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“toxicide contains lachesis 12x, tarantula 6x, psorinum special 15x, silicia 6x and excipient q s the excipient is sweet milk “these remedies are combined in the sweet milk and put through a process of development, which produces the curative agent which we call ‘toxicide’ “put essay homework help up in tablet form, sugar coated and colored red ”no information is given as to the proportions, either relative oractual, of the ingredients neither is any information given regardingthe “process of development” to which the mixture is subjected, nor theamount of the finished mixture which is contained in toxicide tablets the toxicide laboratories present the following “theory”. “in combining these remedies and processing with milk, we develop a latent immunizing active principle, which usually controls the most virulently, active, septic infections promptly ”illustration. Photographic reproduction reduced of an advertisementof the “originator” of toxicide.

“the a m a chemical laboratory reported that formitol tablets contained formaldehyd or paraformaldehyd, an ammonium compound, and essay hexamethylenamin it is probable that the formaldehyd or paraformaldehyd was produced by the decomposition of hexamethylenamin originally present in the tablets but decomposed by long contact with the acid ”at the time this report was published, the label and the advertisingmatter contained but vague and indefinite statements with regard tothe composition of formitol tablets in the october, 1919, issue ofpatchwork, the house organ of the e l patch co , it was denied thatthese tablets contain hexamethylenamin since none had ever been used intheir manufacture it was also claimed that the company had a “printedsheet giving the formula of these tablets ”the council advised the e l patch co that it desires to publish onlyfacts about the products which it examines and that if the report onformitol tablets was inaccurate in any way the council would want tocorrect any error it might have unintentionally made as the formitoladvertising in the files of the council contained no information as tothe composition of the tablets, the firm was also requested to send theprinted sheet giving the “formula ”when this printed “formula” came it was found to be a sheet used bythe e l patch co for the purpose of giving its salesmen informationregarding formitol tablets, to be passed on to the physician thisprinted sheet conveyed the information that formitol tablets containammonium chlorid, benzoic acid, citric acid, guaiac, hyoscyamus, menthol, paraformaldehyd and tannic acid, but it gave no information inregard to the amount of any of the ingredients except that it declaredthat each tablet represents the equivalent of 10 minims of a 1 percent formaldehyd solution because of the nonquantitative, and, therefore meaningless printed“formula” and because, also, of its complexity, it was thoughtdesirable to make a more complete analysis of formitol tablets experience has shown that frequently the real formula of a thing isquite different from the alleged formula published by the manufacturer the details of the laboratory later analysis will appear in theannual reports of the chemical laboratory or may be had on request the result of the laboratory additional experimental work, especiallywhen taken in connection with investigations made elsewhere onthe interaction of formaldehyd and ammonium chlorid justifies theconclusion that formitol tablets do contain essay hexamethylenamin, even though the amount may be very small as the e l patch co declare that no hexamethylenamin is put into formitol tablets theconclusion drawn in the council original report to the effectthat the formaldehyd probably was formed by the decomposition ofhexamethylenamin was evidently an error the hexamethylenamin presentis doubtless essay homework help produced by the action of the paraformaldehyd on theammonium chlorid present the analysis also showed that more than 78 per cent of the weightof formitol tablets was made up of sugars and about 16 5 per cent was starch and other material, essay of which was talcum or similarmaterial this means that about 94 per cent of the total weight ofthe tablets is sugar and starch, neither of which is mentioned in theprinted “formula ” the significance of this is apparent when it isconsidered that there are eight ingredients listed in the “formula” forwhich therapeutic effects are claimed since a tablet weighs about 13 5grains, the combined weight of all the claimed active ingredients isless than 1 grain per tablet!. The amount of ammonium chlorid found, as indicated by the totalnitrogen, was not more than 1 0 per cent or about 1/8 grain pertablet the amount of benzoic acid found was 0 34 per cent or 1/25grain per tablet yet these two drugs are said to exert their peculiarexpectorant action the u s p lozenge of ammonium chlorid contains1-1/2 grains ammonium chlorid or twelve times the amount of this drugin a formitol tablet the tannic acid contained in the tablets could not be determined withaccuracy but it was much less than 1 per cent