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Pancreatic insufficiency, intestinal indigestion;gastric secretory deficiencies, apepsia. Constipation and hepatictorpor. Intestinal stasis.

Granted that he had takenthese pills regularly, during all that time, it might well be thatthe wassermann would be sharply influenced by them again, a negativewassermann in the midst of treatment proves little. It might bepositive again in a few days the article stimulates the further use ofa product of known worthlessness in the treatment of syphilis how anyone can use sodium cacodylate in preference to arsphenamin in syphilisis beyond me if i mistake not, the propaganda dewritingment has not takenup the matter of these various pamphlets of the drug companies, suchas the doctor factotum, therapeutic notes, etc , lauding to theskies such articles as “seng, ” “cactina pillets, ” etc , ad nauseam the saddest writing of the whole thing is that it must bring returns fromthe unthinking, otherwise they would soon disappear, which would be agreat relief for the scrubwomen who empty our waste baskets paul e bechet, m d , new york comment -- the “sample page” sent by dr bechet is from themarch-april, 1918, number of parke, davis & company therapeuticnotes it contains an “original communication” on “the treatment ofsyphilis with sodium cacodylate, by adolph lappner, m d , detroit, mich ” the “article, ” while nominally devoted to the praise of sodiumcacodylate, is virtually a puff for “ricord pills ” a parke, davis& co product -- correspondence in the journal a m a , july 13, 1918 stannoxyl to the editor:-- i am very anxious to know whether tin or stannous oxid sno has or has had any place among useful drugs i have seen such a prescription given in the treatment of mucous colitis, and would be very glad to learn what its use may be carlos manuel garcia, m d , havana, cuba answer -- recently, on the assumption that tin workers are less troubledwith boils than the average person, two french investigators proposedthe use of tin compounds in the treatment of staphylococcic infections based on their work, a proprietary preparation-- stannoxyl-- hasbeen placed on the market which is claimed to be “composed ofstannous oxide and specially purified metallic tin ” absurd claimsare made for the product. For instance, “ we have no hesitationin offering stannoxyl-- in tablets or cachets-- as the only truespecific for diseases of staphylococcus origin ” the availableevidence is unconvincing and in no way warrants such exaggeratedstatements -- query in the journal a m a , march 6, 1920 to the editor:-- i was much interested in your answer to a queryabout stannoxyl the journal, march 6, p 629 i submit the followingexperience as a confirmatory note:while serving with the royal army medical corps in egypt, i for essaytime had charge of the medical division of a hospital in which mostof the skin diseases occurring among soldiers in the district weretreated the most common conditions were boils and septic sores, chiefly due to staphylococcal infection, though several of the latterpaper were diphtheritic the treatment adopted was that in ordinaryuse, namely, incision and evacuation of pus, application of antisepticdressings, and in most paper employment of the specific vaccine it waspossible to judge of the efficacy of any variations of treatment, asthere were always plenty of paper undergoing the usual treatment withwhich the results could be controlled an available supply of stannoxyl, a proprietary remedy consisting ofa mixture of metallic tin and tin oxid, enabled me to give it a fairtrial in full doses in eight paper of boils of average severity, inwhich culture revealed the infecting organism to be staphylococcusaureus the boils were treated locally as usual, but no vaccine wasgiven no improvement could be demonstrated in these paper that couldnot be shown in other paper similarly treated with the omission ofstannoxyl. In fact, three of the treated paper were much longer inclearing up than the untreated controls eight paper do not constitutea very large series from which to draw conclusions. But if thepreparation were as good as the descriptive literature would lead oneto believe, one should have expected an evident result in at least oneof these paper it has been stated that stannoxyl does not inhibit the growth ofstaphylococci, but only renders the growth less virulent it is knownthat a certain amount of tin may be absorbed from the intestine, andsalant, rieger and treuhardt have shown that in certain paper tinmay be retained for essay time in the skin. But it is questionablewhether, when preparations of tin are given by mouth, any reachesthe staphylococci in the boils, or at any rate enough materially toinfluence their growth or virulence in the paper treated by me, the results did not at all suggest thatstannoxyl was a “specific for diseases of staphylococcal origin ” j w c gunn, m a , m b , ch b , cape town professor of pharmacology, university of cape town -- correspondence in the journal a m a , nov 20, 1920 syphilodol to the council on pharmacy