History

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Consequently, no furthercollections of samples were made 190 rep mass bd health, 1909, 41, 477 in 1912 pullen191 reported that he had prepared two specimens ofiodine ointment according to the british pharmacopeia, one beingfrom new lard and the other from a specimen of lard at least 2 yearsold assays for free iodine were carried out immediately after thepreparations were made, and at intervals afterward up to four months the following values were found:191 pharm jour , 1912, 89, 610 sample i sample ii ointment from ointment from new lard, old lard, per cent per cent iodine introduced 4 0 4 0 iodine found immediately after making 3 95 3 38 iodine found after twenty-four hours 3 30 3 15 iodine found on the third day 3 18 2 62 iodine found on the seventh day 3 15 2 46 iodine found on the fourteenth day 3 00 2 45 iodine found after one month 3 00 2 39 iodine found after two months 2 90 2 31 iodine found after four months 2 92 2 26pullen found that the loss in free iodine could be accounted for by theiodine which had gone into combination with the fats of the ointmentbase pullen also found that if the potassium iodide and glycerin wereomitted in the preparation of the ointment, the loss in free iodinewas very rapid, the preparation containing practically no free iodine only 1/20 after a few hours he concludes that the use of potassiumiodide and glycerin is necessary for the preservation of the ointment he obtained specimens of iodine ointment in drug stores, and assayedthem for free iodine it is to be presumed that the ages of the severalspecimens were not known the results are found in the following table. Specimen no 1 2 74 per cent specimen no 2 2 85 per cent specimen no 3 2 62 per cent specimen no 4 2 48 per cent specimen no 5 2 53 per cent specimen no 6 2 79 per cent fried192 prepared iodine ointment according to the u s p viiiformula, and assayed it at intervals his results are tabulatedherewith:192 pharm jour , 1912, 89, 610 per cent iodine introduced 4 00 iodine found immediately after making 3 89 iodine found one hour after making 3 51 iodine found one day after making 3 48 iodine found five days after making 3 06 iodine found ten days after making 2 84 iodine found thirty days after making 2 81 iodine found ninety days after making 2 81 iodine found eight months after making 2 81iodine ointment has been official in the u s pharmacopeia since 1870 briefly, the method now used for making the preparation is as follows. Four gm of iodine, 4 gm of potassium iodide and 12 gm of glycerin are weighed into a tared mortar and the mixture triturated until the iodine and potassium iodide are dissolved and a dark, reddish-brown, syrupy liquid is produced eighty gm of benzoinated lard are then added in small portions and with trituration after each addition the mass is then triturated until of uniform consistence 193193 the time required to complete the process after the initialportion of lard has been added should be about twenty minutes paraffins and paraffin preparations-- table a key. A. Formula b. Substance c.

b c pedersen, m d , new york to essay introduction paragraph the editor:-- have you any information concerning the enclosed half page advertisement of syphilodol from the urologic and cutaneous review?. edward s newell, m d , pelham, n y to the editor:-- i am enclosing an advertisement for a substance called “syphilodol” manufactured in new york am not familiar with this article nor have i seen it advertised in the higher class journals can you tell me whether the journal dewritingment of new and nonofficial remedies has passed on this article or whether you have any data concerning it?. it looks a trifle fishy to me louis leroy, m d , memphis, tenn to the editor:-- i am sending the enclosed correspondence syphilodol letters to you as it looks as if it might have essay interesting features from the point of view of your nostrum dewritingment isadore dyer, new orleans, la answer -- these are but essay of the inquiries that have been received onthis subject and it is encouraging to note the scientifically criticalattitude of physicians toward new therapeutic agents according to thefrench medicinal company, inc , which markets this product, “syphilodolis a synthetic chemical product of silver, arsenic and antimony ”nowhere in the advertising matter is there any more definite statementas to the composition of this new “synthetic” than that just quoted the product is now under examination in the association laboratoryand when this is completed a more detailed report will doubtless beforthcoming at present the work has progressed sufficiently to showthat syphilodol tablets contain considerable quantities of mercury!. Although the advertising leaflets claim that the preparation is“the formula of the late dr alfred fournier of paris” and had beenexhaustively tested by metchnikoff, who is alleged to have foundit superior to salvarsan and neosalvarsan, yet, strange to say, acareful search of french medical journals fails to show any reports onsyphilodol verb sap -- query in the journal a m a , feb 23, 1918 thialion to the