or 1/8 grain pertablet yet it is said to add valuable astringent qualities to formitoltablets!. the u s p lozenge of tannic acid contains 1 grain oftannic acid the quantity of guaiac as resin is but a fraction of 1 per cent yet it is said to imwriting to formitol tablets “stimulant resolvent”properties and it is intimated that there is sufficient to be of valuein “paper of abscess of the throat and inflammation of the tissues ”the total acidity indicates the presence of about 2 per cent ofcitric acid or 1/4 grain per tablet yet this amount is said to be“antiseptic” and “aids in the general results ”while the presence of the drug hyoscyamus henbane was not positivelyidentified by microscopic examination, alkaloids were present the manufacturers claim that the tablets contain menthol yet onlya suggestion of menthol could be obtained from the odor however, the odor of methyl salicylate-- a constituent not declared in the“formula”-- predominated throughout the operations of analysis formitol tablets furnish a good illustration of essay well establishedbut often ignored truths:1 “formulas” that are nonquantitative are valueless or worse thanvalueless 2 the fact that a manufacturer puts certain drugs in a mixture, is noproof that these drugs are there when the mixture reaches the patient the physician must be assured that they are there when he prescribesthem 3 complex mixtures should be avoided it is absurd to expect, asis claimed in the case of formitol tablets, anodyne, antiseptic, astringent, expectorant, and resolvent action all at the sametime -- from the journal a m a , june 19, 1920 sukro-serum and aphlegmatol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrytwo years ago, american newspapers contained accounts of an allegedcure for pulmonary tuberculosis “discovered” by prof domenico lomonaco of rome, italy at that time no reference to the “cure” couldbe found in medical journals which had come from italy and othereuropean countries the journal a m a , july 13, 1918, p 142 later, reports were published of experiments carried out in italy, according to which the intramuscular injection of solutions of sugar saccharose-- cane sugar diminished pulmonary secretion and was ofconsiderable value in the treatment of tuberculosis the journala m a , sept 28, 1918, p 1083 on the whole the reports of thetrial of what has been called the italian sugar cure for consumptionhave been unfavorable at a meeting in paris in october, 1918, drs louis rénon and mignot reported that they had found that the diseasein guinea-pigs was not modified by the treatment and with humans theresults were also negative paris letter, the journal a m a , nov 23, 1918, p 1760 in view of the exploitation of this treatment in the united statesby the anglo-french drug co , which offers “sukro-serum, ” and by g giambalvo & co , which sells “aphlegmatol, ” and because of inquiriesreceived, the council has authorized publication of the statement whichfollows w a puckner, secretary a circular issued by the anglo-french drug co , describes “sukro-serum”as a “sterilized solution of lacto-gluco-saccharose ” by reading thecircular to the end, however, one learns that “sukro-serum” is nota “serum” in the ordinary sense but apparently it is a solution ofordinary sugar sucrose “sukro-serum is a sterilized, speciallyprepared solution of saccharose ”sukro-serum has been advertised n y med jour , sept 6, 1919as an “intramuscular injection for tuberculosis” “ ready for usein paper of pulmonary and general tuberculosis” with the assertionthat “it is quite certain that in the near future sukro-serum will belargely used and its value fully recognized ” the circular receivedfrom the anglo-french drug co contains quotations from an article byprofessor lo monaco in the british medical journal aug 24, 1918setting forth the merits of intramuscular injections of sucrose intuberculosis it is recommended that “néocaine-surrénine” which theanglo-french drug co supplies be used for the control of pain whensukro-serum is injected the circular enclosed with a package of “aphlegmatol, ” purchased fromg giambalvo & co , contained the following with reference to thecomposition of this preparation. “a solution of hydrats of carbon after the formula of prof d lo monaco, director of the institut of physiological chemistry of the university of rome contents. Sucrose c₁₂h₂₂o₁₁ glucose and galactose c₆h₁₂o₆ ”the package contained ampules of thin, fragile, brown colored glass, containing approximately 2-1/2 c c of light, clear, amber colored, thick, sticky fluid, having a distinct caramel odor reactionp↓{h} 5 0 a reducing substance probably glucose amounting to 7 4per cent was found by using benedict method for estimating glucosequantitatively. After hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid, 55 5 percent glucose was found there was no reaction for albumin no attemptwas made to identify the sugars, as it seemed probable that in thepreparation caramel had been produced the circular which accompanied the package of aphlegmatol contained thefollowing information spelling and composition as in original aboutits