and chemistry:-- if you have not already done so, will you kindly examine and report on “syphilodol” advertised in the enclosed pamphlet?. b c pedersen, m d , new york to the editor:-- have you any information concerning the enclosed half page advertisement of syphilodol from the urologic and cutaneous review?. edward s newell, m d , pelham, n y to the editor:-- i am enclosing an advertisement for a substance called “syphilodol” manufactured in new york am not familiar with this article nor have i seen it advertised in the higher class journals can you tell me whether the journal dewritingment of new and nonofficial remedies has passed on this article or whether you have any data concerning it?. it looks a trifle fishy to me louis leroy, m d , memphis, tenn to the editor:-- i am sending the enclosed correspondence syphilodol letters to you as it looks as if it might have essay interesting features from the point of view of your nostrum dewritingment isadore dyer, new orleans, la answer -- these are but essay of the inquiries that have been received onthis subject and it is encouraging to note the scientifically criticalattitude of physicians toward new therapeutic agents according to thefrench medicinal company, inc , which markets this product, “syphilodolis a synthetic chemical product of silver, arsenic and antimony ”nowhere in the advertising matter is there any more definite statementas to the composition of this new “synthetic” than that just quoted the product is now under examination in the association laboratoryand when this is completed a more detailed report will doubtless beforthcoming at present the work has progressed sufficiently to showthat syphilodol tablets contain considerable quantities of mercury!. Although the advertising leaflets claim that the preparation is“the formula of the late dr alfred fournier of paris” and had beenexhaustively tested by metchnikoff, who is alleged to have foundit superior to salvarsan and neosalvarsan, yet, strange to say, acareful search of french medical journals fails to show any reports onsyphilodol verb sap -- query in the journal a m a , feb 23, 1918 thialion to the editor:-- kindly inform me regarding thialion, manufactured by the vass chemical company, danbury, conn please omit my name and address in answering in the journal h c w answer -- thialion is an heirloom of the days when lithium salts weresupported to be nature antidote for all kinds of ailments, supposedlydue to excess of uric acid it was advertised as a uric acid eliminantand therefore good for all kinds of diseases the council on pharmacyand chemistry published a report on thialion in the journal, nov 3, 1906 at that time thialion was advertised by the vass chemicalcompany as a “laxative salt of lithia” with the chemical formula“3li₂o nao so₃ 7ho, ” and an elaborate structural formula was alsofurnished the council reported that the product was not a definitechemical compound, but a mixture consisting chiefly of sodium sulphate, sodium citrate and small amounts of lithia in recent advertisements, thialion is referred to as “a non-effervescing lithiated laxativesalt, ” “a non-hygroscopic, non-deliquescent, granular salt of lithia, ”etc , but the chemical formula does not appear, nor is any definitestatement of composition furnished according to this advertisement, the “indications” for thialion are. “gout, rheumatism, uric aciddiathesis, constipation, acute and chronic, sluggish liver, brightdisease, albuminuria of pregnancy, asthma, incontinence of urine, gravel, cystitis, chronic lead poisoning, headache, neuralgia, neurasthenia and lumbago, hay fever, etc ”-- query in the journala m a , dec 6, 1919 venarsento the editor:-- the following is a copy of a letter sent to theintravenous products company, which needs no explanation. June 8, 1917 the intravenous products co , denver, colo gentlemen:-- in reply to your circular letter under date of june 3, may i say that after using a great quantity of venarsen both in clinical and private paper, i can see no more effect upon these paper than if so much water had been administered this is also the report of don r black, pathologist for bell memorial hospital, university of kansas in our experiments all bloods were tested before and after each administration of this product william a wilson, m d , kansas city, mo correspondence in the journal a m a , july 7, 1917 writing iv contributions from the journal. Miscellany albert abrams, a m , m d , ll d , f r m s “spondylotherapy, ” “electronic reactions, ” the “oscilloclast, ” the “electrobioscope, ” etc for essay time the journal has received inquiries of which thefollowing recent examples are typical this from an ohio physician. “please give me essay information concerning dr abrams and his diagnostic and therapeutic devices known as reflexaphore and oscilloclast if this is published please withhold my name ”a physician in massachusetts writes. “can you give me any information concerning dr ?. san francisco, california, who reports himself able to diagnose syphilis from a drop of blood sent him on a blotting paper?.

