Essay Improver

Report of essay improver the council on pharmacy andchemistry, j a m a 69:1725 nov 17 1917 a requirement similar to that of rule 5 is contained in the federalfood and drugs act and so no objection has been made to this rule whichrequires a truthful statement of the origin and source of articles anillustration for the need of the rule was furnished by the one timepopular “vin mariani”11 which, though very french in its makeup, was found to be largely of the “made in the united states” variety oftipple 11 vin mariani. Official report of council on pharmacy andchemistry-- with comments, j a m a 47:1751 nov 24 1906 the issuance of a patent for a medicinal product does not prove thatsuch a product presents a discovery or that its owner is entitled toa temporary monopoly, yet it is only fair to physicians and to othermanufacturers that notice of such patent claims be given hence, thecouncil publishes in new and nonofficial remedies the informationbearing on this point lay advertising -- rules 3 and 4 provide against the recognition ofarticles that are advertised to the public directly or indirectly, exempting from this requirement preparations which the council believesare safe to be so advertised it has been held with essay justice that certain shotgun proprietariesare purchased by the public with as much circumspection as they areordered by those physicians who are addicted to the prescribing ofthem. But even the exploiters of these mixtures have not denied thatthe use of medicines by the public on its own initiative is surroundedwith thesis objections hence the practice of self medication should notbe encouraged by prescribing or using those preparations advertised forpublic use the only objection to the rule has come from a firm which markets abrand of liquid petrolatum, the standard oil company of indiana thecouncil has considered the question of exempting simple laxatives fromthe restrictions of rules 3 and 4 as it has exempted antiseptics andnonmedicinal foods the conclusion was, however, that the excessiveuse of a simple laxative like a liquid petrolatum, when prompted bynewspaper exploitation, is likely to be detrimental to health byoveruse as well as by misuse the indirect advertisement to the public, which rule 4 providesagainst, has been the means of inducing the extensive lay use of“antikamnia, ” “bromidia” and “fellows’ syrup ” naturally rule 4 hasbeen bitterly opposed by most proprietary firms arguing that thesisphysicians dispense their own drugs, pharmaceutical firms have insistedthat every medicinal preparation should bear on its label, not onlythe dose of the preparation, but also a statement of the diseases inwhich the article is indicated whether manufacturers anticipated theprofession resentment toward the claim that physicians determinethe treatment and perhaps the diagnosis by means of the statements onlabels, or because the shirley amendment to the food and drugs actmakes the proprietor responsible for therapeutic claims on the labelof a medicine, it is a fact that fewer preparations than formerly needto be refused on account of infringement on this rule in fact, essaythoroughly objectionable proprietaries make a show of being “ethical”by omitting all therapeutic discussion from the labels of theirpreparations therapeutic claims -- rule 6 makes ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies any articles regarding which the manufacturer or hisagents make unwarranted, exaggerated or misleading statements as tothe therapeutic value recognizing the long established custom oftherapeutic exaggeration, it has been most difficult to determinethe degree of conservatism which might with fairness be requiredof a manufacturer in view of the common acceptance of individualimpressions as dependable evidence, it is often almost embarrassingto declare as incompetent the statement of essay well meaning andall-too-kind-hearted doctor however, as the pitfalls of haphazardclinical trials become better known and the physician mistrust ofglowing accounts of marvelous cures more outspoken, the manufacturers’claims will be more moderate nomenclature -- were it possible to enact and enforce a law whichwould oblige manufacturers to sell their medicinal products underproperly descriptive names and which would make it illegal for aphysician to prescribe it unless he understood the meaning of suchproperly descriptive titles, then the council might safely disband inthat case, physicians would discontinue the use of most proprietarypreparations in favor of established drugs, and successful newcomersmight each year be counted on the fingers of one hand such a rationalnomenclature is not to be thought of, at least in our generation rule 8 requires that the name of an article shall not be misleading, that it shall not be therapeutically suggestive, and that establisheddrugs shall not be disguised by fanciful titles it recognizes theright of discoverers of new drugs to name their discoveries, andinterposes no objection to arbitrary names for such products so longas such names are not misleading or do not suggest the therapeuticuses of the products as the rule provides against the recognition ofcoined names for established nonproprietary drugs, so it requires thatmixtures of drugs shall bear names descriptive of their composition it would be a long step forward if physicians would recognize morefully the objections to the thesis proprietaries which have, as theironly point of originality, a non-descriptive name for an old drug ora mixture of well known drugs it is an encouraging sign that thefederal trade commission, when issuing licenses for the manufacture ofsynthetic drugs introduced under german patents, stipulated that allmanufacturers authorized