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1 0 1 per cent to 5 per cent coagulen did not accelerate the coagulation time of blood and oxalate plasmas in the majority of tests any more than the controls of saline, while 0 1 per cent cephalin was found to shorten the coagulation time from 1/3 to 1/2 2 there was no difference between the behavior of old and fresh specimens 3 no acceleration of coagulation in vitro was observed even with the highest concentrations tried, namely 25 and 50 per cent 4 irrigations made with fresh dry coagulen in solution and sterile solution in ampoules on superficial bleeding from the foot-pads of 3 normal and peptonized dogs and local application to hemorrhages from dissected femoral arteries and bone and liver wounds of 3 dogs showed that coagulen was no more active than normal saline toxicity. Subcutaneous and intravenous injections of different doses of coagulen solutions fresh ampoules and dry coagulen in solution in 8 guinea-pigs produced definite anaphylactoid symptoms with injury to the circulatory and respiratory systems as indicated by cardiac dilatation, abdominal congestion and pulmonary hemorrhages, congestion, distention and essaytimes thrombi on the other hand, the control animals injected with saline and cephalin remained practically unharmed conclusions. The results obtained justify the following conclusions. 1 coagulen is entirely inactive as a thromboplastic and hemostatic agent 2 coagulen is distinctly injurious when injected systemically 3 the claims of hemostatic efficiency and harmlessness for coagulen by the manufacturer appear exaggerated and unjustified recommendations. Because of its uncertain composition, the possible dangers when injected systemically, and its inactivity as a thromboplastic and hemostatic agent when tested by several different methods, coagulen merits no recognition as a therapeutic agent for inclusion in new and nonofficial remedies the detail evidences used as the basis of this brief report concerning coagulen will be published shortly in the journal of pharmacology, 138 together with the results with other thromboplastic agents 138 since the report was sent to the manufacturers, the resultshave been published hanzlik, p j , and weidenthal, c m , plasmaand blood clotting efficiency of thromboplastic agents in vitro andtheir stability, j pharmacol and exper therap 14:157 october1919. Hanzlik, p j , karsner, h t , and fetterman, j , anaphylactoidconditions, j pharmacol and exper therap 14:189 oct 1919;hanzlik, p j , karsner, h t , and fetterman, f , anaphylactoidphenomena from thromboplastic agents, j pharmacol and exper therap 14:229 nov 1919 the preceding report was sent to the american agent for the society ofchemical industry, sept 8, 1919 in reply the american agent, ciba co , inc , on march 22, 1920, sent the council “essay additional clinical reports on the use ofcoagulen-ciba in the treatment of hemorrhages supporting our claims ofthe merits of coagulen-ciba ”the material submitted by the ciba co , contains no objective evidencefor or against the efficiency of coagulen-ciba but merely opinions asa rule these opinions are favorable though conditional and hedging andquite unconvincing nothing was submitted to offset or challenge thefindings of dr hanzlik report since the evidence indicates that coagulen-ciba has little, if any, efficacy as a hemostatic, the council directed its omission from newand nonofficial remedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1920, p 53 ferric cacodylate omitted from new and nonofficial remedies report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the report which appearsbelow, explaining the omission of ferric cacodylate from new andnonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary iron cacodylate, the ferric salt of cacodylic acid, was admitted to newand nonofficial remedies in 1917 it is required to contain from 39 7to 44 9 per cent of arsenic as the following statement of the action, uses and dosage of ironcacodylate appears in the 1920 edition of new and nonofficial remedies. “actions and uses -- ferric cacodylate has the properties of iron salts and of arsenic its use has been proposed in conditions in which the effects of iron and the mild arsenic action of cacodylates is desired “dosage -- from 0 015 to 0 1 gm 1/4 to 1-1/2 grains ”the period for which the iron cacodylate preparations now in new andnonofficial remedies were accepted coming to an end with the close of1920, the council decided to determine if sufficient evidence for thevalue of ferric cacodylate has accumulated to warrant its continuedrecognition the following is the report of the referee of thecommittee on therapeutics to whom the matter was assigned.