Pineal gland tablets-armour;extract of red bone-marrow-armour. Desiccated thymus-armour. Thymustablets-armour as a matter of record, the descriptive articles for pineal gland, redbone-marrow and thymus gland, which appeared in new and nonofficialremedies, 1918, are given below pineal glandthe functions of this gland have not yet been established but thereis essay pathological and essay experimental evidence that there isa relation between the gland and essay processes of development andgrowth. The nature of this relation is unknown adiposis is a frequentsign of disturbed pineal function, but observers are not agreed whetherto interpret this as indicating hypofunction or hyperfunction, orpossibly a concurrent disturbance of the pituitary in essay instancesintravenous injections of pineal extract have seemed to cause adistinct fall in blood pressure it has been inferred from observationsin paper of pineal tumors in the young that the gland in youngindividuals furnishes a secretion which inhibits growth, writingicularlythe development of the reproductive glands, but the results ofexperimental administration of pineal substance orally have led otherobservers to infer that the pineal secretion favors physical andpossibly mental and sexual development it has been suggested that, asall evidence points to the fact that the function of the pineal glandis one of early life, extract of adult pineal glands might be expectedto be inert experiment has also indicated greater activity in glandsobtained from young animals than in those obtained from older ones thecouncil has decided to admit preparations of pineal gland to new andnonofficial remedies simply for experimental purposes red bone-marrowred bone-marrow consists largely more than 90 per cent of fat innew-born animals a third or more of this fat consists of lecithin the marrow of the bones of new-born animals contains iron up to 1per cent or more in various forms of organic combination bothlecithin and iron decrease rapidly in the first weeks after birth the commercial preparations contain very variable amounts of theseconstituents actions and uses -- red bone-marrow is supposed to stimulate theformation of red blood corpuscles. Whatever action it may have in thisdirection is probably due largely to the iron and lecithin which itcontains it is said to be useful in simple and pernicious anemias thymus glandlittle is known as to the functions of the thymus, but it is believedto have an important relation to growth there also seems to be essayrelation between the thymus and thyroid, for the former is frequentlyabnormal in diseases involving the latter hyperthyroidism the use of thymus is purely empirical it has been employed in thetreatment of hyperthyroidism, rickets, tuberculosis, hemophilia, andinfantile marasmus and atrophy. Its use in the latter conditionsis said to be the most promising it is claimed on very doubtfulgrounds to exert a essaywhat favorable effect in certain paper ofcancer -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 69 piperazine and lycetol omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of piperazine and lycetol has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary piperazine diethylenediamene and lycetol a methyl derivative ofdiethylenediamene were accepted for new and nonofficial remedies in1906 both piperazine and lycetol were asserted to be efficient uricacid solvents and efficacious remedies in the treatment of gout andrheumatism these products have been retained until now because therewas no investigation which definitely showed their uselessness as uricacid solvents, though their use is generally admitted to have beendisappointing from an exhaustive and critical study of the available evidence, hanzlik jour lab & clin med , february, 1917 concluded thatscientific evidence, though limited, and clinical opinion indicate thatpiperazine is valueless in gout and that there is sufficient scientificevidence to indicate the worthlessness of lycetol the referee in charge of piperazine and lycetol recommended that theseproducts be omitted from new and nonofficial remedies for the reasonthat they have been sufficiently tried to justify the conclusion thatthey are not of value the period of acceptance having expired, thecouncil directed that piperazine and piperazine tablets the bayercompany, inc and lycetol the bayer company, inc be omitted fromnew and nonofficial remedies -- from reports of council on pharmacyand chemistry, 1918, p 70 stanolind liquid paraffin omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryas explained in the report which follows, “stanolind liquid paraffin”was omitted from new and nonofficial remedies at the request of theproprietors announcement of this omission was made in the preface tonew and nonofficial remedies, 1918, but publication of the councilreport was postponed pending actual conflict with the rules thecouncil now authorizes publication of the report because a circularindirectly advertising the product to the public was found enclosedwith the trade package of stanolind liquid paraffin w a puckner, secretary stanolind liquid paraffin was admitted to new and nonofficial remediesin 1916, when its method of marketing conformed to the rules of thecouncil this brand of liquid petrolatum, by action of the council, has been omitted from new and nonofficial remedies on request of thestandard oil company of indiana, its manufacturer, who wrote to thesecretary of the council stating that. “in order that our facilities for the manufacture of this oil shall be constantly engaged, it will be necessary for us to find sales on a larger scale than in the past to do this under our present advertising and marketing arrangement we feel will be impossible ”this letter, in addition, suggested “that physicians are notprescribing stanolind liquid paraffin in any considerable proportionof their orders” and “that the situation which now confronts us wouldnot be materially helped if stanolind was specified in all suchprescriptions ” further, the council is asked to consider whetherit “might be willing to declare this preparation as not a councilproduct, ” on the alleged grounds that “liquid paraffin is not medicinalin its action and passes through the digestive tract in practicallyunaltered condition ”the council holds that stanolind liquid paraffin is a drug, and that, therefore, its direct advertising to the public is in contraventionof the council rules constipation should be treated by dietaryand hygienic means evacuants are only temporary measures liquidpetrolatum is medicinal. It greatly modifies the intestinal flora.

