History

Essay Help Sites


Take my herb wormwood, and thou shallnever get a surfeit by drinking a poor silly countryman hath got anague, and cannot go about his business. He wishes he had it not, andso do i. But i will tell him a remedy, whereby he shall prevent it;take the herb of mars, wormwood, and if infortunes will do good, whatwill fortunes do?. essay think the lungs are under jupiter. And if thelungs then the breath. And though essaytimes a man gets a stinkingbreath, and yet jupiter is a fortune, forsooth. Up comes mars to him;come brother jupiter, thou knowest i sent thee a couple of trines tothy house last night, the one from aries, and the other from scorpio;give me thy leave by sympathy to cure this poor man with drinking adraught of wormwood beer every morning the moon was weak the otherday, and she gave a man two terrible mischiefs, a dull brain and a weaksight. Mars laid by his sword, and comes to her.

“ a number of the most powerful alteratives of the pharmacopeia such as chemically pure iodin, magnesium, potassium with sarsaparilla, stillingia, prickly ash, burdock, taraxacum, etc each fluidounce contains seventy-two grains of the combined salts ”the same circular also alleges that each dram of the preparationcontains. “ the equivalent of one and one-half grains of the combined iodids, potassium and calcium ”it will be observed that, 1 the two statements quoted from thecircular make no reference to bromids. 2 the statement that eachdram contains “the equivalent” of 1-1/2 grains of the combined iodids, potassium and calcium, accounts for but 12 of the 72 grains of “thecombined salts” per fluidounce declared in the preceding quotation. 3 the circular mentions the presence of a drug-- prickly ash-- notdeclared on the label and, finally 4 none of the “formulas” gives thequantities of all of the several constituents it is evident from these “formulas” that the tilden company continuesits policy of concealment and mystification as exemplified in the paperof hydrocyanate of iron, tilden discussed in the journal, june 19, 1909, p 2008, febrisol the journal, june 29, 1912, p 2043 andrespirazone the journal, june 14, 1913, p 1899 in the circular just quoted “the conquest of syphilis”, all hope forthe syphilitic is declared to rest in mercury and iodin, and it isimplied that only through elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp is itpossible to obtain the greatest good from these drugs “were the cleansing influences of these two drugs mercury and iodin unavailable to the luetic patient, he, truly, would be as pitiable an object as the leper “modern pharmacy has devised no better means of utilizing these anti-syphilitics than elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp tilden with or without mercury the elixir, in proper dosage, acts in specific fashion and is adapted for use in all stages of the disease “in the early months elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp tilden with mercury is a trustworthy weapon and the physician need have no fear but that it will subjugate the disease “when the virulent stage is passed elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp tilden without mercury may be given the patient with every assurance that medicine most aggressive measures are being resorted to from time to time, up to the very end of the time honored three years’ period of treatment, it is well to put the patient back on the bichloride, using for this purpose the form of the elixir administered in the first stages of the disease “this regime will indubitably antidote the virus of syphilis and eradicate from the organism its every vestige ”while it seems incredible that any physician would jeopardize thehealth-- even the life-- of a patient by accepting this boastfulmagniloquence as sound therapeutic advice, still the fact that certainmedical journals lend their advertising pages to advertisements fortilden elixir with the caption “the conquest of syphilis” makes itincumbent on the council to record its condemnation of the employmentof this unscientific, semisecret mixture it is recommended that elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp “withoutmercury” and “with mercury” be held in conflict with rule 1 secrecyof composition, rule 6 unwarranted therapeutic claims and rule 10 unscientific composition -- from the journal a m a , nov 6, 1915 lecithin preparations omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report was sent to the manufacturers of the variouslecithin preparations mentioned therein as the replies of themanufacturers were obviously written from the commercial point ofview and did not affect the council conclusion that lecithin, whenindicated, would be given more advantageously in the form of yolk ofegg than in the less pure manufactured product, the council directedthat the report be published, together with extracts from the repliesof the manufacturers w a puckner, secretary commercial lecithin preparations are at best very impure substances;all are more or less altered from the original composition evenwith great care, the methods of extraction and drying always produceconsiderable decomposition. And in essay paper the phosphorus andnitrogen contents bear but little relation to the theoretical values long, j h. Jour am chem soc , xxx, 881 mclean, hugh. Chem abstracts, may 20, 1915 there is not the slightest reliable evidencethat commercial lecithin has any advantage over the lecithin containedin natural foods. The weight of probability is on the other side the doses recommended, moreover, are absurdly small. And the amountthus administered is without practical value why administer a fewmilligrams of a more or less decomposed lecithin when it is possible togive a far larger weight of a purer substance in the form of yolk ofegg?. In view of these considerations the council voted that the followingproprietary products be omitted from the next edition of n n r. Glycerole of lecithin lecibrin lecithin solution lecithol neuro-lecithin-abbottand that the general article on “lecithin preparations” be transferredto the annual council reports as a matter of record the report was submitted to the manufacturers their replies wereevidently based on commercial consideration, and called for nomodification in the report the referee recommended that the preceding report be published togetherwith the following extracts from the replies of the manufacturers:from armour and company. “we are selling a good deal of lecithol and it seems to be giving satisfactory results in essay quarters we shall continue to advertise lecithol along the lines we have employed heretofore ”from the abbott laboratories.