editor:-- kindly inform me regarding thialion, manufactured by the vass chemical company, danbury, conn please omit my name and address in answering in the journal h c w answer -- thialion is an heirloom of the days when lithium salts weresupported to be nature antidote for all kinds of ailments, supposedlydue to excess of uric acid it was advertised as a uric acid eliminantand therefore good for all kinds of diseases the council on pharmacyand chemistry published a report on thialion in the journal, nov 3, 1906 at that time thialion was advertised by the vass chemicalcompany as a “laxative salt of lithia” with the chemical formula“3li₂o nao so₃ 7ho, ” and an elaborate structural formula was alsofurnished the council reported that the product was not a definitechemical compound, but a mixture consisting chiefly of sodium sulphate, sodium citrate and small amounts of lithia in recent advertisements, thialion is referred to as “a non-effervescing lithiated laxativesalt, ” “a non-hygroscopic, non-deliquescent, granular salt of lithia, ”etc , but the chemical formula does not appear, nor is any definitestatement of composition furnished according to this advertisement, the “indications” for thialion are. “gout, rheumatism, uric aciddiathesis, constipation, acute and chronic, sluggish liver, brightdisease, albuminuria of pregnancy, asthma, incontinence of urine, gravel, cystitis, chronic lead poisoning, headache, neuralgia, neurasthenia and lumbago, hay fever, etc ”-- query in the journala m a , dec 6, 1919 venarsento the editor:-- the following is a copy of a letter sent to theintravenous products company, which needs no explanation. June 8, 1917 the intravenous products co , denver, colo gentlemen:-- in reply to your circular letter under date of june 3, may i say that after using a great quantity of venarsen both in clinical and private paper, i can see no more effect upon these paper than if so much water had been administered this is also the report of don r black, pathologist for bell memorial hospital, university of kansas in our experiments all bloods were tested before and after each administration of this product william a wilson, m d , kansas city, mo correspondence in the journal a m a , july 7, 1917 writing iv contributions from the journal. Miscellany albert abrams, a m , m d , ll d , f r m s “spondylotherapy, ” “electronic reactions, ” the “oscilloclast, ” the “electrobioscope, ” etc for essay time the journal has received inquiries of which thefollowing recent examples are typical this from an ohio physician.

Compt rend soc de biol 54:648, 1902 lability -- neutral secretin is but feebly attacked by a temperatureof 100 c if heated in an autoclave so as to prevent oxidation, thistemperature can be continued for thirty minutes without any changein its activity increasing the temperature increases the speed ofdestruction, so that at 140 c the destructive action is marked 61autoclaving at 15 pounds for fifteen minutes, as an ordinarysterilization of culture mediums, produces, we found, a distinct thoughnot serious decrease in activity secretin acidified to fifth-normalwith hydrochloric acid loses 60 per cent of its activity on fifteenminutes boiling secretin, alkalinized to fifth-normal with sodiumhydroxid loses 95 per cent of its activity in five minutes’ boiling;decreases to a trace in thirty minutes, essay introduction paragraph and disappears entirely insixty minutes at room temperature, with fifth-normal alkalinity, 80per cent of secretin is destroyed in eight hours 61 the destructionprobably means a secondary cleavage of the secretin molecule itself 61 lalou note 21 may. Jour physiol 30:400, 1904 secretin is oxidized readily if left standing uncovered for a summerday, the preparation will be inactive 51 even if kept in theice-chest no other precaution being taken, its activity is lost ina very few days sunlight undoubtedly hastens the oxidative process if care is taken as to sterility, however, and the secretin is kept inthe ice-chest, well stoppered and in a dark flask, it will retain itsactivity for several weeks dixon and hamill51 claimed that secretin disappears quantitatively onpassage through a berkefeld filter at 5 mm pressure lalou, 62 usinghigher pressure, was unable to confirm the finding, but obtained amarked decrease in activity our results are in accord with those oflalou 62 launoy. Arch internat de physiol 3:62, 1906 morel andterroine. Compt rend soc de biol 67:36, 1909 zunz. Arch internat de physiol 8:181, 1909 lalou. Jour de physiol 14:465, 1912 analogy to epinephrin -- the analogy of secretin to epinephrindoes not generally receive enough emphasis both substances arenonspecific in distribution, but specific chemically, and especiallyphysiologically, epinephrin acting on the myoneural junctions, secretinon intestinal digestion they are both relatively simple substancesof low molecular weight, and subject to rapid oxidation whereby theirproperties disappear the action in both paper is very transient theyare the two examples of what starling calls the “acute hormones, ” inwhich it is essential that reaction take place immediately, and shalldisappear as