to make a given drug shall use the same namefor it irrational articles -- rule 10 provides against the recognition ofan article which, because of its composition, is useless or inimicalto the best interests of the public and medical profession thisrule excludes medicaments which 1 are unessential modifications ofestablished articles, or 2 are of no therapeutic value or 3 areirrational with regard to the recognition of mixtures or compoundscontaining two or more active ingredients, the council requires thatthe manufacturer establish the rationality of its combination the rulehas prevented the recognition of thesis unnecessary so-called ethicalspecialties though a mass of testimonials was often to be had forthem, these contained no evidence that the mixture was superior to itspotent ingredient, or that its therapeutic effect had been determined that there is a healthy tendency to use single drugs for their definiteaction and to discard combinations be they shotgun proprietaries or“mixed” vaccines is perhaps best illustrated by the fact that atthe last revision of the u s pharmacopeia a considerable number ofcomplex antiquities were omitted from that book feeling confident that this meets with the endorsement of theprofession, the council is examining more critically the evidence forthe value of pharmaceutical mixtures -- from the journal a m a , may10, 1919 “accepted by the council on pharmacy and chemistry”under the caption given above, the journal of the missouri statemedical association, in its july issue, speaks editorially as follows:the council on pharmacy and chemistry of the american medicalassociation is a dewritingment of our national organization that hasnot received the plaudits and encomiums of a wildly joyous medicalprofession nor the grateful praises of the enthusiastic manufacturerof pharmaceuticals the council seems indeed to be the unloved childof the entire family of subsidiary bodies of the association perhapsthe reason for this may be found in the character of its duties, forthe council must expose fraud, essaytimes in high places, and protectthe physician from being duped by avaricious persons and by personswho are themselves essaytimes the victims of their own credulity itthus happens that the sale of essay proprietary article previously heldin high esteem by the practitioner proves valueless, perhaps evenfraudulent the practitioner, however, may have credited much of hissuccess in treating certain conditions to that preparation and themaker has had success in accumulating dollars from its sale and bothwritingies emit a loud and vicious roar against the council, becausethey both lose money nobody wants to be “protected” against makingmoney-- make it honestly, if possible, but make it-- but this black sheepamong the councils of the american medical association insists on theirmaking their money honestly!. Despite thesis obstacles thrown into its path, the council on pharmacyand chemistry has serenely pursued its allotted tasks, correctedits mistakes, improved its methods, and today stands as the onlymedium to which the honest physician may turn for information-- notmisinformation-- regarding proprietary articles during the war thecouncil and the chemical laboratory were in close cooperation withthe surgeon-general office, testing and investigating every articleoffered to the government for the treatment of sick soldiers thevariety and the number of fakish and fraudulent stuff offered to thesurgeon-general was a pitiable exhibit of the mental gymnastics ofessay people just now the council and the laboratory have a new andimportant field before them, i e , to protect the physicians againstworthless and useless serums, vaccines and synthetics it will be thecouncil unpleasant duty to expose the fraudulent and useless amongthese articles and stamp truth on those found worthy we seem to have wandered from the topic in our caption, but not so inreality, because the burden of our thought is to lend our influence tothe spread of the motto of the advertising clubs of the world, namely, “truth in advertising ” it is our purpose to stimulate a larger degreeof enthusiasm for the work of the council on pharmacy and chemistryand the chemical laboratory, a more generous flow of inquiriesconcerning articles unfamiliar to the physician, and writingicularly tourge that the words “accepted by the council on pharmacy and chemistryof the american medical association” be printed on the label and onall advertising circulars of proprietary articles that have beenadmitted to new and nonofficial remedies then, when pamphlets andcirculars are received by physicians they will read the statements ofmanufacturers with sympathetic understanding and with full confidencein the verity of the declarations the importance of creating justthat sort of receptivity in the mind of the prospective buyer is sowell known to the astute publicity expert that it is needless forus to dwell on its advantages every proprietary article advertisedin our journal, in the journal of the american medical association, and in the other state association journals, as well as in severalwell-edited privately owned journals, does in effect say to the readerthat the articles so advertised are accepted by the council becauseonly proprietary articles so accepted are accepted by us the fact isfurther acknowledged when these firms are permitted to exhibit theirgoods at our annual sessions for again the rule is enforced that onlyproprietary articles which have been approved by the council may beplaced on display why not complete the circle of ideas-- it would not be a “viciouscircle”-- by printing on labels, in advertisements and circulars, thewords. “accepted by the council on pharmacy and chemistry”?.