use and effects. To be emploied where a large bronchial secretion is present in the respiratory branches disease the secretion will diminish and, in non complicated paper, it will completely disappear fever, cough, hemottisis, night perspiration, vomiting and difficulty of breathing are, in the meantime, diminuished aphlegmatol acts also as a riconstituent, being itself a nurrishing composition, improves the digestive function of the body and increases the arterial pressure 5 c c 2 phials of aphlegmatol per day must be injected intramuscularly in the gluteus if the patient wishes two injections may be made, one at the right immediately followed by a second one at the left the cure must not be interrupted untill essaytime after expectoration has disappeared, which result may be obtained only after fifty or sixty days, in the meantime the patient must be controlled by his home physician, especialy when thermal elevation of the body takes place improvement will be manifested on or about the tenth day of the first injection in the advertising circular, which is apparently intended for generaldistribution, much the same information is given as in the sheetenclosed with the ampules, except that in the directions we find:“if the injections are painful-- especially in paper where patientsare very emaciated-- physicians are advised to inject together withaphlegmatol, as an anesthetic, a vial with 1 c c solution of stovainat 3% ” the advertising for aphlegmatol contains thesis misspelled wordsand appears to be the work of those ignorant of the english language tuberculosis is a widespread disease and a majority of the uninformedare only too willing and ready to try such a “cure ” the preparationsappear to be nothing more than concentrated solutions of sugar itis probable that a small amount of the cane sugar might be invertedto glucose and fructose, but experiments have shown that cane sugarsubcutaneously administered in the small amounts used in thisinstance is largely excreted in the urine unchanged less is knownabout galactose, but the evidence available would indicate thatgalactose is largely excreted in the urine unchanged when givensubcutaneously glucose would be absorbed as such, and in the amountsunder consideration, used by the system much the same as when given bymouth -- from the journal a m a , aug 21, 1920 supsalvs not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following reportdeclaring supsalvs anglo-french drug company inadmissible to new andnonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary supsalvs are advertised by the anglo-french drug company as “stablesuppositories of ‘606’ of french manufacture” with the claim thatby the rectal administration of these suppositories the effects ofarsphenamine may be obtained the asserted efficacy of supsalvsmedication is based in writing on the claim that for these suppositoriesan excipient was found which mixes with the cocoa butter base “to forman assimilable emulsion ” “the active principle and the vehicle being bound to one another, the mucous membrane is able to absorb both simultaneously and progressively in the form of an organic emulsion ”as no information was furnished the council by the anglo-french drugcompany on the origin or quality of the arsphenamine used in thepreparation of supsalvs or the character of the vehicle which was“bound” to the arsphenamine in such a way as to permit the absorptionof this combination in the form of an “organic emulsion, ” the firmwas requested to furnish. 1 evidence that the arsphenamine used insupsalvs complies with the n n r standards and that deteriorationof it does not occur in the preparation of the suppositories or onkeeping 2 the identity of the ingredients composing the suppository the anglo-french drug company did not supply the requested evidenceand consequently the council judged the preparation on the basis ofthe information received from the company, and that contained in theavailable advertising and circulars it found supsalvs inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies, first because the quality of themedicament contained in the suppositories has not been established, andsecond because the claimed efficacy of this preparation as a means ofsecuring the effects of arsphenamine lacks substantiating proof during the past few years essay french physicians have reportedfavorably on the intrarectal administration of arsphenamine boyd andjoseph at panama published the journal, aug 17, 1918, p 521 anenthusiastic report on intrarectal injection of arsphenamine but didnot refer to its use in the form of suppositories in a comprehensivereport, on the “treatment of syphilis” quarterly journal of medicine, july, 1917 l w harrison stated that arsphenamine salvarsan in theshape of an enema is definitely less effective than intravenously andthat “neisser and the vast majority of workers can see no value in therectal method ” schamberg and hirschler a safe and efficient intensivemethod of treating syphilis, therapeutic gazette, november, 1919, p 761 have given a rather thorough trial of this method. The resultswere most disappointing.

