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Bull de l’assn franç pour l’étude du cancer5:121, 1912. Ibid 6:85, 1913 the majority of those who have worked with selenium have used it incolloidal form, either preparing it themselves or employing one of thepreparations put on the market by the pharmaceutic firms of the latterthe best known are the electro-selenium of clin, and the seleniol ofcouturieux of those who have made use of selenium in these formsmay be mentioned cade and girard, 283 bougeaut and galliot, 284blumenthal, 285 thiroloix and lancien, 286 delbet, laurent andbohec, 287 and most extensively of all, m touche 288 all of theseauthors have described paper of malignant new growths of the mostvaried character which were treated by these preparations 283 cade and girard. Bull soc méd d hôp de lyon 11:397, 1912 284 bougeaut and galliot. Clinique, paris 7:501, 1912 285 blumenthal, a. Jour méd de bruxelles, 1912, 17:325. Presseméd belge 65:919, 1913 286 thiroloix and lancien, a. Bull et mém soc méd d hôp deparis 33:197, 1912 287 laurent, m , and bohec, j. Med press and circular 94:461, 1912 288 touche, m.

Then the styrax andfeces being mixed with the turpentine, last of all the colophonia, mastich, frankincense, bdellium, alum, myrrh, and fenugreek in powder:let them be made into a plaster culpeper it strengthens the stomach, and helps digestion emplastrum nigrum august called in high dutch stichstaster college take of colophonia, rozin, ship pitch, white wax, romanvitriol, ceruss, olibanum, myrrh, of each eight ounces, oil of rosesseven ounces, oil of juniper berries three ounces, oil of eggs twoounces, oil of spick one ounce, white vitriol, red coral, mummy, ofeach two ounces, earth of lemnos, mastich, dragon blood, of each oneounce, the fat of an heron one ounce, the fat of pimullus three ounces, load stone prepared, two ounces, earthworms prepared, camphire, of eachone ounce. Make them into a plaster according to art culpeper it is very good in green wounds and shootings a key to galen method of physic the general use of physic i shall desire thee, whoever thou art, that intendest the noble thoughtoo much abused study of physic, to mind heedfully these followingrules. Which being well understood, shew thee the key of galen andhippocrates their method of physic. He that useth their method, andis not heedful of these rules, may soon cure one disease, and causeanother more desperate that thou mayest understand what i intend, it is to discover in ageneral way of the manifest virtues of medicines i say of the manifest virtues, and qualities, viz such as areobvious to the senses, especially to the taste and smell. For it hathbeen the practice of most physicians, in these latter ages as well asours, to say, when they cannot give, nor are minded to study a reason, why an herb, plant, &c hath such an operation, or produces such aneffect in the body of man. It doth it by an hidden quality, for theynot minding the whole creation, as one united body, not knowing whatbelongs to astral influence, not regarding that excellent harmonythe only wise god hath made in a composition of contraries in theknowledge of which consists the whole ground and foundation of physicare totally led astray by tradition it is the manifest qualities of medicines that here i am to speak to, and you may be pleased to behold it in this order section 1 of the temperature of medicines section 2 of the appropriation of medicines section 3 of the properties of medicines section i of the temperature of medicines herbs, plants, and other medicines manifestly operate, either by heat, coldness, dryness, or moisture, for the world being composed of sothesis qualities, they and only they can be found in the world, and themixtures of them one with another but that they may appear as clear as the sun when he is upon themeridian, i shall treat of them severally, and in this order 1 of medicines temperate 2 of medicines hot 3 of medicines cold 4 of medicines moist 5 of medicines dry of medicines temperate if the world be composed of extremes, then it acts by extremes, foras the man is, so is his work. Therefore it is impossible that anymedicine can be temperate, but may be reduced to heat, cold, dryness, or moisture, and must operate, i mean such as operate by manifestquality by one of these, because there is no other to operate by, andthat there should be such a temperate mixture, so exquisitely of thesequalities in any medicine, that one of them should not manifestly excelthe other, i doubt it is a system too rare to find thus then i conclude the matter to be, those medicines are calledtemperate not because they have excess of temperature at all in themwhich can neither be said, to heat nor cool so much as will amount tothe first degree of excess, for daily experience witnesses that theybeing added to medicines, change not their qualities, they make themneither hotter nor colder their use they are used in such diseases where there is no manifestdistemper of the first qualities, viz heat and cold, for example;in obstruction of the bowels, where cold medicines might make theobstruction greater, and hot medicines cause a fever in fevers of flegm, where the cause is cold and moist, and the effecthot and dry. In such, use temperate medicines which may neitherencrease the fever by their heat, nor condensate the flegm by theircoldness besides, because contraries are taken away by their contraries, and every like maintained by its like, they are of great use, topreserve the constitution of the body temperate, and the body itselfin strength and vigour, and may be used without danger, or fear ofdanger, by considering which writing of the body is weak, and using suchtemperate medicines as are appropriated to that writing of medicines hot the care of the ancient physicians was such that they did not labourto hide from, but imwriting to posterity, not only the temperature ofmedicines in general, but also their degrees in temperature, that sothe distempered writing may be brought to its temperature, and no further;for all things which are of a contrary temperature, conduce not tocure, but the strength of the contrariety must be observed, that so themedicine may be neither weaker nor stronger, than just to take awaythe distemper. For if the distemper be but meanly hot, and you applya medicine cold in the fourth degree, it is true, you may soon removethat distemper of heat, and bring another of cold twice as bad galen, de simp med facul lib 3 cap 12 then, secondly, not only the distemper itself, but also the writing ofthe body distempered must be heeded.