You may give it in powder or any convenient decoction hypoglottis, laurus, alexandrina laurel of alexandria, provokesurine and the menses, and is held to be a singular help to women intravail hypoglossum, the same with hypoglossum before, only different namesgiven by different authors, the one deriving his name from the tongueof a horse, of which form the leaf is. The other the form of the littleleaf, because small leaves like small tongues grow upon the greater iberis cardamantice sciatica-cresses i suppose so called becausethey help the sciatica, or huckle-bone gout ingumalis, asther setwort or shartwort. Being bruised and applied, they help swellings, botches, and venerous swellings in the groin, whence they took their name, as also inflammation and falling out ofthe fundament iris see the roots isatis, glastum woad drying and binding. The side being bathed withit, it easeth pains in the spleen, cleanseth filthy corroding gnawingulcers iva arthritica the same with camæpytis iuncus oderatus the same with schœnanthus labrum veneris the same with dipsacus lactuca lettice cold and moist, cools the inflammation of thestomach, commonly called heart-burning. Provokes sleep, resistsdrunkenness, and takes away the ill effects, of it. Cools the blood, quenches thirst, breeds milk, and is good for choleric bodies, and suchas have a frenzy, or are frantic it is more wholeessay eaten boiledthan raw logabus, herba leporina a kind of trefoil growing in france andspain let them that live there look after the virtues of it lavendula lavender. Hot and dry in the third degree. The templesand forehead bathed with the juice of it.

On which are set divers branches ofgreen leaves shorter and smaller than essay improver fennel to the top. At the jointswhereof come forth small yellowish flowers, which turn into roundberries, green at first and of an excellent red colour when they areripe, shewing like bead or coral, wherein are contained exceeding hardblack seeds. The roots are dispersed from a spongeous head into thesislong, thick, and round strings, wherein is sucked much nourishment outof the ground, and increaseth plentifully thereby prickly asparagus, or sperage descript this grows usually in gardens, and essay of it growswild in appleton meadows in gloucestershire, where the poor peoplegather the buds of young shoots, and sell them cheaper that our gardenasparagus is sold in london time for the most writing they flower, and bear their berries late inthe year, or not at all, although they are housed in winter government and virtues they are both under the dominion of jupiter the young buds or branches boiled in ordinary broth, make the bellysoluble and open, and boiled in white wine, provoke urine, beingstopped, and is good against the stranguary or difficulty of makingwater. It expelleth the gravel and stone out of the kidneys, andhelpeth pains in the reins and boiled in white wine or vinegar, it isprevalent for them that have their arteries loosened, or are troubledwith the hip-gout or sciatica the decoction of the roots boiled inwine and taken, is good to clear the sight, and being held in the moutheaseth the toothache the garden asparagus nourisheth more than thewild, yet hath it the same effects in all the afore-mentioned diseases the decoction of the root in white wine, and the back and belly bathedtherewith, or kneeling or lying down in the same, or sitting thereinas a bath, has been found effectual against pains of the reins andbladder, pains of the mother and cholic, and generally against allpains that happen to the lower writings of the body, and no less effectualagainst stiff and benumbed sinews, or those that are shrunk by crampsand convulsions, and helps the sciatica ash tree this is so well known, that