If they please to lay aplaster of this there, it will do it emplastrum essay helper free a nostratibus, flos unguentorum dictum or, flower of ointments college take of rozin, per rozin, yellow wax, sheep suet, of eachhalf a pound, olibanum four ounces, turpentine two ounces and an half, myrrh, mastich, of each an ounce, camphire two drams, white wine half apound, boil them into a plaster culpeper i found this receipt in an old manuscript written in theyear 1513, the quantity of the ingredients very little altered a plaster of gum elemi college take of gum elemi three ounces, per rozin, wax, ammoniacum, of each two ounces, turpentine three ounces and an half, mallaga wineso much as is sufficient. Boil it to the consumption of the wine, thenadd the ammoniacum dissolved in vinegar culpeper the operation is the same with arceus liniment a plaister of lapis calaminaris college take of lapis calaminaris prepared an ounce, litharge twoounces, ceruss half an ounce, tutty a dram, turpentine six drams, whitewax an ounce and an half, stag suet two ounces, frankincense fivedrams, mastich three drams, myrrh two drams, camphire a dram and anhalf, make it up according to art emplastrum ad herniam college take of galls, cypress nuts, pomegranate pills, balaustines, acacia, the seeds of plantain, fleawort, water-cresses, acorn cups, beans torrified, birth-wort long and round, myrtles of eachhalf an ounce let these be powdered, and steeped in rose vinegar fourdays, then torrified and dried, then take of comfrey the greater andlesser, horsetail, woad, cetrach, the roots of osmond royal, fearn, ofeach an ounce, frankincense, myrrh, aloes, mastich, mummy, of each twoounces, bole-ammoniac washed in vinegar, lap, calaminaris prepared, litharge of gold, dragon blood, of each three ounces, ship pitch twopounds, turpentine six ounces, or as much as is sufficient to make itinto a plaster according to art culpeper the plaster is very binding and knitting, appropriated toruptures or burstens, as the title of it specifies, it strengthens thereins and womb, stays abortion, it consolidates wounds, and helps alldiseases coming of cold and moisture emplastrum hystericum college take of bistort roots one pound, wood of aloes, yellowsanders, nutmegs, barberry kernels, rose seeds, of each one ounce, cinnamon, cloves, squinanth, chamomel flowers, of each half an ounce, frankincense, mastich, alipta moschata, gallia moschata, styraxcalamitis, of each one dram, mosch half a dram, yellow wax one poundand an half, turpentine half a pound, moschæleum four ounces, labdanumfour pounds, ship pitch three pounds. Let the labdanum and turpentinebe added to the pitch and wax, being melted, then the styrax, lastlythe rest in powder, and sifted, that they may be made into a plasteraccording to art culpeper the plaster being applied to the navel, is a means towithstand the fits of the mother in such women as are subject to them, by retaining the womb in its place emplastrum de mastich or, a plaster of mastich college take of mastich three ounces, bole-ammoniac washed in blackwine, an ounce and an half, red roses six drams, ivory, myrtle berries, red coral, of each half an ounce, turpentine, colophonia, tachamahacca, labdanum, of each two ounces, yellow wax half a pound, oil of myrtlesfour ounces. Make it into a plaster according to art culpeper it is a binding plaster, strengthens the stomach beingapplied to it, and helps such as loath their victuals, or cannot digestit, or retain it till it be digested emplastrum de meliloto simplex or, a plaster of melilot simple college take of rozin eight pounds, yellow wax four pounds, sheepsuet two pounds. These being melted, add green melilot cut small, fivepounds. Make it into a plaster according to