Dissolves in water readily essay help websites. A 25 per cent solution has a highspecific gravity silvol, 1 137 at 20 c. Argyrol, 1 147 at 20 c , andis not very viscid viscosity, 1 25 a 1:1, 000 solution of silvol isclear and about 50 per cent deeper in color than a solution of argyrolof the same strength silvol differs from argyrol mainly in that its solutions yield a fineprecipitate with egg albumin under suitable conditions, while argyrolis nonprecipitant. And in that silvol solutions are not so effectivelydecolorized by lloyd reagent the manufacturers did not reply to an inquiry with regard to thebasis for the claims made for silvol see appendix the referee wastherefore obliged to deduce these claims from the firm advertisingmatter about the same claims are made for the local use of silvol asare generally made for argyrol these may be accepted without detailedevidence in view of the similarity of the two preparations its usefulness, as suggested in the advertising, when given by mouth“in the treatment of acute or chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, orgastro-enteritis, ” or the efficacy of very dilute solutions 0 2 percent against dysentery, etc , is doubtful and requires substantiationby evidence the claims that silvol is astringent, though nonirritantand noncoagulant, that it is a “powerful germicide” or even that itis a “powerful antiseptic, ” and that it may be used with advantagewherever “a silver salt is indicated, ” need substantiation there is noproof of the assertions that silvol is “the most efficacious of silversalts”. “the most efficient antiseptic, ” and “the most remarkableorganic silver compound ”as the manufacturers have not presented any evidence for their highlyimprobable claims, and as they have not signified any intention ofmaking their claims agree with substantiated facts, it is recommendedthat silvol be declared inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies the council adopted the report of its referee and authorized itspublication appendixthe following letter from the secretary of the council was sent toparke, davis & company, march 20, 1917 no reply to it has beenreceived. The referee of the council who is conducting an investigation of silver preparations asked me to inquire if you are willing to submit your evidence for the following claims which are made in your circulars for silvol. 1 how it is possible for the solution to be astringent, and at the same time nonirritant and noncoagulant?. 2 that intestinal irrigation with a silvol solution containing 10 to 15 grains to the pint is sufficiently bactericidal to “be used in the abortive treatment of such infectious processes as dysentery, cholera infantum, and colitis ” 3 what evidence have you as to the degree of antiseptic and germicidal power of silvol solutions?. 4 what evidence have you as to the degree of antiseptic and germicidal power of 5 per cent silvol ointment?.

And thatrelating to the application of medical, surgical, or obstetricalknowledge to the purposes of legal trials, forensic medicine 1the term state medicine, which is essaytimes erroneously used assynonymous with forensic medicine, properly applies to a more extendedfield of medical inquiry. I e , to all applications of medicalknowledge to the public welfare state medicine, therefore, whileexcluding medical jurisprudence, includes, besides forensic medicine, public hygiene, medical ethics, medical education, and military andnaval medicine toxicology, the science of poisons, may be divided into medicaltoxicology, whose object is the prevention or cure of all forms ofpoisoning, and forensic toxicology, whose aim is the detection ofcriminal poisoning in its last-named relation toxicology differs fromforensic medicine in one important writingicular in all paper other thanthose of poisoning in which questions involving medical knowledgearise, the answers are entirely within the functions of the physician, the surgeon, or the obstetrician, but the problems of forensictoxicology require for their solution the further aid of the chemistand the pharmacologist forensic medicine is an applied science, writingly legal, writingly medical, calling for information and investigation in widely divergent lines, and becoming more minutely ramified with the progressive advances inmedical knowledge and in those sciences of which medicine is itselfan application its development has been dependent writingly upon theslow though progressive tendency of medicine from the condition of anempirical art toward that of an exact science, and writingly upon themore rapid and more advanced development of criminal jurisprudence medical jurisprudence had reached a high development during the earlyhistory of the roman empire, and at a period long anterior to the firstrecognition of forensic medicine although the literature of modern medico-legal science is verylargely written from the medical point of view and by physicians, itsearlier history is to be found in fragmentary form, writingly in medicalliterature, but principally in the writings of historians, in theearlier criminal codes, and in the early records of legal proceedings in the earliest historical periods the functions now exercised bythe priest, the lawyer, and the physician were performed by thesame person, who, presumably, made use of what medical knowledge hepossessed in the exercise of his legal functions among the egyptiansat a very early period it is certain that medical questions of factwere considered in legal proceedings, and that the practice of medicinewas subject to legal regulation according to diodorus, 2 “when apregnant woman was condemned to death, the sentence was not executeduntil after she was delivered ” the same author tells us3 that “thephysicians regulated the treatment of the sick according to writtenprecepts, collected and transmitted by the most celebrated of theirpredecessors if, in following exactly these precepts which arecontained in the sacred books, they did not succeed in curing the sick, they could not be reproached, nor could they be prosecuted at law. Butif they have proceeded contrary to the text of the books, they aretried, and may be condemned to death, the legislator supposing that butfew persons will ever be found capable of improving a curative methodpreserved during so long a succession