time would be misspent in writing adescription of it. Therefore i shall only insist upon the virtues of it government and virtues it is governed by the sun. And the youngtender tops, with the leaves, taken inwardly, and essay of themoutwardly applied, are singularly good against the bitings of viper, adder, or any other venomous beast. And the water distilled therefrombeing taken, a small quantity every morning fasting, is a singularmedicine for those that are subject to dropsy, or to abate thegreatness of those that are too gross or fat the decoction of theleaves in white wine helps to break the stone, and expel it, and curesthe jaundice the ashes of the bark of the ash made into lye, and thoseheads bathed therewith which are leprous, scabby, or scald, they arethereby cured the kernels within the husks, commonly called ashenkeys, prevail against stitches and pains in the sides, proceeding ofwind, and voideth away the stone by provoking urine i can justly except against none of all this, save only the first, viz that ash-tree tops and leaves are good against the bitings ofserpents and vipers i suppose this had its rise from gerrard or pliny, both which hold that there is such an antipathy between an adderand an ash-tree, that if an adder be encompassed round with ash-treeleaves, she will sooner run through the fire than through the leaves:the contrary to which is the truth, as both my eyes are witnesses therest are virtues essaything likely, only if it be in winter when youcannot get the leaves, you may safely use the bark instead of them thekeys you may easily keep all the year, gathering them when they areripe avens, called also colewort, and herb bonet descript the ordinary avens hath thesis long, rough, dark green, winged leaves, rising from the root, every one made of thesis leaves seton each side of the middle rib, the largest three whereof grow at theend, and are snipped or dented round about the edges. The other beingsmall pieces, essaytimes two and essaytimes four, standing on each sideof the middle rib underneath them among which do rise up divers roughor hairy stalks about two feet high, branching forth with leaves atevery joint not so long as those below, but almost as much cut in onthe edges, essay into three writings, essay into more on the tops of thebranches stand small, pale, yellow flowers consisting of five leaves, like the flowers of cinquefoil, but large, in the middle whereof standa small green herb, which when the flower is fallen, grows to be round, being made of thesis long greenish purple seeds, like grains which willstick upon your clothes the root consists of thesis brownish strings orfibres, smelling essaywhat like unto cloves, especially those which growin the higher, hotter, and drier grounds, and in free and clear air place they grow wild in thesis places under hedge sides, and by thepath-ways in fields. Yet they rather delight to grow in shadowy thansunny places time they flower in may or june for the most writing, and their seedis ripe in july at the farthest government and virtues it is governed by jupiter, and that giveshopes of a wholeessay healthful herb it is good for the diseases ofthe chest or breast, for pains, and stiches in the side, and to expelcrude and raw humours from the belly and stomach, by the sweet savourand warming quality it dissolves the inward congealed blood happeningby falls or bruises, and the spitting of blood, if the roots, eithergreen or dry, be boiled in wine and drank. As also all manner of inwardwounds or outward, if washed or bathed therewith the decoction alsobeing drank, comforts the heart, and strengthens the stomach and a coldbrain, and therefore is good in the spring times to open obstructionsof the liver, and helps the wind cholic.

