulcers, whether they be cancerous orfistulous, with tents rolled therein, or writings washed and injectedtherewith, cleanses them thoroughly from the bottom, and heals them upsafely the same juice or water also cleanses the skin wonderfully ofall sorts of deformity, as leprosy, morphew, scurf, wheals, pimples, or spots, applied of itself, or used with essay powder of lupines flea-wort descript ordinary flea-wort rises up with a stalk two feet high ormore, full of joints and branches on every side up to the top, and atevery joint two small, long and narrow whitish green leaves essaywhathairy at the top of every branch stand divers small, short scaly, orchaffy heads out of which come forth small whitish yellow threads, liketo those of the plantain herbs, which are the bloomings of flowers theseed enclosed in these heads is small and shining while it is fresh, very like unto fleas both for colour and bigness, but turning blackwhen it grows old the root is not long, but white, hard and woody, perishing every year, and rising again of its own seed for diversyears, if it be suffered to shed. The whole plant is essaywhat whitishand hairy, smelling essaywhat like rosin there is another sort hereof, differing not from the former in themanner of growing, but only that the stalk and branches being essaywhatgreater, do a little more bow down to the ground. The leaves areessaywhat greater, the heads essaywhat less, the seed alike.