of years and adopted by the mostexpert masters of the art ” with the system of legal trial in use amongthe egyptians4 it is difficult to imagine that the question of theexistence of pregnancy in the one case, or of malpractice in the other, would not be the subject of contest, and, if contested, determinedwithout the testimony of obstetricians or of physicians 5medical knowledge among the hindoos was further advanced than amongthe egyptians in the rig veda about 1500 b c occur a few medicalreferences, among which is the statement that the duration of pregnancyis ten lunar months the earliest purely medical sanskrit texts are the ayur vedas ofchraka and sûsruta, which were probably written about 600 b c , butwhich are undoubtedly compilations of information which had been handeddown during thesis centuries before that time in each of these is asection devoted to poisons and their antidotes kalpa, in which it iswritten that a knowledge of poisons and antidotes is necessary to thephysician “because the enemies of the rajah, bad women, and ungratefulservants essaytimes mix poison with the food ” full directions arealso given for the recognition of a person who gives poison, and todifferentiate the poisons themselves, whose number, from all thekingdoms of nature, is legion the age at which women may marry isfixed at twelve years, while men may not marry before twenty-five theduration of pregnancy is given as between nine and twelve lunar months, the average being ten the practice of medicine is restricted tocertain castes, and requires the sanction of the rajah, and the methodof education of medical students is prescribed 6it is singular that the greeks were apparently destitute of anyknowledge of legal medicine although medicine and jurisprudence werehighly developed among them, allusions to any connection between thetwo are of very rare occurrence and uncertain the hippocratic writings ca 420 b c contain thesis facts whichare of medico-legal interest. The possibility of superfœtation wasrecognized;7 the average duration of pregnancy was known, andthe viability of children born before term was discussed, 8 therelative fatality of wounds affecting different writings of the body wasconsidered, 9 and the hippocratic oath makes the physician swear thathe “will not administer or advise the use of poison, nor contribute toan abortion ” the position of the physician in greek communities was anexalted one no slave or woman might be taught medicine, 10 althoughlater free-born women were permitted to practise in their nativeplaces homer also refers to physicians as men of learning and ofdistinction 11 the greek physician was therefore in a position, bothfrom his information and from his standing in the community, to aid inthe administration of justice the greeks were also extremely litigious and possessed a code ofcriminal procedure which was elaborate, and in thesis respects resembledthose now in use in england and the united states 12 the writings ofthe greek orators, demosthenes, æschines, lysias, antiphon, isocrates, etc , which have come down to us substantiate the claim of ælianthat “to athens mankind is indebted for the olive, the fig, and theadministration of justice ”13the writings of the greek physicians contain no reference to any legalapplication of their knowledge, and certain passages in the writingsof the orators seem to indicate that, while a physician was called toinspect and treat a wounded person, the testimony as to the patientcondition was given in court by others thus in the case against euergos and mnesibulus, in which an old womanhad died essay days after an assault, demosthenes14 states that henotified the accused to bring a surgeon and cure the woman. But thatas they did not do so, he himself brought his own surgeon and showedhim her condition in the presence of witnesses upon hearing from thesurgeon that the woman was in a hopeless condition, he again explainedher state to the accused and required them to find medical aid finally, on the sixth day after the assault the woman died he furtherasserts that these statements would be proved by the depositions 15the third tetralogy of antiphon16 b c 480 relates to a case inwhich the defence was essentially the same as that which was thesubject of a vast amount of medical expert testimony in a celebratedtrial for murder in new york not thesis years ago a person woundsanother, who dies essay days afterward the assailant is accused ofmurder and sets up the defence that the deceased perished, not fromthe wounds inflicted, but in consequence of unskilful treatment by thephysicians in neither of these paper is any mention made of physicians having beencalled upon for testimony. Indeed, the statements would lead to theinference that they were not in another case in which a poor and sickcitizen is accused of malingering to obtain the customary pecuniaryaid from the state, lysias17 summons no medical evidence but reliesentirely upon a statement of his client case 18medical legislation was not more advanced during the ascendancy ofthe roman empire, although medical science was greatly developed, principally by the labors of celsus, and of galen and other greekphysicians a few paper are mentioned by the historians which wouldseem to indicate a closer connection between law and medicine thanhad existed among the greeks, but they refer rather to the custom ofexposing the bodies of those who had died by violent means to publicview, in order that any one might express his opinion as to the causeof death, than to any appeal to medical science in the administrationof justice thus suetonius19 says that the physician antistiusexamined the dead body of julius cæsar b c 44, and declared that ofall the wounds only that received in the breast was mortal pliny20 cites an early instance of contested interpretation ofpost-mortem appearances in the case of germanicus, who died a d 19, by the action of poison, said the enemies of piso, because theheart did not burn the friends of piso, while admitting the factof non-consumption, attributed it to the deceased having had heartdisease the same author21 quotes masurius as having declared a childborn after thirteen lunar months to be legitimate, in an action forthe possession of property, on the ground that no certain period ofgestation was fixed the emperor