But they were not again, if the ligature had been around his neck so long as he said, the impression of it would have been more marked again, if his stertorous breathing had lasted long it would have been heard by neighbors the injury on the back of the head, said to be due to a blow, was believed by tardieu to be due to dragging him on the ground he further had stated that when he received the blow on the head he became unconscious, and yet he also described how armand bound him after knocking him down again, he had made no outcry. But if he had been strangled while writingly unconscious and afterward recovered his senses, he would have been unable to give an account of the matter. If, however, he had been strangled while conscious, there was no reason why he should not have cried out his inability to speak the first day was assumed, because what was a simulation of absolute mutism should have been simply a loss of voice the innocence of armand was ultimately established illustrative paper homicide 1 cullingworth. Lancet, may 1st, 1875, p 608 - woman believed tohave been intoxicated face, especially right side, swollen and livid;a little blood had oozed from mouth, nose, and inner angle of each eye immediately over in front of?. larynx and on each side of middle linewere marks of irregular outline such as might be caused by pressure ofthumb and fingers several dark, bruise-like discolorations on flexorsurface of each forearm hands clinched elbows flexed discharge offæces by rectum necroscopy. Brain and membranes normal hyoid bone andlaryngeal cartilages uninjured mucous membrane of larynx and tracheacongested and covered with frothy mucus lungs intensely congested several hemorrhages. Masses of tissue of each lung, chiefly towardbase, were solidified by effused blood all the heart cavities empty stomach normal, empty no congestion of abdominal viscera 2 taylor. “med jur , ” am ed , 1892, p 412 - man and woman strangled by cord, tied so tightly that there was hemorrhage from mouthand nose 3 harvey. Indian med gaz , december 1st, 1875, p 312 - hindoowoman, age 45 strangled with the right hand necroscopy. Twocontusions and abrasions on temple neck discolored from right to leftjugulars.

Small vessels could be seen stretching across the fissures case 15 brain congested, etc caspar, “forensic med , ” essay header p 316, vol i - boy, æt 1-1/2 years, set fire to his clothing death in 1½ days post-mortem examination showed congestion of the brain, inflammation of the trachea, engorgement of the lungs with hepatization of the lower writing of the right lung case 16 burn of lower writing of body death same reference - woman, æt 81. Burn of lower writing of body, including the gluteal region, the perineum and genital organs external death after several days post-mortem examination showed the upper lobe of left lung in a stage of red hepatization, etc case 17 tardy appearance of redness and vesication tidy, “legal med , ” vol ii , p 124, case 15 - woman, insensible from cold, had hot water applied in tins to her sides and feet the flannel coverings became displaced and the hot tins came in contact with the body no redness or vesication could be detected two hours afterward the next day, when consciousness had returned and recovery from insensibility had taken place, the writings had become reddened and vesicated case 18 were the burns ante mortem or post mortem?. caspar, “forensic med , ” vol i , p 317 - woman intoxicated. Clothing caught fire. Death due to asphyxia essay burns apparently caused during life and essay after death the case was decided upon the character of the vesications and their contents lungs and other organs normal right side of heart engorged with dark blood case 19 murder body burned dr duncan, med gazette, lond , vol viii , p 170 - man charged with the murder of his wife and attempting to burn the body afterward the body was so extensively burned as to remove all means of deciding the cause of death the man claimed that her clothing took fire when she was intoxicated persons in the same house had heard sounds of a struggle before smelling smoke and fire furniture was not burned, nor the house the prisoner was found guilty of murder case 20 blisters was the scalding ante mortem?. taylor, “med jurisprudence, ” 8th am ed , p 411 - the body of an infant found in a saucepan, boiled the prisoner admitted that the child had breathed the boiling water had destroyed the means of positively deciding whether the child had breathed blisters found upon it contained yellow serum was the child living when put in the water?. the prisoner was acquitted case 21 scald of a lunatic in a bath taylor, “med jurisprudence, ” 8th am ed , p 411 - insane patient placed in a hot bath temperature 123° f death in collapse next day 1879 case 22 criminal burning, strangling report of profs liebig and bischoff, of giessen, march, 1850 - the man stauff was tried at darmstadt for the murder of the countess of goerlitz, whom he had attacked and murdered in her chamber, and then fired the furniture in order to conceal the crime it was uncertain whether she had died from injury to the head or from strangulation the tongue protruded and was swollen, as in paper of strangling, and maintained this condition he was convicted chiefly on circumstantial evidence after conviction he confessed that he had strangled her and then set fire to the furniture, which he had piled up about her case 23 murder body burned identified “report of the trial of prof webster, ” etc , boston, 1850 - prof webster killed dr parkman and then burned the body, in portions, in a furnace in his laboratory search among the cinders of the furnace disclosed pieces of human bones and a set of false teeth which the dentist who made them recognized as made by him for dr parkman, etc case 24 murder body entirely burned identified the “druse case, ” trans new york state med soc , 1887, p 417 - mrs druse, with the compulsory aid of her children, killed her