We can only distinguishbetween old and recent ones, and thus control the statements of theaccused an examination of the finger-nails of the prisoner soonafter the crime may reveal blood essay help sites underneath when the rest of thehands and person are free from it note also the site and shape ofthe blood-spots, if they exist, and whether or not they came from anarterial jet these spots may be on the body or clothes of the accused the account of the accused as to these spots may or may not correspondto the facts as indicated by them the above leads us to the more orless important question:could the assailant have escaped without stains?. It is possible for the murderer to escape without being spotted withblood, but the probability of this occurrence depends on the natureof the wound and the relative positions of the deceased and theassailant at the time the wounds were inflicted this latter fact isvery largely, if not altogether, a matter of speculation as far asthe medical evidence goes it is a popular, though false, idea thata murderer clothes must be bloody, and the police may be misled inexpecting to find them so in every instance taylor1 cites severalpaper in which either no blood was found on the murderer clothes, or only small spots wholly out of proportion to the amount of bloodwhich must have spurted or flowed from the wound absence of blood onthe prisoner clothes is often made use of by the defence to provethe prisoner innocence, whereas, besides the possibilities of havinghad no spots in the first place, the clothes may have been changedor washed before the examination was made this has occurred in morethan one murder trial taylor648 mentions the following paper inillustration:it was alleged that the absence of blood-stains on the prisonerclothing was a strong proof of his innocence in the trial ofsub-inspector montgomery for the murder of mr glasse omagh ass , july, 1873 in this case the weapon was a bill-hook which had producedcontused wounds on the head there was blood on the floor about thebody, but the wounds were not likely to have been accompanied by muchspurting yet it was assumed that the assailant in this case musthave been covered with blood much stress was laid upon the absenceof blood-stains on the first two trials the jury could not agree, owing chiefly to the absence of blood-stains, but on the third trialhe was convicted and afterward admitted that he had removed theblood-stains from the clothes with cold water also in the case ofreg v courvoisier c c c , 1840 the accused, who was tried forthe murder of lord william russel, had no blood-stains on his clothes all the vessels of the throat of the deceased had been cut to thevertebræ while he was asleep it was contended most strongly that theaccused could not possibly have committed the crime, as he had noblood-stains but after conviction he confessed that he wore no clotheswhen he committed the murder, and he only had to wash his hands and thecarving-knife he used again, in the case of reg v thompson durhamwint ass , 1863 the defence mainly relied on the absence of blood onthe prisoner clothing the wound in the throat of the wife of theaccused was five inches long, directed from left to right, dividingall the vessels and nerves of the neck the medical witness statedjustly that no such wound could be self-inflicted it was rapidlyfatal no weapon was found near the body the prisoner was convicted the same author cites the case of a prisoner on whose trousers wornsoon after the murder no blood-marks were found, but the trousersactually worn by him were found with blood upon them juries have evenacquitted the prisoner apparently only because no marks of blood werefound, though the other circumstances were explicable only on thetheory of murder it should be remembered in this connection that blood-stains may befound on the clothing of thesis, especially on the coarse clothingof working-people this may be accounted for by the occupation, flea-bites, accidental circumstances, or it may occur withoutdefinite explanation such persons may be accused of murder and yetthe blood-stains be consistent with innocence too much importanceshould not, therefore, be attached to them, even if the accused cannotsatisfactorily explain them and if he does not attempt to do so ina suspicious way that blood on the clothing even under suspiciouscircumstances may be consistent with innocence is illustrated by thecase of a suicide by cutting the throat, in 1872, cited by taylor 649in this case the son first found his father dead, and thought that hehad broken a blood-vessel he raised the body, staining his hands andclothes, then went for help at the inquest he was closely questionedas to the presence of the blood-stains, but there could be no doubtthat the case was one of suicide in general, we may say that a murderer is much more likely to escapewithout blood-stains in contused wounds, and more likely in the caseof punctured wounds than in incised wounds, for in punctured woundsthe bleeding is much less free and is less likely to spurt from thewound in the case of incised wounds he is most apt to escape withoutstains if he is behind or to the side of the victim when he inflictsthe wound in other words, when a writing of the body of the deceasedwas between the assailant and the wound inflicted furthermore, theassailant is more likely to escape without blood-stains if there is asingle wound than if there are several, and each additional wound makesit more likely that he will be spotted with blood the examination of the ground or floor and the furniture, etc , mayfurnish essay evidence as to the nature of the crime, and also helpthe witness to answer the questions which may essaytimes be asked, i e , at what spot was the victim wounded?. and where did he die?. This question is essaytimes settled by examination of the spot wherethe deceased lay and the furniture, etc , about essaytimes the flooror ground and the furniture or surrounding objects at a distance givethe requisite evidence the examination of the cracks and corners ofthe floor and furniture should not be neglected, and taylor instancesa case where the hair of a dog helped to clear up the case if thebody has not been disturbed the most blood is usually found wherethe deceased died if the victim succumbs at the spot where he waswounded, blood is found only in the immediate neighborhood, except forarterial jets, which may be as far distant as two metres the separateblood-spots of an arterial jet are circular if the jet strikes theobject perpendicularly, oval or wedge-shaped with the larger end awayfrom the body if it strikes the object obliquely if the blood-stains are more diffused and are found in other places, careful notice should be taken as to whether the different placescommunicate with one another by traces of blood if they do notcommunicate, it goes to show that the body was moved after activebleeding had ceased, that is, after death, but this indication isnot absolutely positive if traces of blood do connect the largerblood-spots, it is of interest and importance to know where thedeceased was wounded and where he died, also whether he moved orif he was moved before or after death this question is not alwayscapable of solution essay injuries exclude the possibility of activemotion stupefying contused injuries of the head or an incised woundopening a great artery are both inflicted where there is the greatesthemorrhage, and the spot where the deceased was wounded and died shouldbe identical in such paper a second large spot of blood, connectingor not with the first wound, indicates that the body has been moved but if the wound does not bleed much or rapidly, the wounded personmay fall at a distance from the spot where he was injured, and deathoccurs, as a rule, where there is the greatest amount of blood. For acertain amount of bleeding occurs for a short time after the victimfalls or even after death one can find in thesis places the signs ofarterial jets marking the movement of the deceased from one blood-spotto another this is quite different from the tracks caused by dragginga bleeding body all this it is important to notice, for the draggingor passive moving of the body strongly indicates murder blood at adistance may indicate the occurrence of a struggle, or that the bodywas moved, or it may show the tracks of a murderer as to the latterpoint, the imprints of the hands and feet, whether bloody or not, may indicate murder and establish the identity of the murderer wehave already seen how they may occur on the deceased and indicate astruggle, and thus be presumptive of murder when the marks are made bythe naked foot, it is well to examine it by lining it off in squares, and so to compare it with the imprint of the foot of the accused simple inspection can essaytimes give the required evidence we mayeven get an impression of such imprints in the snow imprints of theboots or shoes worn by the accused compared with those imprints foundat and near the scene of the crime may essaytimes help to clear up thecase, but this may perhaps be considered outside of the sphere of themedical witness such and other signs of a struggle about one of theblood-spots would indicate that the wound was received there, thoughdeath may have occurred at another spot in such a case it would bewell to examine to see if there was much blood where the body wasfound, for if there was not it would indicate that the body had beenmoved there after death, and thus be strongly presumptive of murder as furnishing essay evidence which may help to distinguish betweensuicide and homicide in the origin of wounds, the question may