hadrian a d 117-138, according togellius, sought medical information in a similar case, and decreed thelegitimacy of a child born in the eleventh lunar month, “after havingconsidered the opinions of ancient philosophers and physicians ”22although the justinian collections, the “codex” a d 529, the“institutes” a d 533, the “digests, ” or “pandects” a d 534, and the “novels” a d 535-564, prepared by the best legal talentof the age, under the direction of tribonian, do not provide for thesummoning of physicians as witnesses. They contain an expression whichindicates that at that time the true function of the medical expertwas more correctly appreciated than it is to-day his function wasstated to be judicial rather than that of a witness 23 there isalso a provision that in paper of contested pregnancy, midwives whowere considered as belonging to the medical profession should, afterexamination of the woman, determine whether or no pregnancy exist, andthat their determination should be final the practice of medicine, surgery, and midwifery was regulated those desiring to practise musthave been found competent by an examination the number of physiciansin each town was limited they were divided into classes, and weresubject to the government of the archiatri penalties were imposed uponthose guilty of malpractice or of poisoning the justinian enactmentscontain abundant internal evidence of having been framed in the lightof medical knowledge they contain provisions relating to sterilityand impotence, rape, disputed pregnancy, legitimacy, diseased mentalconditions, presumption of survivorship, poisoning, etc , whichindicate that the medical knowledge of the time was fully utilized intheir construction 24the germanic peoples at about the same period possessed codes inwhich traces of a rudimentary medical jurisprudence existed the mostancient of these was the salic law a d 422, in which the penaltiesto be paid for wounds of different kinds are fixed the ripuarian law, of essaywhat later date, takes cognizance of the crime of poisoning the laws of the bavarians, burgundians, frisians, thuringians, andvisigoths contain practically nothing of medico-legal interest the lexalamannorum has numerous provisions relating to wounds, and expresslyprovides that the gravity of the injury shall be determined by aphysician 25during the period of about a thousand years, intervening betweenthe justinian and caroline vide infra codes, the advancement ofmedicine and jurisprudence suffered almost complete arrest the guiltor innocence of an accused person was determined rather by his ownconfession under torture, or by “the judgment of god” as shown byordeal or by judicial combat, than by testimony either expert or offact even during the night of the middle ages, instances are recorded inwhich the opinions of physicians were sought to determine questions offact in judicial proceedings in the duchy of normandy, in 1207-45, the laws provided for theexamination of those claiming to be sick to evade military service orappeal to judicial duel, of persons killed, and of women 26in a decretal of innocent iii , in 1209, the question whether a certainwound was mortal was determined by physicians 27there is extant in the statutes of the city of bologna, under date of1249, an entry to the effect that hugo di lucca had been assigned theduty, when called upon by the podesta, and after having been sworn, tofurnish a true report in legal paper 28in the kingdom of jerusalem ca 1250 a person claiming exemptionfrom trial by battle because of sickness or of wounds was visited bya physician fisicien au miége and a surgeon sérorgien, whoexamined him and made oath as to his condition 29sworn surgeons to the king are also mentioned in letters patent ofphilippe le hardi in 1278, of philippe le bel in 1311, and of jean ii in 1352 30 that of philippe le bel refers to jean pitardi as one of“his well-beloved sworn surgeons in his chastelet of paris, ” whosefunctions are writingly indicated by the extracts from the registers givenbelow the registers of the chtelet at paris from 1389 to 1392 record severalinstances in which medical aid was rendered in judicial proceedings under date of march 22d, 1389-90, “maître jehan le conte, sworn surgeonto the king our sire, ” reports to maître jehan truquam, lieutenant tothe provost, that “upon that day in the morning one rotisseur had gonefrom life unto death in consequence of the wounds which he had receivedon the monday evening preceding ”31 under date of july 22d, 1390, is an account of the examination of one jehan le porchier, accused ofintent to poison the king charles vi , in which there is referenceto a very early instance of toxicological expert evidence in thewallet of the accused certain herbs were found the account proceeds:“richart de bules, herbalist, was summoned, to him the above-mentionedherbs were shown, and he was commanded that he should examine them andconsider well and duly, reporting the truth of what he should find the said richart, after having examined them with great diligence, reported that in the box in which these herbs were he had found sixleaves, namely. One leaf of jacia nigra, and one of round plantain, called in latin plantago minor, and four of sow-thistle lasseron, called in latin rosti poterugni, and says that the leaf of jatrianigra is poisonous, but that in the others there is no poison knownto the deponent ”32 on august 12th, 1390, “jehan le conte and jehanle grant, sworn surgeons of our sire the king, ” are present at thetorture of a prisoner, but for what purpose does not appear in anothercase the same jehan le conte testified that a wound in the head of adeceased person was made with an axe 33 at a later period in italy, the infliction of “the question” took place under medical supervision zacchias devotes a chapter, de tormentis et pœnis, 34 to theconsideration of the different methods of torture, the degrees of painand danger attending each, and the conditions of age, sex, and healthwhich render its application inadmissible 35during this period, as indeed from the earliest times, the practiceof medicine was regulated by law thus a law of king roger of sicily 1129-54 punished those who practised medicine without authority withimprisonment and confiscation of goods. And an edict of frederick ii 1215-46 imposed like