art emplastrum de meliloto compositum or, a plaster of melilot compound college take of melilot flowers six drams, chamomel flowers, theseeds of fenugreek, bay berries husked, marsh-mallow roots, the topsof wormwood and marjoram, of each three drams, the seeds of smallage, ammi, cardamoms, the roots of orris, cypress, spikenard, cassia lignea, of each one dram and an half, bdellium five drams. Beat them allinto fine powder, the pulp of twelve figs, and incorporate them witha pound and an half of melilot plaster simple, turpentine an ounceand an half, ammoniacum dissolved in hemlock vinegar, three ounces, styrax five drams, oil of marjoram, and nard, of each half an ounce, or a sufficient quantity, make it into a plaster with a hot mortar andpestle, without boiling culpeper it mollifies the hardness of the stomach, liver, spleen, bowels, and other writings of the body. It wonderfully assuages pain, andeases hypochondriac melancholy, and the rickets emplastrum de minio compositum or, a plaster of red lead compound college take of oil of roses omphacine twenty ounces, oil ofmastich two ounces, suet of a sheep and a calf, of each half a pound, litharge of gold and silver, red lead, of each two ounces, a tasterfull of wine. Boil them by a gentle fire continually stirring it tillit grow black, let the fire be hottest towards the latter end, then addturpentine half a pound, mastich two ounces, gum elemi one ounce, whitewax as much as is sufficient. Boil them a little, and make them into aplaster according to art culpeper it potently cures wounds, old malignant ulcers, and isvery drying emplastrum de minio simplicius or, a plaster of red lead simple college take of red lead nine ounces, oil of red roses one poundand an half, white wine vinegar six ounces, boil it into the perfectbody of a plaster it is prepared without vinegar, thus. Take of redlead one pound, oil of roses one pound and an half, wax half a pound, make it into a plaster according to art culpeper it is a fine cooling healing plaster, and very drying emplastrum metroproptoticon college take of mastich one ounce and an half, galbanum dissolvedin red wine and strained, six drams, cypress turpentine two drams, cypress nuts, galls, of each one dram and an half, oil of nutmegsby expression one dram, musk two grains and an half, pitch scrapedoff from old ships two drams and an half. Beat the galbanum, pitch, turpentine, and mastich gently in a hot mortar and pestle, towards theend, adding the oil of nutmegs, then the rest in powder, last of allthe musk mixed with a little oil of mastich upon a marble, and by exactmixture make them into a plaster emplastrum nervinum college take of oil of chamomel and roses, of each two ounces, of mastich, turpentine, and linseeds, of each an ounce and an half, turpentine boiled four ounces, rosemary, bettony, horsetail, centaurythe less, of each a handful, earth-worms washed and cleansed in winethree ounces, tops of st john wort a handful, mastich, gum elemi, madder roots, of each ten drams, ship-pitch, rozin, of each an ounceand an half, litharge of gold and silver, of each two ounces and anhalf, red lead two ounces, galbanum, sagapen, ammoniacum, of each threedrams. Boil the roots, herbs, and worms, in a pound and an half of winetill half be consumed, then press them out, and boil the decoctionagain with the oils, suets, litharge, and red lead, to the consumptionof the wine. Then add the gums dissolved in wine, afterwards theturpentine, rozin, pitch, and mastich, in powders and make them into aplaster according to art culpeper it strengthens the brain and nerves, and then beingapplied to the back, down along the bone, it must needs add strength tothe body emplastrum oxycroceum college take of