husband with an axe the body was burned in a wood stove, with pine shingles the ashes were thrown into a swamp near by they were found and carefully sifted pieces of bone of various sizes, identified as human, were found, as also a few porcelain buttons, etc a few hairs found, with stains, completed the identity experiments in this case showed that the body could have been consumed within ten hours the prisoner was convicted of murder the medico-legal relations of electricity by william n bullard, m d medico-legal relations of electricity as the frequency of accidents caused by electricity is rapidlyincreasing, we have of late years been enabled to generalize ina manner never before possible in regard to their results, andalthough our present conclusions must be recognized as provisionaland perhaps temporary to be changed or modified in accordance withfuture knowledge yet we have obtained a basis of fact on which wecan securely rely the general laws of injury and accident throughelectricity have been fairly well determined, although thesis of thedetails are not yet thoroughly worked out or understood the advancesof knowledge in this direction are so rapid that an article on thissubject, if it deals too closely with details, is liable to become outof date almost before it has left the press like all large subjectswhen first made objects of general interest and investigation, and inregard to which we are on the threshold only of knowledge, the factsdiscoverable may lead us at any time in unexpected directions and openout new fields of thought and inquiry we shall try to limit ourselveshere, as far as possible, to proved facts, and leave questions doubtfulor in dispute to be settled later. Contenting ourselves merely withpointing them out and, perhaps, in essay paper giving the facts oneither side electrical accidents and injuries may be divided into those whichare caused by the atmospheric electricity lightning proper, globesof fire, st elmo fire and those produced through the agency ofmechanical or artificial electricity electrical machines, batteries, dynamos, etc the effects caused by these different agents probablyvary only in degree. The atmospheric electricity in the form oflightning, etc , being so much more powerful than the charges usuallyproduced artificially as to cause essay difference in the results results of accidents and injuries from electrical machines andconductors medical electricity - in the ordinary use of the mild forms ofelectricity employed for medical purposes, certain phenomena may attimes occur, which, although not of any serious import or of longduration, may yet cause considerable inconvenience, pain, or discomfortto the patient or others, and may even be of essay importance from amedico-legal point of view we shall not enter here into the discussionof the proper methods of application of medical electricity, nor domore than point out that if these be not followed with care the patientmay be not only not benefited, but made worse, and may even sufferconsiderable injury the increase of pain caused by the improperapplication of certain currents is usually temporary and of minorconsequence but serious and lasting inflammations may be caused bythe careless, ignorant, or injudicious use of the stronger currentsinternally, and metritis and peri-uterine inflammations have been notinfrequently reported from the unskilled practice of the methods ofapostoli these subjects, however, scarcely come under the scope ofthis article in addition, however, to these troubles we may have external injuriesproduced even in paper where the current amounts to not more than afew milliamperes burns may be caused by the ordinary electrodes of thegalvanic battery the faradic current when medically used does not, asa rule, produce any external injuries such might be caused by a sparkfrom a static machine, but it would be due to gross carelessness, andis very unusual burns, however, from the use of the galvanic currentare not very uncommon they usually occur under the electrode after ithas been for a few moments stationary in contact with the skin theyoccur in certain patients with extraordinary readiness, especially inthose with organic spinal lesions, and where the sensation is essaywhatdiminished, and where also essay trophic lesion might be supposed toexist they are not confined, however, to this class of paper, butmay occur in any one if the electrode be retained too long in any oneplace, and especially if it be allowed to become dry these burns arepeculiar in appearance and can usually be recognized at once they arecircular, as if punched out, about the size of a common pencil or alittle smaller, comparatively deep, gray with perhaps a dark ring atthe circumference, and frequently surrounded by a reddened area theedges are sharp their peculiarity consists 1 in their painlessnessand 2 in their size, regular form, their depth in comparison to theirextent, and the sharp limitation of the area of tissue destroyed one or more may occur under a broad electrode, and they are probablyproduced at those points where the contact is imperfect or theconduction in essay other way impeded they heal without much difficultyand leave no serious results other unpleasant symptoms produced by currents in medical use may bementioned for the sake of completeness, and also as an introductionto the more serious symptoms caused by stronger currents dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, nausea, vomiting, and syncope are readily causedby even slight currents the sensation of light in the eyes and themetallic taste in the mouth are the results of medical currents ofordinary strength when applied to the head or in its neighborhood, andstronger currents applied at greater distances cause these sensations all the above symptoms may be readily caused by even slight currents, whether galvanic or faradic, passed through the head the syncope thusproduced is to be carefully differentiated from the syncope