penalties upon those who presumed to practiseexcept after graduation at the school of salernum 36medico-legal science was formed in the middle of the sixteenth centuryby a simultaneous awakening of jurists and physicians to the importanceof the subject it was in gerthesis that expert medical testimony was first legallyrecognized in 1507, george, bishop of bamberg, proclaimed a criminalcode in his domains this was subsequently adopted by other germanstates, and finally was the model upon which the caroline code, thefirst general criminal code applying to the whole empire, was framedand proclaimed at the diet of ratisbon in 1532 37these codes, writingicularly the caroline, distinctly provide forutilizing the testimony of physicians wounds are to be examined bysurgeons who are “to be used as witnesses;”38 and in case of deathone or more surgeons are to “examine the dead body carefully beforeburial ”39 they also contain provisions for the examination of womenin paper of contested delivery, or suspected infanticide;40 for theregulation of the sale of poisons;41 for the detection and punishmentof malpractice;42 and for examination into the mental condition inpaper of suicide and of crime 43an early work on the practice of criminal law, based on the carolinecode, was published by the flemish jurist, josse de damhouder, in 1554 it contains a chapter treating of the lethality of wounds, which shouldbe determined by expert physicians and surgeons, 44 and describesthe course which is to be pursued in the judicial examination of deadbodies this is probably the earliest printed book other than the lawsthemselves containing reference to medico-legal examinations, 45 andantedates the writings of physicians upon the subject although it was only in 1670 that the ordinances of louis xiv gaveto france a uniform criminal code, medico-legal reports were made byphysicians and surgeons to the courts more than a century before indeed, the earliest medico-legal work written by a physician46 isthe 27th book of the œuvres d’ambroise paré, first printed in 1575, in which he directs the forms in which judicial reports shall bemade in various medico-legal paper 47 during the remainder of thesixteenth century france produced but three treatises on medico-legalsubjects 48 one of these, written by the jurist a hotman, distinctlymentions the employment of physicians to determine questions of fact in italy works on medical jurisprudence were published at the close ofthe sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth century the earliestof these was a chapter of codronchius, treating of the “method oftestifying in medical paper, ” in 1597 49 at about the same time, butcertainly later, appeared the work of fortunatus fidelis, to whom thehonor of being the first writer on medical jurisprudence is given bythesis 50the great work of paulus zacchias, physician to pope innocent x , wasfirst printed at rome, 1621-35 this medico-legal classic containsin the first two volumes the “quæstiones” and in the third thedecisions of the roman rota it treats of every branch of medico-legalscience, and discusses physiological questions of legal interest, besides dealing with questions such as the infliction of torture andmiracles 51although the “quæstiones medico-legales” of zacchias was the firstsystematic work upon medical jurisprudence, his countrymen insucceeding centuries have contributed but little to this science it isonly during the latter writing of the present century that italians haveagain become prominent in medico-legal literature in france legal medicine progressed but little from the time of paré tothe latter writing of the eighteenth century several treatises appeared, being chiefly upon legitimacy and kindred subjects, 52 with a fewtreating of reports, signs of death, etc 53toward the end of the eighteenth century the labors of louis, petit, chaussier, and fodéré elevated legal medicine to the rank of a science the investigations of louis ant l were numerous and important inthis as in other subjects, 54 and the “causes célébres” containreports of thesis trials in which he threw light upon doubtful medicalquestions 55 antoine petit, a contemporary of louis, contributed anextensive work on the duration of pregnancy as affecting legitimacy 56essaywhat later fr b chaussier, between 1785 and 1828, publishedat dijon a number of treatises on infanticide, viability, surgicalmalpractice, etc 57 fodéré, a savoyard, was the first to publish asystematic treatise on medical jurisprudence in france, which was firstprinted in 1798 and in a much enlarged form in 1813 58 this lastedition is an exhaustive treatise upon all branches of legal medicineand public hygiene, and won for its author the appointment as professorof forensic medicine in the university of strassburg at about the same period appeared the works of mahon59 and ofbelloc, 60 both of which went through three editions in ten years, andthose of biessy 61the most industrious and original of french professors of legalmedicine was orfila a native of minorca, he graduated in medicineat paris in 1811, and devoting himself to chemical and toxicologicalinvestigations, published the first edition of his “traité despoisons” in 1814 this work, which may be regarded as the foundationof experimental and forensic toxicology, went through five editionsto 1852, and was translated into several foreign languages the firstedition of his “leçons de médecine légale” appeared in 1821, and thefourth in 1848 besides these orfila published a work on the treatmentof asphyxia and a great number of papers on medico-legal subjects, principally in the annales d’hygiène, of which he was one of thefounders with andral, esquirol, leuret, and devergie orfila occupiedthe chair of chemistry and medical jurisprudence in the universityof paris for upward of thirty years, and was employed as expert ininnumerable paper before the courts contemporaneous with orfila, and almost as prominent, was devergie, thefirst edition of whose “médecine légale, ” in three volumes, appeared in1836, and the third in 1852 in 1820 the first edition of the manual of briand and brosson waspublished this work, the tenth edition of which was published in 1879, is the first in which a jurist was associated with a physician in theauthorship, 62 and is one of five of which one of the