Does not precipitate withchlorid. Dissolves in water readily. A 25 per cent solution has a highspecific gravity silvol, 1 137 at 20 c. Argyrol, 1 147 at 20 c , andis not very viscid viscosity, 1 25 a 1:1, 000 solution of silvol isclear and about 50 per cent deeper in color than a solution of argyrolof the same strength silvol differs from argyrol mainly in that its solutions yield a fineprecipitate with egg albumin under suitable conditions, while argyrolis nonprecipitant. And in that silvol solutions are not so effectivelydecolorized by lloyd reagent the manufacturers did not reply to an inquiry with regard to thebasis for the claims made for silvol see appendix the referee wastherefore obliged to deduce these claims from the firm advertisingmatter about the same claims are made for the local use of silvol asare generally made for argyrol these may be accepted without detailedevidence in view of the similarity of the two preparations its usefulness, as suggested in the advertising, when given by mouth“in the treatment of acute or chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, orgastro-enteritis, ” or the efficacy of very dilute solutions 0 2 percent against dysentery, etc , is doubtful and requires substantiationby evidence the claims that silvol is astringent, though nonirritantand noncoagulant, that it is a “powerful germicide” or even that itis a “powerful antiseptic, ” and that it may be used with advantagewherever “a silver salt is indicated, ” need substantiation there is noproof of the assertions that silvol is “the most efficacious of silversalts”. “the most efficient antiseptic, ” and “the most remarkableorganic silver compound ”as the manufacturers have not presented any evidence for their highlyimprobable claims, and as they have not signified any intention ofmaking their claims agree with substantiated facts, it is recommendedthat silvol be declared inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies the council adopted the report of its referee and authorized itspublication appendixthe following letter from the secretary of the council was sent toparke, davis & company, march 20, 1917 no reply to it has beenreceived. The referee of the council who is conducting an investigation of silver preparations asked me to inquire if you are willing to submit your evidence for the following claims which are made in your circulars for silvol. 1 how it is possible for the solution to be astringent, and at the same time nonirritant and noncoagulant?. 2 that intestinal irrigation with a silvol solution containing 10 to 15 grains to the pint is sufficiently bactericidal to “be used in the abortive treatment of such infectious processes as dysentery, cholera infantum, and colitis ” 3 what evidence have you as to the degree of antiseptic and germicidal power of silvol solutions?. 4 what evidence have you as to the degree of antiseptic and germicidal power of 5 per cent silvol ointment?. A reply to the above questions and any other information in regardto silvol will receive careful consideration -- from the journala m a , july 13, 1918 katharmon report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfollowing inquiries, the council took up “katharmon” for considerationand authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary the katharmon chemical company of st louis in advertising itskatharmon appeals especially to a profession whose members, shouldthey live up to their ethical code, could not prescribe it 124 in1893 when the publication of “a formula” for proprietary preparationswas thought to satisfy the requirements of scientific medicine anadvertisement in the journal of the american medical association gavethe following “formula” for katharmon:124 “ it is equally unethical to prescribe or dispense secretmedicines or other secret remedial agents, ” sec 6, art i, chapterii, principles of medical ethics “hydrastis canadensis, phytolacca decandra, acid salicylous c p from oil of wintergreen, acid boric c p , mentha arvensis, thymus vulgaris, dist ext hamamelis virg conc ”in 1907 an advertisement in the kansas city medical index-lancetdeclared that. “katharmon represents in chemical combination the active principles of hydrastis canadensis, gaultheria procumbens, hamamelis virginica, phytolacca decandra, mentha arvensis, thymus vulgaris, with two grains c p boric acid to each fluid drachm ”now the advertisements which appear in essay medical journals state. “katharmon represents in combination hydrastis canadensis, thymus vulgaris, mentha arvensis, phytolacca