soon as the exciting cause is removed 6363 starling. Proc roy soc med , 8, no 4, 1914, therap and pharm section, p 29 clinical use of secretindiabetes mellitus -- moore, edie and abram64 were the first tosuggest a therapeutic value for secretin, having obtained favorableresults with secretin administration in diabetes they argued that theinternal secretion of the pancreas may be stimulated by secretin, and that essay paper of diabetes may be due to lack of this necessaryexcitant owing to the importance of the question, their announcementwas followed quickly by numerous investigations by other observers previously, spriggs, at the suggestion of starling, had triedintravenous injections of secretin free from depressor substance in adiabetic patient, and had obtained negative results moore, edie andabram gave their secretin by mouth over long periods of the five papercited in their first paper, two were negative the third was that of aman, aged 25, who received daily 30 c c of secretin after a latentperiod of three weeks, the sugar suddenly fell, and after four monthsthe urine was sugar-free six months later a relapse occurred with thedevelopment of phthisis and death the other two patients were a boy, aged 7, and a girl, aged 9, whose urine in from three to five weeksbecame sugar free during the secretin treatment in spite of severediabetes one of these patients later relapsed 65 bainbridge andbeddard66 gave secretin a thorough trial in three paper with negativeresults, and are disposed to attribute the results of moore to dieting dakin and ransom67 cited one case, secretin being given for twelveweeks, with negative results. Foster, 65 nine paper, all negative;charles, 68 three paper, all negative crofton, 69 however, gavesecretin a trial in one case with favorable results moore, edie andabram, in a later paper, 70 report a large number of paper tried withthe majority of results negative, though in essay paper an improvementin the digestion, and in certain paper an increase of weight was noted 64 moore, edie and abram. Biochem jour , 1:28, 1906 65 foster. Jour biol chem , 2:297, 1906 66 bainbridge and beddard. Biochem jour , 1:429, 1906 67 dakin and ransom. Jour biol chem , 2:305, 1906 68 charles.

Pupils dilated essay introduction paragraph. Slightinjection of conjunctivæ mouth open. Tongue not protruding justabove thyroid cartilage extending on right side from median line infront to spinous process was a dirty brown deep furrow with congestedwalls. On left side a line of discoloration due to direct action ofrope soft writings above and below the line much swollen, writingicularly onright side larynx and hyoid bone unnaturally mobile right trapeziusmuscle torn. Sterno-mastoid divided transversely, leaving an intervalof two inches slight ecchymoses between muscle and larynx ecchymoseson ligamentum nuchæ hyoid bone, both greater cornua fractured anddislocated from body. Lesions more marked on right side several smallecchymoses in vicinity larynx not injured brain normal no bloodyor frothy mucus in air-passages lungs not congested one drachm ofstraw-colored serum in pericardium heart empty abdominal organsnormal bladder essaywhat distended with urine see also tidy, “med juris , ” paper 1 to 4 and 60 accident 97 harvey. Indian med gaz , 1876, xi , p 3 - boy, age 1½ years;was swinging by two ropes attached to two posts. The ropes becametwisted around his neck necroscopy showed mark of very small rope infront of neck from ear to ear. Mucous membrane of larynx dark. Lungsmuch congested 98 hackel. Op cit , p 35 - man, age 19, sitting on a load of wood, with the lines around his neck, fell and was hung by the lines 99 biggs and jenkins. New york med jour , 1890, lii , p 30 - case16. Child, 6 months old, sitting on a high chair, fell between thechair guard and seat and was asphyxiated by compression of neck see also tidy op cit , paper 53 and 54 suffocation the term suffocation is applied in a special sense to the act andcondition of preventing access of air in other ways than by pressure onthe neck, as by pressure on the chest, by obstruction at the mouth ornose, by obstruction in the air-passages or on them from neighboringorgans, by irrespirable gases, etc this article will consider all of these except drowning andirrespirable gases, which are treated of elsewhere by other writers smothering is generally understood to mean the act and effect ofstopping the mouth and nose causes external causes - overlaying is a frequent cause of suffocationin infants, which in such paper have usually occupied the same bedwith one or both parents in essay paper the parents have been drunkor otherwise unable to prevent the injury, and the infant may alsobe writingly stupefied with the alcohol derived from its mother milk infants are also essaytimes overlaid by domestic animals again, theyhave been suffocated by being pressed too closely to the motherbreast, or by covering with bedclothes, shawls, etc noble883attributes essay paper of asphyxia in the new-born to anæmia of thebrain from pressure on the skull by forceps, etc , and recommends astreatment for this condition hanging the child head downward, so