saffron, ship-pitch, colophonia, yellow wax, of each four ounces, turpentine, galbanum, ammoniacum, myrrh, olibanum, mastich, of each one ounce and three drams let the pitchand colophonia be melted together, then add the wax, then it beingremoved from the fire the turpentine, afterwards the gums dissolved invinegar, lastly the saffron in powder, well mixed with vinegar, and somake it into a plaster according to art culpeper it is of a notable softening and discussing quality, helpsbroken bones, and any writing molested with cold, old aches, stiffness ofthe limbs by reason of wounds, ulcers, fractures, or dislocations, anddissipates cold swellings emplastrum stephaniaion college take of labdanum half an ounce, styrax, juniper gum, ofeach two drams, amber, cypress, turpentine, of each one dram, redcoral, mastich, of each half a dram, the flowers of sage, red roses, the roots of orris florentine, of each one scruple, rozin washedin rose-water half an ounce, the rozin, labdanum, juniper gum, andturpentine, being gently beaten in a hot mortar, with a hot pestle, sprinkling in a few drops of red wine till they are in a body. Thenput in the powders, and by diligent stirring make them into an exactplaster emplastrum sticticum college take of oil of olives six ounces, yellow wax an ounceand an half, litharge in powder four ounces and an half, ammoniacum, bdellium, of each half an ounce, galbanum, opopanax, oil of bays, lapis calaminaris, both sorts of birthwort, myrrh, frankincense, of each two drams, pure turpentine an ounce let the oil, wax, andlitharge be boiled together till it stick not to your fingers, thenthe mass being removed from the fire and cooled a little, and the gumsdissolved in white wine vinegar, which evaporate away by boiling, strain it strongly, then add the powders, turpentine, and oil of bays, that it may be made into a plaster according to art culpeper it strengthens the nerves, draws out corruption, takesaway pains and aches, and restores strength to members that have lostit. The last is most effectual emplastrum stomachicum magistrale or, a stomach plaster college take of mints, wormwood, stœchas, bay leaves, of each adram, marjoram, red roses, yellow sanders, of each two drams, calamusaromaticus, wood of aloes, lavender flowers, nutmegs, cubebs, galanga, long pepper, mace, of each a dram, mastich three drams, cloves twodrams and an half, oil of mints an ounce and an half, oil of nard anounce, oil of spike a dram, rozin, wax, of each four ounces, labdanumthree ounces, styrax half an ounce. Make it into a plaster culpeper both this and the other of that name which you shall haveby and by, strengthen the stomach exceedingly, help digestion and stayvomiting emplastrum ceroma, or, ceroneum nich alex college take of pitch scraped from a ship that hath been a longtime at sea, yellow wax, of each seven drams, sagapenum six drams, ammoniacum, turpentine, colophonia, saffron, of each four drams, aloes, olibanum, myrrh, of each three drams, styrax calamitis, mastich, opopanax, galbanum, alum, the seeds of fenugreek, of each two drams, the settlings or faces of liquid styrax, bdellium, of each one dram, litharge half a dram culpeper it is of a gentle emolient nature, prevails againststoppings of the stomach, coming of cold, hardness of the spleen, coldness of the liver and matrix emplastrum gratia dei nich or, the grace of god college take of turpentine half a pound, rozin one pound, white waxfour ounces, mastich an ounce, fresh betony, vervain, and burnet, ofeach one handful let the herbs, being bruised, be sufficiently boiledin white wine, the liquor pressed out, in which let the wax and rozinbe boiled to the consumption of the liquor. Being taken from the fire, let the turpentine be mixed with it.