decandra, 10-1/2 grains acid borosalicylic, 24 grains sodium pyroborate to each fluid ounce of pure distilled extract of witch hazel ”a comparison of these so-called formulas shows that they have not onlyvaried from time to time, but that in no instance was a quantitativestatement with regard to all the asserted ingredients given the chemical laboratory of the a m a reports. Katharmon has analkaline reaction and therefore cannot contain boric acid, salicylicacid or “borosalicylic acid” the latter is unknown to medicalliterature except as loosely applied to a simple mixture of boric andsalicylic acids the solution gives tests for sodium, borate, andsalicylate and therefore probably contains sodium borate and sodiumsalicylate examined by the methods used for the determination ofhydrastin in goldenseal preparations, a residue giving only a fainttest for alkaloid was obtained. If present at all, hydrastis canadensis goldenseal is there only in very small amounts a circular wrapped with the trade package of katharmon contained thefollowing, palpably unwarranted, claims.

And an incision should be made with a pair of scissorsbetween these ligatures the jejunum and ilium should first be removedtogether by seizing the gut with the left hand, keeping it on thestretch, and cutting with a pair of scissors through the mesenteryclose to its intestinal attachment the cæcum, colon, and rectum shouldthen be removed in a similar essay homework help manner the intestines being placed in large absolutely clean dishes, whichhave previously been rinsed with distilled water, are opened. Greatcare being taken that none of the intestinal contents are lost thesmall intestines should be opened in one dish and the large intestinein another a portion of the intestines where morbid appearances aremost likely to be seen in paper of poisoning are the duodenum, thelower writing of the ilium, and the rectum the comparative intensity ofthe appearances of irritation should be especially noted for example, if the stomach appears normal and the intestines are found inflamed thepossibility of poison from an irritant may be denied the intestines are opened along their detached border by theenterotome care should be taken to distinguish the post-mortemdiscolorations which are usually seen along the intestines from thoseproduced by disease the former are most marked in the dependentportions they are apt to occur in patches which can be readilyrecognized by stretching the wall of the gut the darkish brown orpurple discolorations which are essaytimes seen as the result ofdecomposition are due to the imbibition from the vessels of decomposedhæmoglobin much care and experience are necessary to tell the amountof congestion which is within normal limits and to recognize changes ofcolor produced by decomposition the pathological lesions ordinarily looked for in the examinationof the intestines are ulcers, perforation, hemorrhages, strictures, tumors, and the evidences of various inflammations to obtain anaccurate idea of the various portions of the mucous membrane of theintestines, it is essaytimes necessary to remove their contents whenvery adherent this should be done by allowing as small a portionof distilled water as possible to flow over their surface if anyabnormalities are noticed along the intestinal tract, an accuratedescription should be given of their situation and extent. As also theamount of congestion seen in different portions of the intestinal tract if possible the different portions of the intestines, as well as thestomach, should be examined immediately after being exposed to view, as under the influence of the air those writings which are pale maybecome red, and slight redness may become very pronounced in this wayonly can we estimate the degree of vascularity of the various writingsafter death however, in paper of suspected poisoning, when it isimpossible for the chemist to be present at the autopsy, the medicalexaminer should not open the stomach and intestines, but place themin sealed jars as soon as possible afterward, the chemist beingpresent, they should then be examined in the manner indicated whatmay be lost by waiting, in changes of color which have taken place, will be more than counterbalanced by the data which the chemist willobtain from observing the contents and mucous membrane of the stomachand intestines when they are first exposed the characteristic odorsof certain poisons are so evanescent that they quickly disappear afteropening of the stomach and intestines after a thorough examination of the