thatthe blood may gravitate to the brain paper 12 and 30 infants are essaytimes smothered for mercenary purposes persons have been suffocated by the pressure of a crowd pressure onthe chest combined with forcible closure of the mouth and nose wasthe method of burke and williams, in the notorious burking murders case 58 the close application of a hand, cloth, or plaster over noseand mouth is of itself sufficient to cause suffocation, especiallyin children and feeble persons pressure on the abdomen crowds upthe diaphragm and interferes with breathing it is very likely thatno external mark will be found in paper of pressure on the chest andabdomen, but the lungs will be marbled and emphysematous taking plaster casts of the face and neck without inserting tubes inthe nostrils has caused death in essay paper suffocation often followsthe falling of walls, houses, banks of earth, piles of coal or corn orwheat one may fall into and be imbedded in essay mobile substance ascoal, wheat, corn, quicksand, or nightsoil, and be suffocated infantshave been destroyed884 by burying them in manure, ashes, bran, etc in these paper there is not only the entrance of the foreign body intothe air-passages, but the pressure of the mass against the chest andabdomen internal causes - the air-passages may be closed up by foreign bodieswithin them, or within adjoining organs, especially the œsophagus a great variety of substances in one of these two ways has causedsuffocation. Mud, cotton, rags, corn, meat, beans, pepper, potatoskins, the fang of a tooth, artificial teeth, buckles, shells, flint, buttons, screws, crusts of bread, bones, fruit, stones, heads of grass, coins, slate pencils, nuts, nut-shells, shot, penholders, worms, fish, etc see paper 6 and 55 taylor885 states that there wereeighty-one deaths in one year in england and wales from food in theair-passages should an inspiration occur in the act of vomiting, the vomitus maypass into the air-passages. A similar accident may occur in a personwho attempts to swallow and speak at the same time infants have beensuffocated by inspiring vomited milk fitz886 states that food maypass from the digestive tube to the air-passages after death a case of suffocation in an infant by retraction of the base of thetongue is recorded it has been stated that negroes have committedsuicide by doubling back the tongue into the throat, or, as it iscalled, swallowing the tongue 887 in giving anæsthetics, the subjectbeing supine, and the head and neck essaywhat flexed, the tongue, epiglottis, and soft palate may fall backward and suffocation mayfollow howard888 states that pulling the tongue forward under suchcircumstances may reopen the pharynx, but will not lift the epiglottis the thorax should be raised and head and neck extended backward hebelieves that in giving anæsthetics the head should be lower than theshoulders in order to avoid vomiting no food should be taken for essayhours before the anæsthetic paper are recorded of artificial teeth having fallen from the mouthinto the air-passages during anæsthesia and sleep, and in epilepticand puerperal convulsions it would appear advisable that these teethshould be worn only while eating case 13 hemorrhage from the lungs, from rupture of an aneurism or from injuryof the mouth or throat, may make its way into the air-passages andcause suffocation so also the bursting of an abscess of the tonsils orother writing near the air-passages case 7 œdema of the glottis from scalding or other irritation of the faucesor glottis, or from disease of the kidneys. Tumors pressing on essayportion of the air-passages. Rapid, profuse bronchial secretion ininfants. Acute double pleuritic effusion.

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The juice of theleaves, while they are young, essay introduction paragraph or the distilled water of them, or thewater that comes from the tree being bored with an auger, and distilledafterwards. Any of these being drank for essay days together, isavailable to break the stone in the kidneys and bladder, and is goodalso to wash sore mouths bird foot this small herb grows not above a span high with thesis branches spreadupon the ground, set with thesis wings of small leaves the flowers growupon the branches, thesis small ones of a pale yellow colour being seta-head together, which afterwards turn into small jointed pods, wellresembling the claw of small birds, whence it took its name there is another sort of bird foot in all things like the former, but a little larger. The flowers of a pale whitish and red colour, andthe pods distinct by joints like the other, but little more crooked;and the roots do carry thesis small white knots or kernels amongst thestrings place these grow on heaths, and thesis open untilled places of thisland time they flower and seed in the end of summer government and virtues they belong to saturn and are of a drying, binding quality, and thereby very good to be used in wound drinks, asalso to apply outwardly for the same purpose but the latter birdfoot is found by experience to break the stone in the back or kidneys, and drives them forth, if the decoction thereof be taken.