beasked, what was the position of the victim when injured or dying?. andalso, what were the relative positions of the victim and assailant?. The position of the victim at the moment of the injury is essaytimesindicated by the position of the wound, the direction of its tract, and the direction from the wound of the blood on the body and clothes on the neck or extremities the course and form of the wound mayindicate the position of these writings when the wound was inflicted, for essaytimes in flexions of these writings the skin lies in folds, anda wound inflicted when these writings were so flexed would be irregular, wavy, or zig-zag further, the position and movement of these writingsnecessary to restore directness to the wound may indicate the positionof the writings when the wound was inflicted the examination of therelative positions of the wound in the clothes and the body may helpto indicate the position of the body when wounded the position ofthe blood on the body and the direction of the blood from the wound, whether below or at the sides, etc , tends to show the position ofthe body when bleeding thus if the body was at any time in the erectposition, essay of the blood-stains will be vertically below the wound, or if the victim was lying on the back then the stain would be at thesides only and not below the wound, except such stains as indicatethat they were produced by arterial jets few suicides cut the throatin the recumbent position. Therefore it may be considered in the lightof an indication of homicide if the blood-stains show that the victimwas not erect after the wound was inflicted it is well also to notethe form, direction, and obliquity of the blood-spot this wouldindicate, by comparison with the wound, the relative position of thewounded person and the blood-spot, and thus show whether the body hadbeen moved or not, as, for instance, by the murderer for the purposeof robbery the force of the bleeding is also indicated by the form ofthe spot, and this would indicate how rapidly death probably ensued this fact might thus help us to judge whether the victim probably diedwhere he was wounded, and whether other and remote blood-spots wouldnot be presumptive of murder if the victim is found in night-clothes, this fact would help to show that he was lying down when wounded themedical evidence as to the position of the victim when injured is, therefore, circumstantial and not very positive. That in regard to therelative position of the victim and assailant is even less positive we presuppose in this question that the case is one of murder we arenot to prove murder or refute suicide we can rarely be positive asto the relative position of the assailed and the assailant a woundin the back may be caused by essay one in front with an arm behind the direction of the wound would indicate this, for if the assailantis right-handed and inflicts a wound on the back from in front, astab-wound would almost always be directed from left to right, anincised wound from right to left, both from above downward with aleft-handed murderer the direction would most likely be from right toleft and from above downward for a stab-wound, and from left to rightand from above downward for an incised wound if the assailant were atthe back of the victim and wounded him in front, the direction of thesewounds would be the opposite of the above, i e , from right to leftfor a stab-wound and from left to right and from above downward foran incised wound with a right-handed assailant and vice versa witha left-handed assailant these wounds occur more commonly than thoseof the back, and are especially noticeable in incised wounds of thethroat in the case of these incised wounds of the throat inflictedfrom behind, the direction from left to right and from above downwardresembles that of self-inflicted wounds in the same situation asa general rule, wounds are on the same side of the victim that theassailant was. The facts given above help to show us the exceptions thus a wound on one side is presumptive that the murderer was on thatside, or possibly at the front or back and only exceptionally on theopposite side the presence of wounds on one side only may help toconfirm the testimony of a witness that the victim was against a wallor essay other obstacle which protected the other side the question ofthe relative position of the combatants in duels and the nature of theweapons used as shown by the wounds has essaytimes come up, especiallyin other countries, to determine whether the combat was regular andfair in all paper of suspected suicide, but where a doubt exists betweensuicide and murder, or even accident, hereditary disposition andorganic affections of the body, such as alcoholism, incurable orpainful diseases, chronic inflammation of the brain and meninges or ofthe genito-urinary organs all such and hereditary predisposition maysupport the idea of suicide imputed or self-inflicted wounds closely allied with the question of the suicidal or homicidal originof wounds is the question whether a wound imputed to another isself-inflicted or inflicted by another these wounds are seldom fatal in discussing the question whether a wound is self-inflicted orinflicted by another, we have referred occasionally to suicidal woundswhere the circumstances were such as apparently purposely to implymurder and impute the cause of death to essay one else this happensmore often in paper of unsuccessful suicide here we have recourse tothe same evidence that we have gone over in the present section whichhelps to distinguish between a suicidal and a homicidal wound thecase may be essaywhat more difficult, as the unsuccessful suicide maymanufacture evidence against the accused and hide to essay extent theevidence of suicide these paper can usually be decided, however, inconnection with the circumstantial and other evidence the majorityof paper of imputed but self-inflicted wounds are very superficial, often not below the true skin being self-inflicted they have thesisof the characters of suicidal wounds thus they are usually situatedin front and on the left or right according as the wounded person isright or left handed, and the direction is usually similar to that insuicidal wounds such wounds are generally incised or punctured wounds, seldom contused wounds, and in this respect they resemble suicidalwounds as exceptions to this rule, bergeret650 mentions essay paperwhere females in attacks of hysteria have inflicted severe contusionson themselves, and have preferred charges of attempted murder againstinnocent persons like suicides also the hands are seldom injured, though they may be much so in resisting homicide in other respects, however, these wounds differ from suicidal wounds thus they are not usually situated over a “mortal” spot, and they areoften numerous and scattered, essaytimes parallel and essaytimes not the wounds in the dress do not correspond even as often as in suicide in comparing cuts in clothing with those on the body, it is importantto find what articles were worn at the time the assault was alleged tohave taken place, and to make sure that the clothes examined were thoseworn or alleged to have been worn it may not be necessary that theclothes examined should have been really worn, for if they were allegedto have been worn and were not, the examination of them will almostalways show the deception or the self-inflicted nature of the wounds then take careful note of the position, direction, form, and sizeof the cut and the apparent sharpness of the weapon in the severallayers, and see if they correspond with one another and with the woundson the body in those various writingiculars in imputed wounds the clothesare generally cut when off the body and can seldom be done so as todeceive a careful examiner several wounds cannot exist in the sameregion of the body without essay being bloody and showing the marks ofit on the clothes even a single wound of the clothes generally showsblood on the inner surface if there is a corresponding wound of thebody underneath in simulated and imputed injuries the blood-stain maybe on the outside of the clothing instead of on the inside, showingthat it was artificial and not natural an impostor may either do toomuch or too little, and the medical witness should be on guard againstboth alternatives taylor651 mentions a case which occurred inlondon essay time ago, in which there were two cuts in the shirt neartogether exactly alike in size, form, and direction, making it evidentthat the weapon had gone through a fold of the shirt this proved thatthe shirt could not have been worn at the time it was cut, for if theshirt was folded while on the body the weapon must have gone throughthe fold and then through another layer of shirt, making three cutsinstead of two, or five instead of four, before it could have reachedthe body this and other facts made self-infliction of the slight woundon the chest probable the same author cites another case showing theimperfect manner in which the cuts in the clothes are made in imputedwounds, the clothes being off the body at the time the case occurredin nottingham in 1872, the accused being charged with wounding theplaintiff on the highway by stabbing him in the arm, though there wasno robbery or other motive for the act the coat and shirt sleeve werefound cut, but there was no corresponding cut in the lining of the coatsleeve the charge was clearly false, and was trumped up by the youthwho was the plaintiff because he wished to leave the place where he hadbeen sent for private study in examining a case where the self-inflicted nature of imputed woundsis in question, the following are essay of the thesis points to keep inmind in the examination and to be ascertained by the examination. 