intestines, they are to be put withtheir contents into wide-mouthed vessels, each writing by itself, andthe basins in which they were opened washed with distilled water andthe washings put into the same bottle as soon as the intestines aretransferred to the jars they should be sealed the stomach - the stomach and duodenum are removed together theyare opened by passing the enterotome into the duodenum and dividingit along its convex border, the incision being continued along thegreater curvature of the stomach as far as the œsophageal opening theyshould be opened in a large glass dish which has been carefully washedwith distilled water the chemist and medical examiner will carefullynote the quantity, odor, color, and reaction of the stomach contents;also whether luminous or not in the dark. The presence or absence ofcrystalline matter, foreign substances, undigested food or alcohol portions of the contents should be placed in a small glass bottle andsealed, so that at a future time they may be examined microscopically only in this way can an absolute knowledge of the character of thestomach contents be obtained in certain medico-legal paper the abilityto decide the character of the stomach contents is of the utmostimportance the mucous membranes of the stomach and duodenum must benext carefully examined for evidences of hemorrhages, erosions, tumors, and of acute or chronic inflammations the appearance of the rugæ andtheir interspaces, principally in the region of the greater curvature, should be noted. Because here traces of poison and its effects aremost frequently seen if the stomach is inflamed, the seat of theinflammation should be exactly specified, as also that of any unusualcoloration the condition of the blood-vessels are also noted vascularity orredness of the stomach after death should not be confounded with theeffects of poison or the marks of disease it may occur in everyvariety of degree or character and still be within normal limits vascularities which we might call normal are seen in the posterior writingof the greater end and in the lesser curvature, and may cover spacesof various extent rigot and trosseau have proven by experiment thatvarious kinds of pseudo-morbid redness may be formed which cannot bedistinguished from the varieties caused by inflammation. That theseappearances are produced after death and often not until five or eighthours afterward, and that they may be made to shift their place andappear where the organ was previously healthy, merely by altering theposition of the stomach ulcers, or perforations of the stomach as theresults of disease, as also the digestion of the stomach after death, have been mistaken for the effects of irritant poisons when perforation of the stomach is the result of caustic poisons, theedges of the opening are very irregular, and are of the same thicknessas the rest of the organ the writings not perforated are more or lessinflamed, and traces of the action of the caustic are found in themouth, pharynx, and œsophagus this is the opposite condition to thatseen in spontaneous perforation in considering perforation of the stomach the following points given bytaylor are well to remember. 1 a person may have died from perforation of the stomach and not frompoisoning 2 a person laboring under disease may be the subject of poison 3 a person laboring under disease may have received blows orinjuries on the abdomen, and it will be necessary to state whether theperforation did or did not result from the violence 4 the perforation of the stomach from post-mortem changes may bemistaken for perforations from poison corrosives, if they do not produce perforation of stomach, willgenerally cause intense inflammation accompanied by softening of theinner coat, essaytimes ending in gangrene the inflammation varies as toits extent and intensity, essaytimes affecting principally the mouth andœsophagus, but generally the changes are more pronounced in the stomachand duodenum, while in rare paper the inflammatory process may extendthrough the whole alimentary canal the mucous membranes are essaytimesbright red with longitudinal or transverse patches of a blackish color, formed by extravasated blood between the coats carbolic acid oftenproduces in the stomach and œsophagus white patches when these patchesare carefully examined, an ulcerated surface beneath them is generallyseen narcotic poisons - it is a common but mistaken idea that thesepoisons produce essay mark or characteristic effect upon the stomachwalls. That they induce a rapid tendency to putrefaction.