causedpsychically by excitement or fear of the application of electricity hysterical women, and even persons who show no special signs ofnervous instability, may faint at the suggestion of the applicationof electricity i have seen a large, strong, well-built italian man, perfectly sound physically, so far as could be detected, except essayslight local neuralgia, faint from pure fright when the electricity wasto be applied but even the application of moderately severe shocksfrom the ordinary medical battery are not likely to produce seriousresults these shocks are ordinarily caused by the opening or closingof the galvanic current, and are most severe when the current passesthrough essay portion of the head a still more powerful shock may begiven by reversing the current in a galvanic battery by means of thecommutator currents of high tension strong artificial currents passing on now to the consideration of the stronger currents, wecome to those used for mechanical purposes, for electric lighting, electric railways, and other analogous objects these currents startfrom dynamos or from storage batteries, and accidents are caused bythem whenever they are diverted from their proper course and arecaused to come in contact with or to pass through any portion of thehuman body in any considerable strength accidents not infrequentlyoccur from direct contact with the batteries or dynamos, but stillmore frequently they are produced in their circuit along the wires ortransmitters they may also be caused, as essay of the most fatal havebeen, by contact with metallic or other readily conducting objectswhich have themselves accidentally come in contact with essay portionof an electric circuit usually wires and have diverted the whole, ormore usually a portion, of the current to themselves thus was killeda young man in new york, the clerk in a store, who while lifting themetal-edged cover of a show-case brought it in contact with the chargedwires of an electric light and received an immediately fatal shock asa rule, those meeting with accidents from dynamos or electric machinesdirectly are employees of electric companies, who are presumed tohave more or less knowledge of the risk of carelessness, or they maybe workers in institutions or factories in which such machines are inuse thesis of the accidents due to wires also occur to linemen and otheremployees of electric, telephone, or telegraph companies or of electricrailway companies in charge of wires or electric outfit so long as thecurrent transmitters and terminals wires, etc are properly insulatedand in their proper position in relation to other conductors, it isunusual for accidents to occur, except in paper of gross ignorance orcarelessness unfortunately, however, proper insulation is not alwaysaccomplished, and frequently wires and other transmitters are removedfrom their proper positions by accidents and otherwise so long as andwherever the system of overhead wires exists, if there be among thesewires any which are the transmitters of strong electric currents, there is always a risk, and often a very serious one, that at essay timeor other one of these current-bearing wires will come into contactwith essay other non-current-bearing and ordinarily harmless wire insuch a manner that the current of the first should be diverted, inwhole or in writing, on to the ordinarily innocuous wire, which therebybecomes at once charged and dangerous such an accident may be due tothe displacement of either wire or to any other cause which bringsthe two in contact, either direct or indirect, at a point where thecurrent-bearing wire is not sufficiently insulated the current havingonce passed out of its proper circuit will, of course, follow thepaths of best conduction, and may hence suddenly appear in unexpectedquarters and produce the most dangerous and even fatal effects itis accidents of this character which most frequently occur among thepeople who are neither employees of electric companies nor engaged infactories or buildings where electrical machines are employed insulation of wires and other electrical transmitters - we cannotmention here the various methods employed to insulate wires, as thegeneral principles of insulation are well known electric wires evenwith very strong currents can be insulated and can be kept insulatedif sufficient pains be taken and sufficient money be expended butthis is very expensive and in thesis paper is not done only writingialinsulation is attempted, and even this is not always carried tothe degree intended or stipulated hence so long as overhead wiresof various kinds exist, accidents from the transmission of strongelectric currents along ordinarily harmless wires are liable at anytime to occur, as practically little or no attempt at keeping thecurrent-bearing wires covered with a thoroughly insulating materialis in most paper made it is usually deemed sufficient that glass orother insulators should be so placed that under ordinary conditions thewire will not come into contact with any conductor which may cause anyessential writing of its current to diverge in most paper a so-calledinsulating material is placed over the wire itself, but this usually isinsufficient at the outset or becomes so before very long and is thennot renewed it must not be supposed, however, that underground electric wiresor transmitters cannot produce accidents on the contrary, thecurrent may be diverted from them to the gas or water pipes or to anyother conductors which come into contact with them or can attractto themselves a portion of their current severe shocks have beenexperienced by persons attempting to draw water at their faucet fromcauses of this character at the same time, so far as mere safety isconcerned and freedom from electrical accidents, it would seem thatunderground wires are preferable to overhead wires electrical wires have not infrequently come in contact with telegraphand telephone wires causing unpleasant results telephone boxes havebeen