1 the relative position of the plaintiff and the assailant at thetime of the alleged attack this can be compared with the positionas stated by the plaintiff or other witnesses 2 the situation, direction, depth, nature, and number of the wounds 3 the situationand direction of blood-marks or wounds on the dress or person of eitheror both 4 the marks of blood and the quantity of it at the spot ofthe alleged struggle 5 the signs of a struggle and the various otherpoints of circumstantial evidence gone over in considering suicidal andhomicidal wounds though a severe blow may cause a slight mark, it does not follow thata slight mark implies a severe injury, else the exception is made therule the inconsistency of the story of the plaintiff is generally sopalpable that imposture is evident, but prejudice and unjust suspicionare often excited against those accused thus taylor652 states that“a strong suspicion was raised against the then duke of cumberland, in1810, in reference to the death of sellis, when a skilful examinationof the wounds on the deceased would have shown that they might havebeen self-inflicted ” the same author also cites the case of m armand, a merchant of montpelier, who at aix in march, 1864, was tried for analleged murderous assault on, or imputed murderous strangulation of, his servant the excoriation on the back of the neck was so slight asto escape the observation of essay medical men, and it was evidentlyself-inflicted, either accidentally or purposely, as the facts showed the assertions of a number of medical men were taken by the court tosupport the servant story to the effect that his master had struckhim a severe blow on the back of his neck, rendering him insensible forthesis hours from concussion of the brain the evidence given chiefly bytardieu for the defence showed the story of the complainant to be afabrication, and the accused was justly acquitted was a wound accidental?. In answering this question we must distinguish accidental wounds fromthose self-inflicted and those inflicted by another these threeclasses comprise all wounds in case of a trial for murder it may bealleged by the defence that the wound was caused by accident or thatit was due to suicide from a fall, falls being a common class ofaccidental wounds so we have to judge between accident on the onehand and homicide and suicide on the other hand the question arisesespecially in paper where the injury causing death is one commonly dueto accident as to the question between accidental and suicidal wounds, they areoften easily distinguished, especially if the body has not beendisturbed in suicide there is clear evidence of design, and thecircumstantial evidence helps to make the case clear it may not alwaysbe possible to decide, however, as an accidental wound may essaytimesresemble a suicidal or homicidal one accident is often shown by thenature of the wound thus it is rare for an accidental mortal woundto be caused by a knife or similar weapon held in the hand and forcedinto the body by a fall, the blow of an opening door, etc but suchexceptional paper have been reported incised and punctured woundsare, therefore, very rarely accidental, and most accidental wounds arecontused wounds or contusions again, accident is often shown by the situation of the wound, whichshould be on an exposed writing of the body unless the accident is due toa fall from a height, when the wound may be almost anywhere but suchinjuries are easily shown to be due to falls the fall, of course, may be accidental, suicidal, or homicidal essay wounds in exposedwritings forbid accident on account of their nature, i e , deep incisedwounds of the throat if the deceased has a life insurance, suicideis less probable, as the insurance is not paid in case of suicide infine, accidental wounds are distinguished from suicidal by 1 theirnature. Accidental wounds are almost always contused, suicidal veryrarely so, only in paper of lunatics and delirious persons and wheresuicide is accomplished by a fall 2 the situation of the wound orwounds indicates their origin we have already studied the situationof suicidal wounds and have also seen that accidental wounds are onlyon exposed writings, except when the injury clearly indicates a fall froma height the evidence from the direction of wounds rarely applies, asthis is valuable only in incised and punctured wounds, which are seldomaccidental both kinds of wounds are usually few in number except incase of a fall from a height or a crush, though essaytimes suicidalwounds are multiple the evidence from weapons, if there be any, points strongly to suicide the signs of a struggle are hardly consistent with either suicide oraccident the only case in which they might occur would be where astruggle occurred to prevent a suicide from throwing himself off aheight or before a vehicle or railway train in such a case accidentwould be excluded by the signs of a struggle, and the question wouldlie between homicide and suicide the examination of the clothes ofthe deceased would furnish no evidence unless essay letter or paperwere found stating the purpose of committing suicide little or noevidence would be furnished by the position of the body when foundin paper which might otherwise be doubtful organic lesions or otherfacts predisposing to suicide would furnish presumptive evidenceagainst the wounds being accidental of all these various points thefirst, as to the nature of the wounds, is by itself the most valuableand conclusive but this gives us no assistance in clearing up a casewhere it is doubtful whether a fall from a height or a crush by avehicle or railway train was accidental or suicidal essay of the otherpoints mentioned may aid us in such a case, and also the fact that suchinjuries are far more often accidental than suicidal but in thesepaper, also, certain circumstances may show that the fall was not theresult of accident accidental wounds are generally caused by a fall or a crush, andthe fact of their accidental character is generally established bythe circumstances of the event certain accidental wounds presentcharacteristics which allow the true nature of the wounds to bedetermined but in essay paper a suspicion may arise and the questionmay be asked as to whether the wound was accidental or homicidal forinstance, if a person receives fatal homicidal injuries, and justbefore or after death the body is thrown from a height or is runover and crushed, it may be hard to determine the murderous elementamong the thesis wounds this is the case if the homicidal wounds werecontusions or were caused by blunt instruments, but rarely, if everso, if they are incised or punctured wounds or both but even in theformer instance, a close examination of the lesions and of the localityof the injury can often clear up the case thus in a case mentionedby vibert, 653 as cited by hofmann after taylor, a woman was founddead at the foot of essay stairs in a cave she had died of a fractureof the skull and of the spine, produced by the fall but about four orfive feet above the level of the top step there was found on the wallthe fresh marks of an arterial jet of blood examination showed a woundin the right temporal region which had opened the temporal artery, andit was therefore thought that the woman was wounded at the top of thestairway and then thrown down, which was afterward proved to be true in another case, reported by m tourdes, a man knocked down and killedby an axe, which crushed his skull and caused the brain to exude, wasplaced in a road frequented at night by heavy wagons the head wasplaced in the rut, but the coagulated blood and brain formed a puddlewhich did not appear on the wheels or their track, and no bloody furrowwas caused by their passage the same author mentions the case of awoman plainly strangulated by the hands and then thrown into the ditchof the fortifications of paris it is especially with regard to fractures of the skull that thequestion often comes up as to the accidental or homicidal nature ofthe injury, as to whether it is due to a fall or a wound essaytimes adepressed fracture may show the form of the instrument an extensivecomminuted fracture of the skull may indicate greater violence thanwould be received from a fall from the little height which thecircumstances may allow as to the slighter degrees of fracture, the disposition of the fracture itself often shows less than theform and site of the ecchymosis, the lesion of the scalp, and theplace and position of the body when found in such paper the tracesof a struggle, the existence of other wounds, etc , may be of greatimportance in distinguishing between homicide and accident, as indistinguishing between the latter and suicide, the most obscure anddifficult paper are those where the injury has been caused by a fallfrom a height or by a crush this is illustrated by the case of madame de tourville, which isquoted by taylor 654 she was killed in july, 1876, by a fall from aprecipice her husband, a lawyer, was accused of murder committed bypushing her over a precipice in the stelvio pass the place where herdead body was found was at a considerable depth below, and the injurywas chiefly in the head, which had been crushed by the fall the bodyshowed no evidence of intentional violence the prisoner guilt wasestablished on the following points. 1 the false and inconsistentstatements made as to the occurrence. 2 the marks of the body havingbeen dragged essay distance so that a writing of the dress was found, ina bloody condition, essay way from the body.