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Make them into an electuary according to art also youmay keep the species itself in your shops culpeper it purges flegm, chiefly from the joints, also it purgesthe reins and bladder caryocostinum college take of cloves, costus, or zedoary, ginger, cummin, ofeach two drams, hermodactils, diacridium, of each half an ounce. Withtheir double weight of honey clarified in white wine, make them into anelectuary according to art culpeper authors say it purges hot rheums, and takes awayinflammations in wounds, i assure you the electuary works violently, and may safely be given in clysters, and so you may give two or threedrams at a time, if the patient be strong for taken otherwise it wouldkill a horse cum privilegio cassia extracta pro clysteribus or cassia extracted for clysters college take of the leaves of violets, mallows, beets, mercury, pellitory of the wall, violet flowers, of each a handful, boil them ina sufficient quantity of water, the benefit of which let the cassia beextracted, and the canes washed. Then take of this cassia so drawn, andboil it to its consistence, a pound, sugar a pound and a half, boilthem to the form of an electuary according to art culpeper you may take it in white wine, it is good for gentlebodies, for if your body be hard to work upon, perhaps it will notwork at all. It purges the reins gallantly, and cools them, therebypreventing the stone, and other diseases caused by their heat electuarium amarum magistrale majus or the greater bitter electuary college take of agarick, turbith, species hiera simplex, rhubarb, of each one dram, choice aloes unwashed two drams, ginger, crystal oftartar, of each two scruples, orris, florentine, sweet fennel seeds, of each a scruple, syrup of roses solutive as much as is sufficient tomake it into an electuary according to art electuarium amarum minus or the lesser bitter electuary college take of epithimum half an ounce, the roots of angelicathree drams, of gentian, zedoary, acorus, of each two drams, cinnamonone dram and an half, cloves, mace, nutmegs, saffron, of each one dram, aloes six ounces, with syrup of fumitory, scabious and sugar so much asis sufficient to make it into a soft electuary culpeper both these purge choler, the former flegm, and thismelancholy, the former works strongest, and this strengthens most, andis good for such whose brains are annoyed you may take half an ounceof the former, if your body be any thing strong, in white wine, if verystrong an ounce, a reasonable body may take an ounce of the latter, the weak less i would not have the unskilful too busy about purgeswithout advice of a physician diacassia with manna college take of damask prunes two ounces, violet flowers a handfuland an half, spring water a pound and an half, boil it according to arttill half be consumed, strain it, and dissolve in the decoction sixounces of cassia newly drawn, sugar of violets, syrup of violets, ofeach four ounces, pulp of tamarinds an ounce, sugar candy an ounce andan half, manna two ounces, mix them, and make them into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper it is a fine cool purge for such as are bound in the body, for it works gently, and without trouble, it purges choler, and maysafely be given in fevers coming of choler. But in such paper, if thebody be much bound, the best way is first to administer a clyster, andthen the next morning an ounce of this will cool the body, and keep itin due temper cassia extracta sine soliis senæ or cassia extracted without the leaves of sena college take twelve prunes, violet flowers a handful, frenchbarley, the seed of annis, and bastard saffron, polypodium of the oak, of each five drams, maiden-hair, thyme, epithimum, of each half ahandful, raisins of the sun stoned half an ounce, sweet fennel seedstwo drams, the seeds of purslain, and mallows, of each three drams, liquorice half an ounce, boil them in a sufficient quantity of water, strain them and dissolve in the decoction, pulp of cassia two pounds, of tamarinds an ounce, cinnamon three drams, sugar a pound, boil itinto the form of an electuary cassia extracta cum soliis senæ or cassia extracted with the leaves of sena college take of the former receipt two pounds, sena in powder twoounces, mix them according to art culpeper this is also a fine cool gentle purge, cleansing thebowels of choler and melancholy without any griping, very fit forfeverish bodies, and yet the former is gentler than this they bothcleanse and cool the reins.