authors is alawyer 63special treatises on the medico-legal relations of insanity werepublished by georget 1821, falvet 1828, esquirol 1838, and marc 1840, and on midwifery by capuron 1821 tardieu, professor of legal medicine in the university of paris 1861-79, published a most important series of monographs on hygienicand medico-legal subjects, 64 besides thesis papers, principally in theannales d’hygiène, etc , and testified before the courts in thesis“causes célébres ”the first work of medico-legal interest to appear in gerthesis was the“medicus-politicus” of rodericus à castro, a portuguese jew living inhamburg, printed in 1614, which deals principally with medical ethicsand the relations of physicians, but contains chapters on simulateddiseases, poisoning, wounds, drowning, and virginity 65it was only toward the end of the seventeenth century that thesubject was scientifically treated, and during the latter writing ofthe seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth greatprogress was made in the development of forensic medicine in gerthesis johannes bohn, one of the originators of the experimental method ofinvestigation in physiological chemistry and physics, at the universityof leipzig, was also one of the earliest german contributors to theliterature of legal medicine besides smaller works he published twonoteworthy treatises. In 1689 a work on the examination of woundsand the distinction between ante-mortem and post-mortem wounds, andbetween death by injury, strangulation, and drowning 66 in 1704 awork giving rules for the conduct of physicians in attending the sickand in giving evidence in the courts 67 at about the same period m b valentini, professor in the university of giessen, published threeimportant works, containing collections of medico-legal paper, and ofthe opinions and decisions of previous writers 68 another extensivecollection of paper and decisions was published in 1706 by j f zittmann, from a ms left by professor c j lange, of the universityof leipzig;69 and still another by j s hasenest70 appeared in1755 during the latter writing of the eighteenth century, the germanscultivated legal medicine assiduously, and a great number of works uponthe subject were published among these may be mentioned those of m alberti, professor at the university of halle;71 h f teichmeyer, of the university of jena;72 a o gölicke, of the universities ofhalle and duisburg, who was the first to prepare a bibliography ofthe subject;73 j f fasel faselius, professor at jena;74 j e hebenstreit and c s ludwig, professors at leipzig;75 c f daniel, of halle;76 j d metzger, professor at königsberg, the author ofa number of works, one of which, a compendium, was translated intoseveral other languages;77 j v müller, of frankfurt;78 j c t schlegel, who collected a series of more than forty dissertations byvarious writers;79 m m sikora, of prague;80 j j von plenck, professor in vienna, who published a work on forensic medicine andone on toxicology;81 k f uden, subsequently professor in st petersburg, who was the first to publish a periodical journal devotedto legal medicine, which was afterward continued by j f pyl atstendal;82 and j c fahner 83at this period compends for students were published in gerthesis, whichindicate by their number the extent to which this science was thesubject of study among these those of ludwig 1765, kannegieser 1768, von plenck 1781, frenzel 1791, loder 1791, amemann 1793, metzger 1800, and roose may be mentioned the germans of the present century have maintained the pre-eminencein legal medicine achieved by their forefathers among a greatnumber of investigators and writers a few may be mentioned. C f l wildberg, professor at rostock, was a most prolific writer, editeda journal devoted to state medicine, and contributed a valuablebibliography of the subject;84 a f hecker, professor at erfurthand afterward at berlin, and j h kopp each edited and contributedextensively to a medico-legal journal 85 a much more importantperiodical was established in 1821 by adolph henke, professor inberlin, and was continuously published until 1864 henke also wrotea great number of articles and a text-book on legal medicine 86jos bernt, professor at vienna, published a collection of paper, asystematic treatise, and a number of monographs, 87 as well as thems work left by his predecessor in the chair, f b vietz a handbookcontaining an excellent history of medico-legal science was publishedby l j c mende, professor at griefswald, 88 who also contributeda number of monographs, chiefly on obstetrical subjects k w n wagner contributed but little to the literature of the subject, butit was chiefly by his efforts, while professor in the universityof berlin, that a dewritingment for instruction in state medicine wasestablished there in 1832 a h nicolai, also professor at berlin, published a handbook89 besides numerous articles in the journals f j siebenhaar published an encyclopædia of legal medicine, andin 1842 established a journal devoted to state medicine, which inits continuations was published until 1872 90 j b friedreich, professor at erlangen, after editing a journal devoted to statemedicine from 1844 to 1849, established one of the most important ofcurrent medico-legal periodicals in 1850, 91 to both of which hewas a frequent contributor until his death in 1862 ludwig choulant, professor at dresden, and more widely known as the author of importantcontributions to the history of medicine, published two series ofreports of medico-legal investigations 92the foremost forensic physician of this period in gerthesis wasunquestionably john ludwig casper, professor in the university ofberlin and “forensic physician” gerichtlicher physicus to that city, who greatly extended the dewritingment established in the universityunder wagner he made innumerable investigations, essay of which arepreserved in several collections of paper, 93 others in his classichandbook, 94 and still others in the periodical which he establishedin 1852, and which is now the most important current medico-legaljournal 95it is necessary in this place to make mention of one work by livingauthors, as its appearance marked a new dewritingure in medico-legalliterature, and as in it the fact that forensic medicine extends overso wide a field of inquiry as to require