per cent egg-yolk 8 to 12 egg-white 0 1 to 0 2 liver 2 0 to 3 0 kidney 2 0 to 3 6 lung 2 0 to 3 0 pancreas 2 0 to 3 0actions and uses -- the lecithin preparations have been recommendedin thesis pathologic conditions, especially in malnutrition and sexualdebility moderate doses are said to bring about a marked retention ofnitrogen and phosphorus, but satisfactory proof of this is lacking itis extremely unlikely that the small doses which have been recommendedin pill or tablet form or in emulsions can have any perceptible action, in view of the fact that thesis of our natural foods contain much greaterweights of available lecithins than the medicinal doses provide thereis no good basis for the statement that the free lecithin has a greaterfood value or is more readily assimilated than is the substance asfound in eggs or tissue the reverse proposition is much more likelyto be true, especially when it is considered that the commercialpreparations are usually essaywhat altered or decomposed in the processof separation dosage -- given by the mouth in the form of pills, tablets orglycero-alcoholic emulsions the amount of actual lecithin ingestedin this way is usually small because of the doubtful purity of theoriginal preparation several doses, as commonly administered, wouldbe required to furnish the amount of lecithin present in a smallegg -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1915, p 122 proprietary names for liquid petrolatum report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has accepted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary a former report of the council liquid petrolatum or “russian mineraloil, ” report council pharm and chem , the journal, may 30, 1914, p 1740 called attention to the large number of concerns that wereplacing on the market liquid petrolatum as a proprietary under coinednames since then the number of such products has increased thecouncil has been requested by several concerns to consider theirproducts put out under proprietary brand names the rules of the council affirm that “the application of ‘trade names’to official or established nonproprietary substances tends to confusionand fosters thesis abuses ” in accordance with this general ruling, the council has invariably refused to countenance proprietary namesapplied to liquid petrolatum the council holds that proprietary orcoined names for this substance are detrimental to medical progress, since they are sure to foster the impression that the writingicularproduct is different from liquid petrolatum manufacturers have beenadvised that there is no objection to distinguishing their productsby the addition of their firm name or the initial representing thefirm name. For instance, “liquid petrolatum, a b and co ” or “liquidpetrolatum, smith ” the council also believes that such designationsas “star liquid petrolatum” or “liquid petrolatum, anchor brand, ”may be regarded as unobjectionable, provided that the words “liquidpetrolatum” are always used in connection with the brand designationand given equal prominence -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1915, p 127 seng report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary seng sultan drug co , st louis is called by the manufacturers. “ a palatable preparation of panax ginseng in an aromatic vehicle ”regarding ginseng panax quinquefolia the united statesdispensatory, nineteenth edition, page 1603, says. “the extraordinary medicinal virtues formerly ascribed to ginseng had no other existence than in the imagination of the chinese it is little more than a demulcent, and in this country is not employed as a medicine ”no discussion of ginseng is to be found in the more recently publishedbooks on pharmacology, materia medica and therapeutics, evidentlybecause their authors agree with this estimate on the other hand, physicians are told through the medium ofadvertisements appearing in medical journals that seng is. “an efficient remedy in all affections in which the gastro-intestinal glands need stimulating “exceptionally useful in atonic indigestion, malnutrition, convalescence from the acute diseases, and all digestive disorders characterized by deranged or depressed functions ” woman medical journal, july, 1914 according to the label, seng is indicated in “indigestion, ”“malassimilation, ” “malnutrition” and “wasting diseases ” it is alsostated-- though the preparation is admitted to contain 18 per cent ofalcohol-- that to give babies “ten to fifteen drops in water or milkduring feeding” is a proper procedure and that “for colic, flatulency, etc , the dose for an adult or child may be repeated every half houruntil relieved ”the following are essay of the exaggerated therapeutic claims made forthis preparation of a worthless drug. “as a result of its administration the gastro-intestinal secretions are augmented, the digestion of food is substantially increased, and fermentative processes are promptly overcome ” “seng will specifically encourage the secretion of the juices in the entire alimentary tract ”the formula furnished for seng is non-quantitative and thereforemeaningless the preparation is exploited in a manner to encourageits ill-advised use by the public, and exaggerated and unwarrantedtherapeutic claims are made for it the use of an inefficient orworthless drug like ginseng, moreover, is detrimental to rationaltherapeutics the council therefore voted that seng be refusedrecognition for conflict with rules 1, 4, 6 and 10 -- from reports ofcouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, 1915, p 129 frosst blaud capsules report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfrosst blaud capsules and frosst blaud, arsenic and strychninecapsules were submitted to the council by c e frosst & co , montreal, canada this firm claims, on the authority of the report of a firm ofanalytical chemists, that. “ of three leading blaud preparations bought by us on the open market, the iron in frosst blaud capsules showed the highest percentage of ferrous carbonate ”the chemical laboratory of the american medical association found thisclaim unjustified the laboratory reported that there was no especialdifference in the ferrous iron content of the various blaud pills foundon the market, and that among ten specimens examined, the total ironcontent was the lowest in the frosst specimen in view of this thecouncil refused recognition to frosst blaud capsules and frosstblaud, arsenic and strychnine capsules -- from reports of council onpharmacy and chemistry, 1915, p 164 tyree elixir of buchu and hyoscyamus compound report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryeach dessertspoonful of this preparation is said to represent buchu leaves 3-1/2 grains uva ursi 1-1/8 grains pareira brava 1-1/8 grains hyoscyamus 1-1/2 grains hops 1-1/2 grains acetate potash 7-1/2 grains spirits nitre 5 grains alcohol 5 per cent by volume”the manufacturer, j s tyree, washington, d c , offers this formulato the medical profession with the following claim. “approximate composition made sic by quantitative and qualitative analysis of the finished product ”it is also claimed that “an even greater advantage of tyree buchu and hyoscyamus compound over other drugs, lies in the fact that every constituent of the former is required to conform to a fixed standard of active principle strength. Hence the results derivable from it are absolutely uniform ”these pretentious claims of scientific accuracy look rather absurd tochemists thesis of the substances present in buchu, hops, hyoscyamus, uva ursi and pareira brava are also present in other drugs. Hence itwould never occur to a pharmaceutical chemist to try to ascertain thecomposition of such a mixture as tyree elixir by “quantitative andqualitative analysis of the finished product, ” much less to determinethe “active principle strength” of each ingredient, for no methods areknown by which this can be done it is claimed that, because of the care exercised in making tyreeelixir “ the results derivable from it are absolutely uniform ”a moment reflection, however, must compel any physician to attributethis statement, on the most