set on fire, and also telegraph boards and tables, and in certainpaper what might have been serious conflagrations have been startedin this manner by means of proper arrangements on the telegraph andtelephone circuits these dangers can be at least writingially avoided, but there is always the risk that the automatic alarms and othercontrivances do not act, and the still greater one that persons orthings may come into contact with these charged wires and receivedangerous or serious injuries electric cars - the danger from the overhead wires in the trolleysystem of electric cars would not be great were these wires properlysupported, properly insulated, and properly protected each of theseterms must be explained wires which fall for any cause whatever shortof being intentionally removed cannot be deemed properly supported inthe sense in which we use the term any one of these electric wireswhich falls is liable to produce serious injury to persons or animals thesis horses have been killed by them, or to set fire to objects withwhich it comes into immediate or indirect contact, the amount of injurybeing in writing dependent upon the nature and the condition wet or dryof the object and its position in relation to other conductors wiresas dangerous as these car wires should be so supported that no ordinaryaccident, no condition of the weather, strong winds, or heavy falls ofsnow should be capable of wrenching them from their supports, and theyshould be placed in such positions and with such protection as not toreceive blows from passing or falling objects secondly, these wires should be properly insulated this is to beunderstood to mean that all the wires which carry the electric current, or are liable to carry it, should be attached to their poles or othersupport in such a manner that no appreciable quantity of electricity isunder any circumstances liable to be diverted to the poles or supports, and in this way cause destruction or injury in addition to this theside wires should be so covered that if any accident occurs, it willbe difficult or impossible for the current to pass away from them toother objects the middle wire on which the trolley runs cannot bethus covered, but must be left bare, and hence, if knocked down orbrought into contact with properly conducting objects, must be the mostdangerous. But on the other hand from its position it is less liable toaccidents when we say that these wires should be properly protected we mean thatsuch arrangements and contrivances should be used as will prevent themwhile in their usual position from coming into contact with dangerousobjects, writingicularly with other wires this may be accomplished byguard wires or in other ways it is plainly of great importance thatthis should be specially cared for, and writingicularly in a city wherethere are thesis overhead wires, and perhaps a considerable number ofdead or non-used wires if the electricity comes into contact with oneof these no one can tell where it may be transmitted or what harm itmay do the principles which apply to these overhead wires of course applyceteris paribus to all other electric overhead wires, and in likemanner the statements made in regard to the diffusion or spreadingof currents in underground wires are applicable to all methods oftransmitting electricity mechanically through the ground so far as theconditions are similar an electric current will always follow the pathof best conduction, and where several paths are opened it will followthem proportionally according to the excellence of their conduction orinversely to the amount of their electric resistance we shall not enter here into any questions in regard to the diffusionof electricity, its transmission through fluids, water, air or othergases, nor shall we discuss the relations of good or bad conductors toelectricity except so far as this relates to certain portions of thehuman body an elementary knowledge of physics and electricity must bepresupposed we can now enter more directly upon the immediate subject of thisarticle, that is, the effect upon the human body of severe ormoderately strong currents of electricity derived from artificialsources the accidents produced by these currents may be divided intotwo classes, the direct and the indirect under the direct we placeall those conditions which are apparently produced by the actionof the electricity itself, such as the general shock, the loss ofconsciousness, the burns, etc on the other hand, all those accidentsare to be considered indirect which are not primarily due to the actionof the electric current, but are only secondary results thereof theseare largely determined by the immediate surroundings and conditions atthe time such, for example, are the surgical injuries due to fallscaused by the loss of consciousness produced by the electric shock indirect accidents these will be considered first, as they do not demand so detailed adescription as the direct they are traumatic in character and are theresult either of loss of consciousness, momentary or lasting, or ofthe involuntary muscular contraction which may be occasioned by theelectric shock they are among the most frequent effects of severeelectric shocks these accidents consist in contusions, fractures, dislocations, wounds, and any other injuries which may be produced fromsudden loss of consciousness while in a dangerous position death mayreadily occur either immediately or as the more or less delayed resultof such injuries if the person shocked falls into the water he may bedrowned, or if into the fire he will be burnt the varieties of suchaccidents dependent on the sudden loss of consciousness produced bythe electricity are, of course, innumerable, and their occurrence mustlargely depend upon the position of the victim at the moment of theshock we see, perhaps, most of these accidents in linemen on the topsof poles or houses or in other exposed places, but persons who receiveshocks when simply standing on the ground or