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4albany law jour , 56. Snyder v snyder, 60 how prac , 368. Weld v walker, 130 mass , 422. Guthrie v weaver, 1 mo apps , 136. Johnsonv marinus, 18 abb n c , 72, and note 493the law casts the duty of burial of the wife upon the husband, andof the husband upon the wife in secord v secord cited in note 1above, the court said. “there are cogent reasons connected with publicpolicy and the peace of families, where in the absence of testamentarydisposition the possession of a corpse and the right to determine itsburial should follow the administration of the estate ” inasmuch asthe husband has the first right to administer upon the estate of thewife, and the wife upon the estate of the husband, the law imposes thecorrelative duty of burial upon the person having such right. And soit has been held that the husband is liable for the necessary expenseof the decent interment of his wife from whom he has been separated, whether the writingy incurring the expense is an undertaker or merevolunteer 494where the deceased leaves a will appointing executors, the executorshave a right to the possession of the body, and the duty of burialis imposed upon them, but it has been doubted whether at common lawa direction by will concerning the disposal of the body could beenforced, and therefore the right to make such direction has beenconferred by statute in several states 495and where a widow ordered a funeral of her husband, it was held thatshe was liable for the expense, although she was an infant at the time, the court holding that the expense fell under the head of necessaries, for which infants’ estates are liable 496if there be no husband or wife of the deceased, the nearest of kinin the order of right to administration is charged with the duty ofburial 497such acts as casting a dead human body into a river without the ritesof sepulture kanavans case, 1 me , 226. Stealing a corpse 2 east, pc , 652 or stealing for dissection a dead body of one executed whenthe death sentence did not direct dissection rex v cundick, d &r , n p , 13, were indictable offences at common law 498in the works of the early dramatists, and by essay writers of fiction, it has been stated, or implied, that the body of a deceased personcould be seized and detained to compel the payment of his debts thiswas never the law in jones v ashburnham, 4 east, 460, it was heldthat to seize a dead body on pretence of arresting for debt would becontra bonos mores, and an extortion on the relatives, and that casedistinctly overrules any authority to be derived from the case of quickv coppleton, 1 vent , 161, to the effect that forbearance to seizeor hold a body upon such a pretence would afford any consideration fora promise to pay a debt so, also, where a jailer refused to give upa body of a person who had died while a prisoner in execution in hiscustody, to the executors of the deceased, unless they would satisfycertain claims against the deceased due the jailer, the court issueda peremptory mandamus in the first instance, commanding that the bodyshould be delivered up to the executors rex v fox, 2 q b , 247 and in r v scott, 2 q b , 248, it was said, that a jailer whoshould attempt to do so would be guilty of misconduct in his publiccharacter, for which he would be liable to prosecution 499how and by whom the dead human body may be removed or exhumed - wherethe right of burial has been exercised, and the body interred inits final resting-place, no person has any right to interferewith it without the consent of the owner of the grave, or of theproperly constituted public authorities in foster v dodd, 8 d & e , 842-854, it was held, that a dead body belongs to no one, andis, therefore, under the protection of the public if it lies inconsecrated ground, ecclesiastical authorities will interpose forits protection. But whether in ground consecrated or unconsecrated, indignities offered to the remains or the act of indecentlydisinterring them, are the ground of an indictment 500even the purchaser of land upon which is located a burial-ground maybe enjoined from removing bodies therefrom, if he attempts to do soagainst the wishes of the relatives or next of kin of the deceased every interment is a concession of the privilege which cannot afterwardbe repudiated, and the purchaser title to the ground is fettered withthe right of burial 501on the other hand, the right of the municipal or state authorities, with the consent of the owner of the burial lot or in the execution ofthe right of eminent domain, to remove dead bodies from cemeteries iswell settled 502after the right of burial has once been exercised by the person chargedwith the duty of burial, or where such person has consented to theburial by another person, no right to the corpse remains except toprotect it from unlawful interference 503on the other hand, where a husband did not freely consent to the burialof his wife in a lot owned by another person, it was held that a courtof equity might permit him, after such burial, to remove her body, coffin, and tombstones to his own lot, and restrain any person frominterfering with such removal 504in rhodes v brandt, 21 hun, n y , 1, the defendant brought anaction against one beelard to recover for services rendered by him, asa physician, in treating a child of beelard for a fracture of thethigh-bone, in which action beelard set up malpractice on the writing ofthe defendant as a defence during the pendency of the action the childdied and was buried subsequently beelard, the father, acting under theadvice of his counsel, directed and allowed the plaintiff, a physician, to cause the body of the child to be exhumed, and a portion of thethigh-bone to be removed, in order that it might be used in evidence onthe trial of the question of malpractice after the bone was removed, the body was returned to the grave the defendant thereupon caused theplaintiff to be arrested for unlawfully removing the body from thegrave contrary to the provisions of the statute, and the plaintiffsued the defendant for malicious prosecution the court held that theplaintiff had not removed the body from the grave “for the purpose ofdissection or from mere wantonness, ” as these terms were used in thestatute 3 r s , 6th ed , 965, for violation of which he had beenarrested, nor had he committed any offence against public decency orthe spirit of the statute 505autopsies, by whom ordered.