charitable construction, to sheerignorance of course, even a definite chemical principle, such asquinin, does not exert uniform clinical action, for clinical conditionsvary, and accordingly the patient may or may not be cured it is simplypreposterous to claim that the clinical results obtained from suchsubstances as hops, pareira brava, buchu and uva ursi are absolutelyuniform a peculiarly vicious claim is that the elixir renders the mucoussurfaces of the genito-urinary tract “hostile to the multiplication ofthe gonococci ” since infection with the gonococcus produces the direstresults, any claim which means in plain english that the remedy assistsin producing a cure or in preventing infection with that organismcannot be condemned too strongly uva ursi, to be sure, has essay slightantiseptic action but it is devoid of any curative action in gonorrheaand the minute amounts that are present in the tyree elixir are of nomore protective value against gonorrheal infection than a grain ofhexamethylenamin would be it is further claimed that the elixir is a “specific” for “inflammationof the bladder, bright disease, renal colic, suppurative nephritis, acute cystitis, urethritis, catarrh of the bladder it would beinteresting to know what distinction the manufacturer draws between‘inflammation of the bladder, ’ ‘cystitis’ and ‘catarrh of thebladder’, acidemia, edema, vesical catarrh of old age, lithemia” andthat ascites and anasarca “can be reduced greatly to the satisfactionof the patient, and honor of the physician” by using a mixture oftyree elixir and infusion of digitalis such claims as these do notmerit serious discussion, for they carry their own refutation it is recommended that tyree elixir of buchu and hyoscyamus compoundbe held in conflict with rules 5, 6 and 10 and that publication ofthis report be authorized -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1915, p 167 hydroleine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryhydroleine charles n crittenton company, new york is a cod liveroil emulsion said to contain 45 per cent of cod liver oil, a trace ofsalicylic acid and 18-1/2 grains of “pancreatin, etc , ” per ounce theadvertising claims are based largely on the theory that cod liver oilis “that writingicular fat which dietetic experience and physiologicalchemistry have proved to be most digestible ” as a matter of fact, while the superior digestibility of cod liver oil over other oils hasoften been asserted, neither “dietetic experience” nor “physiologicalchemistry” have “proved” this by definite observations the crittentoncompany claims that it is more readily split than other oils thisis probably not true, easy emulsification of the raw oil being oftenconfounded with easy splitting this latter claim, however, is offeredin justification of the name “hydroleine, ” which the crittenton companyinterprets as “hydrated oil ” a circular wrapped around the bottlecontains the assertion that “cod liver oil has long been held in highesteem by the medical profession for the treatment of a large number ofserious diseases ” this recommendation is likely to lead the public toplace undue reliance on hydroleine in the grave conditions mentioned the preparation is in conflict with the rules of the council inasmuchas its name does not indicate its composition, unwarranted therapeuticclaims are made for it, and the exploitation is likely to give thepublic unwarranted confidence in its value the council therefore heldhydroleine ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies -- from reportsof council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1915, p 171 curative vaccine, bruschettini report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycurative vaccine, bruschettini, manufactured by a bruschettini, genoa, italy, is claimed to have the properties “of acting directly on thetubercular bacillus, bringing directly into the field and determining ahyperproduction of antibacillar and antitoxic substances ” the use ofthe preparation is said to be indicated in “all forms of tuberculosis ”a referee reported to the council that he had examined the availableinformation and believed that the use of this product had nosatisfactory experimental basis the method of preparation appears tobe based more on theoretical considerations than on experimental basis on the recommendation of the committee on serums and vaccines thecouncil voted that curative vaccine, bruschettini, be not acceptedbecause 1 the method used for the production of the vaccine was notsatisfactorily stated. 2 the theory on which its use is based has notbeen satisfactorily confirmed, and 3 the value of the product is notupheld by satisfactory clinical evidence the council findings, in accordance with its procedure, were sentto the manufacturers for comment his reply was considered by a newreferee who found that the matter presented did not warrant a revisionof the council conclusions accordingly the council directedpublication of its findings -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1915, p 176 stearns’ wine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfrederick stearns & co market a preparation known as “stearns’ wine, ”“stearns’ wine of cod liver ext with peptonate of iron, ” and as “vinumext morrhuae, stearns ” the constituents are said to be “concentratedextract of fresh cod livers, ” “peptonate of iron” and a “fine qualityof prime sherry wine” containing 18 per cent of alcohol this preparation was at one time marketed through the medicalprofession, but is now advertised direct to the public in typical“patent medicine” style the label on a recently purchased bottle ofstearns’ wine contains the following statements. “stearns wine is an ideal tonic for elderly people, for weak, pale and delicate children and convalescents “stearns wine has for thesis years been successfully prescribed in the treatment of general or nervous exhaustion, anemia, malnutrition, loss of appetite, loss of sleep, faulty circulation and impoverished blood supply ”the scope of the recommendations for the preparation is furtherindicated in a booklet accompanying the bottle, which begins. “stearns’ wine, what it is and why it is good for you ”the conclusion is. “stearns’ wine is a safe medicine for the young, middle-aged and old it is a safeguard to the family health ”it is not necessary to discuss either these all-embracing claims asto the therapeutic efficacy of the mixture or the fallacies presentedin favor of cod-liver extract and peptonate of iron the councilreaffirms the opinion that whatever therapeutic value cod liver mayhave resides chiefly, if not entirely, in its fatty constituents the journal, oct 9, 1909. Reports council pharm and chem , 1909, p 115 a confirmation of this opinion has recently been furnished bythe investigations of prof j p street the journal a m a , feb 20, 1915, p 638 of several cod liver cordials, one of which vinollike stearns’ wine, is described as a wine of cod liver extract withpeptonate of iron stearns’ wine is essentially an alcoholic stimulant it is not “asafe medicine for the young, middle-aged and old ” the unwarrantedtherapeutic claims and the recommendations for its indiscriminate usebring it into conflict with rules 4 and 6 the council voted thatstearns’ wine be held ineligible for inclusion in n n r -- fromreports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1915, p 177 protonuclein and protonuclein beta report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council had adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary protonuclein, with other products of reed and carnrick, was examinedby the council in 1907 and found ineligible for admission to new andnonofficial remedies according to the patent specifications, it isprepared “from the thyroid and thymus glands, brain pineal glandsand pituitary body, bone-marrow, pancreas, spleen, liver, salivaryglands, brunner glands, lieberkühn follicles and peptic glands ”these various glandular bodies, it is said, are dried at a temperaturebelow 130 f preferably between 100 and 110. The fat is removed byether, the dried glands disintegrated, the connective