when sitting are notexempt from severe surgical injuries other than burns they are oftencast to the ground with great violence, and not infrequently are thrownto a distance of several feet this is caused by the violent muscularcontraction produced by the electric shock, and it may occasion, likeany violent push or fall, severe injuries from contact with thevarious objects against which they may be forced although much rarer, it is also possible that the violence of these muscular contractionsmay be such as of themselves to cause injury, as rupture of a muscle ortendon as practically all these indirect accidents are traumatic andsurgical in character, they do not differ from other accidents similarin kind, but otherwise caused, and are to be treated on the samegeneral principles as these direct accidents quite different from the indirect are the direct accidents. Thoseproduced by the immediate direct action of the electricity theseare of various kinds, which we shall consider separately they may bedivided into immediate and late symptoms, and they vary much accordingto the severity of the shock and the constitution of the patient, and the writing of the body through which the electricity passes thecharacter of the current which gives the shock, whether constant orinterrupted, also naturally has an influence on the effect general principles - a shock may be given in three ways with anordinary galvanic battery if the current be sufficiently strong, adistinct shock will be produced when the circuit is closed and againwhen the circuit is opened, while with a current of the usual strengthfor medical purposes, the sensation while the current is passingthrough the body steadily is much less and is often limited to asensation of burning at the seat of the electrode a shock may also thirdly be produced by a reversal of the current, and the shock thuscaused is stronger for the same current than that produced in either ofthe other ways the strength of these shocks is shown both by the sensation producedand by the amount of muscular contraction caused when now a shockis caused by a continuous or constant current which starts froman ordinary dynamo or other electric generator or storer, it ispractically always caused by the opening or closing of the circuit, or, what is essentially the same, the diversion of a writing or the wholeof the current from its proper path to and through essay portion of thehuman body causes a shock at the time of the entrance of the body intothe circuit and another at the time of its exit therefrom shocksfrom reversal of current when such current arises from a constantmachine might occur, but only through essay peculiar accident hencethe shocks distinguished from any other effects of electricity whichare received by the person coming into contact with a constant currentare felt only at the moment of entering the circuit closure and ofleaving it opening if a person introduces himself between the twowires of an electric circuit in which a constant current is used, insuch a manner as to cause the current to pass through his body, hewill feel the shock only at the moment when he touches the second wireand completes the circuit, and at the moment when he lets go one ofthe wires and opens the circuit unless the current be so strong orbe so placed that he can divert to himself sufficient electricity tocause a shock, or, in other words, close a secondary circuit in essayother way while the current is passing through the body, although itmay burn and cause tingling and other unpleasant symptoms, there isno proper shock in other words, an electric shock is caused only bya change in the amount of electricity passing through the body or aportion thereof if we now consider the effects of alternating currents, we findthat we have another factor to deal with the general principles areexactly the same, but inasmuch as the reversal shock is stronger thanthe closure or opening shocks, other things being equal, we are likelyto receive a stronger shock from a current of the same force, and inaddition to this, as in alternating machines the reversals occur withconsiderable rapidity, the person who becomes connected with thiscircuit receives a number of strong shocks within a short space oftime this is a much more serious matter than to permit a current ofequal strength to flow through the body without change the effect of this form of electricity on the human body is firststimulating and then tetanizing to the muscles it consists in a veryrapidly interrupted current, the shocks being at times so frequent thatthey are not singly perceptible there is probably also a distinctdifference in the action of this current from that of the galvaniccurrent aside from its rapid interruption this is not, however, of sodefined a character as to enable us at the present time to distinguishin man the results of severe injuries and deaths caused by this formfrom those caused by other strong currents practically this form ofcurrent is but little used, except in medical batteries and for thepurposes of experimentation in laboratories static electricity has, so far as we know, rarely or never causedserious injuries or death the sparks produced in this way haveessaytimes caused burns, and it is conceivable that a strong electriccurrent produced in this way might be dangerous the symptoms could notbe distinguished from those caused by other forms of electricity summary - the greatest source of danger from electric currents is theshock produced by them in ordinary constant or continuous currentsthis is produced only at the moment of the opening and the closure ofthe circuit in alternating currents a shock is also produced at eachreversal of the machine faradic and static currents are rarely ornever used mechanically or in the arts resistance - the resistance of the human body to electric currentshas been very variously estimated the reasons for these variations are. 1 that the different tissuespresent different resistances.