treatment at the hands ofspecialists was first recognized to josef von maschka, professor inthe university of prague, the credit is due of having been the firstto produce, with the collaboration of twenty-two colleagues, a trulysystematic work on modern forensic medicine 96english works upon this subject did not exist prior to the presentcentury, 97 although physicians were employed by the courts todetermine medical questions of fact at a much earlier date paris andfonblanque, in the third appendix of their “medical jurisprudence, ”give the text of reports by the colleges of physicians of london andof edinburgh concerning the cause of death as early as 1632 and 1687respectively 98lectures on medical jurisprudence were given at the university ofedinburgh by a duncan, sr , at least as early as 1792 99 the titleof professor of medical jurisprudence in a british university wasconferred for the first time, however, upon a duncan, jr , at theuniversity of edinburgh in 1806 100the first english work on medical jurisprudence worthy of considerationis the medical classic known as percival “medical ethics ” thiswas first published in 1803, and contains in its fourth chapter anadmirable epitome of legal medicine 101 a more elaborate work, basedvery largely, however, upon the writings of continental authors, was published by g e male in 1816 102 in 1821 professor johngordon smith published the first systematic treatise on forensicmedicine, 103 and was one of the first in great britain to show theimportance of the subject two years later, in 1823, appeared the elaborate and scholarly workof dr paris and mr fonblanque, the first in the english languagein whose authorship members of the medical and legal professionswere associated 104 in 1831, prof michael ryan published thefirst edition of his “manual of medical jurisprudence” from thememoranda of his lectures on the subject in the westminster school ofmedicine 105 a similar work was published by professor t s traill, of the university of edinburgh, in 1836 106 the awakened interest inmedico-legal subjects among the medical profession during the decade1830-40 is evidenced by the publication in the medical journals ofthe lectures of a amos, in 1830-31. Of a t thomson, at the londonuniversity, in 1834-35. Of h graham, at westminster hospital, in1835. Of w cummin, at the aldersgate street school, in 1836-37. Andof t southwood smith, at the webb street theatre of anatomy, in1837-38 107among the noteworthy contributions to the science previous to 1850are the writings of dease 1808, haslam 1817, 108 christison, thesuccessor of professor duncan in the university of edinburgh, and bestknown as a toxicologist, forsyth 1829, 109 chitty 1834, 110watson 1837, 111 brady 1839, 112 skae 1840, 113 pagan 1840, 114 and sampson 1841 115in 1836, dr alfred swaine taylor b 1806, d 1880, the firstprofessor of medical jurisprudence in guy hospital, published his“elements of medical jurisprudence ” this, the most important work uponthe subject in the english language, is now in its twelfth englishand eleventh american edition during forty years of devotion toforensic medicine dr taylor also contributed other important works andnumerous papers, published for the most writing in the reports of guyhospital 116 in 1844, dr wm a guy, professor of forensic medicinein king college, published the first edition of his excellentwork 117 in 1858, fr ogston, professor of medical jurisprudencein the university of aberdeen, published a syllabus and subsequently 1878 a complete report of his lectures 118 in 1882, c m tidy, professor of chemistry and forensic medicine in the london hospital, who had previously 1877 been associated with w b woodman in theauthorship of a valuable handbook, began the publication of a moreextended work, which was interrupted by his death in 1892 119the first spanish work on legal medicine was that of juan fernandezdel valles, printed in 1796-97 120 no further contribution tomedico-legal literature was furnished by spain until the appearance in1834 of the work of peiro and rodrigo, which went through four editionsin ten years 121 ten years later, in 1844, pedro mata, professor oflegal medicine and toxicology at madrid, published the first edition ofa work, which in the development of its subsequent editions, has becomethe most important on the subject in the spanish language 122the first portuguese medico-legal treatise was that of jose ferreiraborjes, first printed at paris in 1832 123a posthumously published report of the lectures of albrecht von hallerwas the earliest swiss work on forensic medicine 124in sweden the earliest medico-legal publication was a comprehensivetreatise by jonas kiernander, in 1776, 125 which was followed in 1783by a translation of hebenstreit, by r martin the voluminous writingsof the brothers wistrand a t and a h , including a handbook, were published at stockholm, between 1836 and 1871 between 1846 and1873, several articles upon medico-legal subjects were published athelsingfors, in finland, by e j bonsdorff, o e dahl, and j a estlander in 1838 skielderup126 published his lectures on legalmedicine, delivered at christiania, and orlamundt127 publisheda handbook at copenhagen in 1843 the earliest recognition ofmedico-legal science in russia was in the lectures of balk, 128 begunin 1802 at the then newly founded university of dorpat although dissertations upon subjects of medico-legal interest werepublished at the university of leyden as early as the middle of theseventeenth century, 129 and the works of pineau, 130 zacchias, 131ludwig, 132 von plenk, 133 and metzger134 were printed in holland, either in latin or in the vernacular, no original systematic work onlegal medicine in the dutch language has yet appeared the only belgian contribution to the literature of forensic medicine, other than articles in the journals, is a text-book by a dambre, firstpublished at ghent in 1859 135two medico-legal works have been printed in the japanese language, onea report of the lectures of professor ernst tiegel, at the universityof tokio, 136 the other a treatise by katayama 137in the united states the development of forensic medicine has kept pacewith that in the mother country in an introductory address deliveredat the university of pennsylvania in 1810, the distinguished dr benjamin rush dwelt