And nowif you look a little farther, you may see plainly without a pair ofspectacles, that foreign physicians are not so selfish as ours are, butmore communicative of the virtues of plants to people darnel it is called jam and wray. In sussex they call it crop, it being apestilent enemy among corn descript this has all the winter long sundry long, flat, and roughleaves, which, when the stalk rises, which is slender and jointed, arenarrower, but rough still. On the top grows a long spike, composed ofthesis heads set one above another, containing two or three husks, witha sharp but short beard of awns at the end. The seed is easily shakenout of the ear, the husk itself being essaywhat rough place the country husbandmen do know this too well to grow amongtheir corn, or in the borders and pathways of the other fields that arefallow government and virtues it is a malicious writing of sullen saturn asit is not without essay vices, so hath it also thesis virtues the mealof darnel is very good to stay gangrenes, and other such like frettingand eating cankers, and putrid sores. It also cleanses the skin of allleprosies, morphews, ringworms, and the like, if it be used with saltand raddish roots and being used with quick brimstone and vinegar, it dissolves knots and kernels, and breaks those that are hard to bedissolved, being boiled in wine with pigeon dung and linseed. Adecoction thereof made with water and honey, and the places bathedtherewith, is profitable for the sciatica darnel meal applied in apoultice draws forth splinters and broken bones in the flesh. The reddarnel, boiled in red wine and taken, stays the lask and all otherfluxes, and women bloody issues. And restrains urine that passes awaytoo suddenly dill descript the common dill grows up with seldom more than one stalk, neither so high, nor so great usually as fennel, being round and fewerjoints thereon, whose leaves are sadder, and essaywhat long, and so likefennel that it deceives thesis, but harder in handling, and essaywhatthicker, and of a strong unpleasant scent. The tops of the stalks havefour branches and smaller umbels of yellow flowers, which turn intosmall seed, essaywhat flatter and thinner than fennel seed the root isessaywhat small and woody, perishes every year after it hath borne seed:and is also unprofitable, being never put to any use place it is most usually sown in gardens and grounds for thepurpose, and is also found wild in thesis places government and virtues mercury has the dominion of this plant, andtherefore to be sure it strengthens the brain the dill being boiledand drank, is good to ease swellings and pains. It also stays the bellyand stomach from casting the decoction therefore helps women thatare troubled with the pains and windiness of the mother, if they sittherein it stays the hiccough, being boiled in wine, and but smelledunto being tied in a cloth the seed is of more use than the leaves, and more effectual to digest raw and vicious humours, and is used inmedicines that serve to expel wind, and the pains proceeding therefrom the seed, being roasted or fried, and used in oils or plasters, dissolve the imposthumes in the fundament. And dries up all moistulcers, especially in the fundament.

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Age, 52 essay improver. Was bitten by a poisonous snake-- a copperhead-- seventeen years ago on the anniversary of the bite the arm would swell to more than twice its normal size and there would be pain, chills and fever after a month of this the acute symptoms would disappear and the arm would show large scaly blotches which upon being removed would disclose a thin mucous liquid throughout the seventeen years pain was constant, being writingicularly acute in midsummer around the anniversary of the bite this patient had consulted thesis physicians during the seventeen years of suffering without any relief large doses of narcotic remedies were necessary each day to subdue the pain twenty-four hours after the first injection of hemo-therapin all pain was dissipated after four treatments the patient was considered well and there has been no return of any of the symptoms since the last treatment six months ago ”hemo-therapin is sold in ampules. 6 for $5 and 12 for $10, and acircular sent to a physician contained this typewritten note. “fees -- while the physician fee is not regulated by this company, the physicians who use hemo-therapin get $5 00 and $10 00 for each treatment ”-- from the journal a m a , jan 5, 1918 venosal report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report on venosal has been adopted by the council, andits publication authorized w a puckner, secretary “venosal” is one of the products of the intravenous products company, denver, colo its composition has been variously, and obscurely, described. “venosal is a sterile solution representing 1 gm 15 4 gr of salicylates in combination, together with colchicum ” “this is a product for intravenous use the composition of which is sodium salicylate, 15 4 grs 1 gm , iron salicylate a minute quantity and the equivalent of approximately 2 grs dried colchicum root ”none of these “formulas” gives the quantity of the product containingthe 1 gm of salicylate, etc , but presumably it refers to the contentsof 1 ampule or 20 c c this inference is in accord with the analysisof the product made in the chemical laboratory of the american medicalassociation the analysis also brought out the fact that the amount ofiron in a given ampule was 0 0008 gm about 1/80 grain this trace ofiron in the presence of salicylate gives the product a purple color venosal is recommended for the treatment of “rheumatism, ” meaning, thecontext would indicate, infectious rheumatic fever as colchicum hasno special action on this disease and as there is no apparent reasonfor the employment of the trace of iron present, these additions infixed proportions are unscientific, if not absurd according to theadvertising matter.