tissue removedby sifting and the resulting powder coated with an ether solution ofbenzoin and mixed with milk sugar the dose is three to ten tablets 9to 30 grains daily protonuclein beta is said to be produced by the addition toprotonuclein of an equal amount of nucleoplasm and protoplasm of thespleen the dose is from two cubes each 5 grains three times a day tothree cubes four times a day 30 to 60 grains daily special advantages over ordinary nuclein are attributed toprotonuclein, in which, it is claimed, certain unaltered cells remainthat are more easily assimilated by the leukocytes than are ordinaryproteins, thus leading to a multiplication of cells in the earlyadvertising protonuclein was claimed to be. “ an exact physiological product derived from the lymphoid structures of the body without the use of chemical agents so delicate is protonuclein that any chemical agent is liable to disturb its cellular activity ”after its examination of the product in 1907 the journal, oct 5, 1907, p 1198, the council concluded that any distinction betweenthe action of protonuclein and that of ordinary nuclein was purelyspeculative and highly improbable “if the active ingredients arereally so unstable that they are destroyed by all chemical agents, asclaimed, it seems impossible that the activity would be preserved whenprotonuclein is given by mouth and therefore subjected to the veryprofound changes of digestion ”at that time the importance of thyroid as an ingredient had not beenemphasized the following year, however, hunt and seidell the journala m a , oct 24, 1908 reported the results of an investigationwhich showed that protonuclein was a diluted thyroid preparation, asskilfully disguised as in the antifats rengo and marmola hunt laterpointed out the journal, feb 1, 1913, p 384 that the amount ofnuclein contained in a dose of protonuclein probably would not have theslightest effect, especially when given by mouth the following are extracts from the protonuclein advertising matter. “for cancer, infectious fevers measles, scarlet fever, typhoid and septicaemia and as a prophylactic ” “protonuclein.

  • rhetorical essay example
  • how to write a contrast essay
  • evolution essay
  • reflection essay outline
  • chemistry assignment help
  • where can i buy research papers online
  • personal qualities essay
  • persuasive essay topics for high school
  • uc essay prompt 2
  • good topics for a persuasive essay
  • failure essay examples
  • i pay and you write my thisis
  • how to write the sat essay
  • buy persuasive essay paper
  • buy custom paper
  • essay homework help online
  • homework helper for kids
  • essay on feminism
  • ghostwriting services denver
  • custom essay writer
  • essay on to kill a mockingbird

But the circumstances under whichpowder-marks of a given character can be inflicted are so extremelyvariable that no statistics or information of value in a generalway can be given thus the fineness of the marks will depend uponthe fineness of the essay help sites powder, and the area covered and the depth ofthe marking upon the same, upon the distance of the muzzle from thesurface. And the only way to make out the exact distance of the muzzlefrom the surface at the time of the infliction of a given wound is touse the same weapon, if possible, with cartridges or charges out of thesame lot as that used at the time of injury distances could, perhaps, be stated in round numbers, but their value would only be remotelyapproximate, and in a given case the best evidence is to be obtained byexperiment with the fire-arm in question dimensions of perforations - at different times a great deal ofweight has been attached to the dimension of the perforation throughsuch objects as wood, glass, or even through the bones of the body, made by the bullet which is supposed or known to have destroyedlife wrong inferences have been drawn essaytimes from a study ofundischarged bullets or cartridges similar, at least before firing, to that which has been taken from a given body it has been stated, for instance, that such a bullet was too large to have passed throughsuch an aperture or to have made such a hole, or that it was so muchsmaller than a certain hole that it was not the writingicular missilewhich made that perforation upon this matter has hinged a great dealof uncertainty and consequently a good deal of study the size ofopening which a bullet of given calibre will make through wood dependsupon the distance of the weapon, the firing charge, the velocity ofthe bullet, the extent to which its shape has been altered by passingthrough the given barrier, by the heat of the explosion, by the impactof the air upon the heated and consequently softened metal, and by thedensity and thickness of the wood, as well as by the resistance whichit may have offered mainly from its being fixed in place or movable there is, however, ordinarily less question about the size of a similarhole through a piece of glass or bone it is generally supposed thata bullet passing through a window-pane will shatter it this depends, however, mainly upon the perfection of fixation of the glass in itsresting-place if for purposes of experiment panes of glass be tackedinto a shutter and bullets be fired at them from varying distances, they will be practically invariably shattered it is, however, quitedifferent if the pane of glass be firmly fixed in a frame by means ofputty which has become old and hard, and especially if the window-frameitself be closely fitted in the casing under these circumstances abullet will often make a clearly punched hole, or one with very fewradiating lines of fracture experiment, therefore, to secure evidenceshould be made under circumstances exactly parallel to those whichnecessitate such evidence evidence from examination of the dead body fractures - considerable evidence of great interest with respect tothe effect of a bullet-wound upon the skull and the possibility offractures being produced at the base by contre coup will be found inthe statement of the case of the people v elisha b fero, publishedby dr charles t porter, of albany, in the journal of psychologicalmedicine, april, 1870 mrs fero was murdered while in her bed andwas found to have been bruised about the head and body, her husbandclaiming that the deed was that of a robber who had attacked themboth he was found with slight bruises or scratches about the face andblack marks as if from burnt powder between the middle fingers of hisright hand the first autopsy appears to have been carelessly made, but a flattened conical ball weighing twenty-six and one-half grainswas found lodged in the middle of the right cerebral hemisphere ithad not gone completely through the brain its base fitted the shellsof the metallic cartridges used in fero revolver eight days afterdeath a second examination was made, after which the head was removedand preserved in 95% alcohol a theory of the prosecution was thatmrs fero was murdered by her husband. That he shot her, as well asstruck her numerous blows upon both sides of the head and its frontand back with essay broad, heavy, and elastic body, making fracturesfound on autopsy not the least interesting writing of the testimonyis that referring to the condition of tissues alleged to have beenbruised after long preservation in alcohol the expert testimony inthis case appeared to show that such fractures as were found, withoutreference to the fact of external bruises, were due to the unskilfulmanner in which the skull-cap was removed in this connection itis well right here to emphasize the fact that fresh fractures canbe produced in the skull by too forcible or injudicious effortsto remove the calvarium when making autopsies, or that fracturespreviously existing can be extended or complicated in the same way shaw in his “manual of anatomy” says. “the question whether there hasbeen a fracture of the cranium previous to death is essaytimes moredifficult to decide than a person not accustomed to make dissectionsmight imagine if the fracture has occurred immediately before thepatient death, there will be found coagulated blood upon the bonesand in the fissures if