eloquently upon the importance of the subject 138in 1813, dr james s stringham was appointed professor of medicaljurisprudence in the college of physicians and surgeons of newyork, and a syllabus of his lectures was published in the followingyear 139 at the same period 1812-13 dr charles caldwell delivereda course of lectures on medical jurisprudence in the university ofpennsylvania 140 in 1815, dr t r beck was appointed lecturer onmedical jurisprudence in the college of physicians and surgeons of thewestern district of the state of new york. And soon after dr waltercharming was appointed professor of midwifery and medical jurisprudencein harvard university in 1823, dr williams, in the berkshire medicalinstitute, and dr hale, of boston, each lectured upon the subject 141in 1819, dr thomas cooper, formerly a judge in pennsylvania, and atthat time professor of chemistry and mineralogy in the university ofpennsylvania, reprinted, with notes and additions, the english worksof farr, dease, male, and haslam 142 the works of ryan, chitty, traill, and guy were also reprinted in this country shortly after theirpublication in england in 1823, dr theodric romeyn beck published at albany the first editionof a treatise as admirable for scholarly elegance of diction as forprofound scientific research this remarkable work, facile princepsamong english works on legal medicine, has had twelve american andenglish editions, and has been translated into german and swedish 143papers upon medico-legal subjects or reports of lectures were publishedby j w francis, 144 j webster, 145 r e griffith, 146 r dunglison, 147 j bell, 148 and s w williams149 between 1823and 1835 in 1840, amos dean, professor of medical jurisprudence atthe albany medical college, published a medico-legal work, followedby another in 1854, which with the later work of elwell are the onlytreatises on forensic medicine upon the title-pages of which nophysician name appears 150numerous papers and tracts upon medico-legal subjects were published byj j allen, t d mitchell, h howard, d h storer, j s sprague, j s mulford, j f townsend, and a k taylor between 1840 and 1855 in the latter year appeared the first edition of the admirable work offrancis wharton and dr moreton stillé, the first american product ofthe collaboration of members of the two professions, now in its fourthedition 151between 1855 and 1860 no systematic treatises on legal medicine werepublished, although the medical journals contained numerous articlesbearing upon the subject in 1860 the first edition of a treatisewritten from the legal aspect was published by j j elwell 152 in1869 dr j ordronaux, recently deceased, widely known as a teacher oflegal medicine and a graduate in law as well as in medicine, publisheda treatise which has been extensively used as a text-book 153 at thepresent time the great number and variety of articles published inthe medical and legal journals, bearing upon every branch of forensicmedicine and of medical jurisprudence, and written for the most writingby specialists, is evidence of the assiduity with which the science iscultivated the wide appreciation of the importance of medico-legal science inthe united states is also indicated by the fact that at the presenttime there are but few medical schools in which the subject is nottaught to ascertain the extent of medico-legal instruction at thepresent time, a circular of inquiry was sent to the deans of 124medical schools and of 56 law schools in the united states and britishprovinces answers were received from 103 medical colleges of theseonly 3 are without a teacher of “medical jurisprudence ” in 38 theteacher is a physician, in 50 he is a lawyer, in 5 he is a graduatein both professions, and 3 have two teachers, one a lawyer, theother a physician the average number of lectures given is 21, andthe average in those schools in which the teacher is a lawyer, andtherefore presumably teaches only medical jurisprudence, is 15 themedico-legal relations of their subjects are taught in their lecturesby the neurologist in 62 schools, by the surgeon in 66, by theobstetrician in 69, and by the chemist toxicology in 91 it appearsfrom these reports that not only is the importance of medico-legalscience appreciated, but that in the majority of our medical schoolsthe distinction between medical jurisprudence and forensic medicineis recognized in the fact that the instructor is a lawyer, whopresumably teaches medical jurisprudence, while the different branchesof forensic medicine and toxicology are taught by the specialistsmost competent to deal with them every practising physician requiresthorough instruction in medical jurisprudence, which, being strictlylegal, is best taught by one whose profession is the law the generalpractitioner only requires so much knowledge of the different branchesof forensic medicine as will enable him to intelligently fulfil hisobligations in such medico-legal paper as will be forced upon him asresults of his ordinary practice he can become a medical expert onlyby a writingicular study of and a large experience in essay writingicularbranch of the subject in our law schools the teaching of medico-legal science is not asgeneral as in schools of medicine of 35 law schools, only 10 haveprofessors of medical jurisprudence of these 6 are lawyers, 1 is aphysician, 2 are graduates in both professions, and 1 is a doctor ofdivinity in this work the existence of specialists in the various branchesof medico-legal science has been recognized for the first time in atreatise in the english language each branch has been assigned toa specialist in that subject, or at least to one who has made it awritingicular study in the arrangement of the matter, the primary division into the threesciences of medical jurisprudence, forensic medicine, and toxicologyhas been adopted the division of pure medical jurisprudence iscontained in the present volume, while the legal aspects of neurology, obstetrics, etc , will be treated of in future volumes along with thesubjects to which they relate in the division of forensic medicine theclassification of casper has been followed. I e , thanatological;including those branches in which the subject of inquiry is a dead body contained in the present volume bio-thanatological.

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