the patient has survived for essay time, therewill be marks of inflammation and, perhaps, pus in contact with theskull, but if a fracture has been made in making the examination, which essaytimes happens in even very careful dissectors’ hands, theblood in the fracture will not be coagulated, nor will there be anyeffusions around the portions in beck medical journal, vol xxii , p 28, mr alcock essay time since stated in a public lecture inlondon that he had known a fracture of the base of the skull producedby the awkward and violent tearing of the upper portion by the saw inpenetrating enough to divide the bones, and this to be mistaken by theinexperienced operator for fracture of the skull producing death beinga medico-legal case, it might have led to melancholy consequences hadnot the error been detected by an observer ” that an extensive andoften complicated fracture by contre coup can occur as the result ofgunshot injuries of the skull is a fact well known to all surgeons ofexperience and laid down in all text-books and illustrated in all largemuseums in view of these well-known facts, it would always be well to insistin paper of this kind that the saw alone should be used and not thehammer nor the chisel when a cranial bone is fractured blood ispoured out from the ruptured vessels, as is always the case with anybone its amount varies indefinitely with the number and size of theruptured vessels, the activity of circulation, the length of time aperson lives, etc the blood may collect in circumscribed masses orbecome infiltrated in the surrounding tissues, although usually bothphenomena are observed the extent to which infiltration takes placedepends upon the quantity of blood and the nature of the surroundingtissues in loose tissues like those about the orbit infiltration ismuch more rapid and extensive examination of the weapon - french medical jurists have tried toindicate how we may determine the time elapsed between the death of aperson and the discharge of a weapon found near the body, but exactstatements in this matter are utterly out of the question certainfacts bearing on the subject are these. When recently discharged therewill be found adhering to the barrel of the piece and consisting of thefouling of which sportsmen complain, a quantity of potassium sulfidmixed with charcoal this is shown by its forming a strong alkalinesolution with water, evolving an odor of hydrogen sulfid, and a darkprecipitate with a solution of acetate of lead depending upon thedegree of exposure to air and moisture, after essay hours or days thissulfid becomes converted into potassium sulfate, which forms a neutralsolution with water and gives a white precipitate with acetate of lead;but if a considerable time has elapsed since the discharge of the pieceoxid of iron iron rust with traces of sulfate may be found ann d’hygiene, 1834, p 458. 1837, p 197. 1842, p 368 was the weapon fired from a distance or near by?. a gunshot injuryfrom a bullet implies at least one wound, namely, that of entrance, and perhaps another, that of exit it does not always happen that thebullet passes through the body the appearance of the wound of entranceis usually one of irregular circular puncture, its edges perhapsslightly torn or lacerated, with a purplish or dark areola, varying inwidth from a line or two to one-half inch when the weapon is firedclose to the body there are likely to be more or less powder-marks, and possibly actual burning from the heat and flame of the gunpowder if the writing of the body injured had been covered by clothing at thetime, the marks of powder and of burning would probably be confined tothe same bleeding is usually slight and occurs more commonly from thewound of entrance than from that of exit regularity of either of thesewounds depends in large measure upon the angle at which the bullet hasstruck the surface when striking very obliquely the wound may be moreoval or the bullet may have ploughed a furrow or a channel, by a studyof which the relative position of the assailant and the assailed atthe moment of injury may, perhaps, be determined it is of importanceto determine if possible the approximate distance at which the bulletwas fired, since the question of self-defence, for instance, may hingeupon evidence of this character the charge of powder and the weight ofthe bullet being known, one may essaytimes estimate this distance by thedepth of penetration or the appearance of the bullet still, the natureof the tissues must figure largely in such consideration thesis suicideswho shoot themselves in the head show only one wound of entrance andnone of exit experiments testing powder-marks - powder-marks and burns fromweapons ordinarily used will scarcely appear when the distance hasexceeded ten or twelve feet lachese, of antwerp, found that infiring a gun even from a distance of only four feet the skin was onlywritingially blackened as the result of experiments made with a ballard rifle, old style, 44calibre, with bullets of 220 grains and 28 grains of powder, dr balch, of albany, found that powder-marks were made at distances as follows:at two feet, writingicles too numerous to count, with essay of thelubricant blown upon the board;at four feet the same;at six feet the same;at eight feet, nine grains of powder;at ten feet, five grains of powder in one case and six in another that these were powder-grains were shown in court by picking essayof them out, placing them on a glass, and igniting them with agalvano-caustic point from those at ten feet no distinct flash couldbe elicited. From those obtained at eight feet distinct flashes wereseen trans new york state med soc , 1881 in the celebrated case of peytle, brought in 1839 for the murder of hiswife, who had been killed by two bullets entering near the nose, theeyebrows, lashes, and lids were completely burned, and a large numberof powder grains were imbedded in the cheeks experiments being madein order to ascertain the distance necessary to produce these effects, it was found that the weapon must have been held within a distance oftwelve inches wounds of entrance and of exit - a great deal has been written intime past about the peculiarities of the wounds of entrance and ofexit, much of which cannot be maintained under expert criticism it istrue that the wound of entrance will usually be well defined, the skinslightly depressed and appearing as above noted it is true also thatpowder-marks will appear about this wound rather than that of exit usually, too, the orifice of exit is larger, less regular, its edgeseverted slightly, with more or less laceration of the skin, and quitefree from any powder-marks or evidence of burning the depression atthe border of the wound of entrance differs after essay days, by whichtime the contused margins slough away, and its appearance is dailychanged by a process of granulation providing the individual recoveror live long enough according to dupuytren, the hole in the clothingis smaller than that made by the same bullet in the skin these areall points worth remembering when fitting bullets into wounds whichthey are supposed to have made. But the conditions under which gunshotpunctures occur are constantly varying, and the significance of localmarkings is mainly the product of experience, care, observation, and reasoning thus the shape of either of these wounds will dependnaturally upon the integrity of the bullet and its original shapeand dimensions matthysen experiments give the following. A pistolfired at twelve paces distance, with a ball 15 mm in diameter, madea wound in chest of 8¼ mm diameter, and at its point of exit at theback one of 10 mm in two experiments at the same distance as above, the entrance wound was 4 mm larger in diameter than that of exit, andwhen a larger ball with a diameter of 17 mm was used the same resultswere preserved, both wounds being less in size than the ball which madethem a spherical ball will usually cause more loss of substance thana conical, while the latter will cause usually more irregularity ofoutline and may even give the wound of entrance a slit-like appearance complications may also occur from other sources.