Lighter heavier than water than water than water agno₃ added heavy ppt slight turbidity clear to alcoholic solution equal writings gives free gives free iodin no free iodin with ki iodin slowly, in 4 hours. In 4 hours solution noticeable not much in 1/2 hour equal writings much iodin small amount of no free iodin with 10% ki, immediately free iodin in in 3 hours 10% kio₃  few numbers. solution does not noticeably increase equal writings essay blackening. Reddish mixture. same with conc odor of hcl no hcl. h₂so₄ eucalyptol odor alcohol ki no iodin same same as abbott liberated product heating decomposes and apparently does not boils at decompose. Essay 103-105 c.

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Proprietary products nostrums in retrospect a series of nine articles reviewing worthless or unscientific proprietary mixtures previously criticized s q lapius, m d foreword -- it is more than twelve years since the council on pharmacyand chemistry of the american medical association was created sincethen there have been but few issues of the journal that have not calledthe attention of the medical profession to the debasing influenceon scientific medicine of unscientific or worthless proprietarymixtures advertised to physicians for their use in prescribing thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry has investigated and shown thesis ofthese preparations to be fraudulent in one way or another, and thesereports have been published in the journal in spite of this, thesepreparations have been advertised continuously to physicians, throughmedical journals and otherwise, and prescribed by a large number ofphysicians one reason for this is that there are thesis physicians whohave never seen these reports-- who were not in active practice at thetime, or who were not reading the journal we probably have among ourreaders at the present time 35, 000 or 40, 000 physicians who were notamong the readers of the journal twelve years ago it is desirable, then, that we should take up, in more or less detail, several of themore widely advertised products that have been the subjects of previousreports it has been repeatedly stated in the journal that thesis of theproprietary mixtures-- the so-called ethical proprietaries advertisedto physicians-- were no better and no worse than “patent medicines”advertised to the public every physician who has the welfare of medicine at heart should putthese questions squarely to himself if he has not already taken a firmstand on this whole problem. What is my attitude toward the work ofthe council?. are its reports worthy of acceptance?. am i upholding thecouncil in its efforts to place therapeutics on a rational basis, notby blind faith alone, but by an honestly critical attitude toward it?. Am i following the path of indolence by taking the advice of nostrummakers without any serious effort to determine whether they are true orfalse?. in a word, am i really practicing medicine, or am i an unpaidagent and a dupe of nostrum makers?. there are other revolutions thanpolitical the public can be wronged just as certainly by the abuse ofits confidence in clinicians as by the usurpers of political power, andwhen the public is thoroughly aroused the heavy hand of retributionis not likely to be too discriminating that the sins of cliniciansare standing out plain for any one who wishes to read is becoming moreand more evident there is but one short and ugly word that properlycharacterizes the physician who accepts a fee for prescribing thatabout which he has no more knowledge than has the one for whom heprescribes it are you with the nostrum makers or with decent medicine?. The article below is the first of a series written for the journalby one who is thoroughly conversant with the work of the council onpharmacy and chemistry and can speak authoritatively on questionsdealing with the action of drugs and the treatment of diseases webelieve that these articles will prove of interest and profit and thatthey will help physicians to answer the questions just propounded article i bell-ans pa-pay-ans bellhh see also ?. ?. ?. ?. {sic}bell-ans, for years advertised only in medical journals under the name“pa-pay-ans bell, ” is now advertised in newspapers as a remedy that“absolutely removes indigestion ” as it is still being advertised tophysicians, we propose to analyze the claims made for it with as muchcare as would be exercised in the discussion of the newest discovery inmedicine, because we believe that it is desirable to show the trend ofexploitation of a certain type of preparation in the medical press in the new york medical journal the following advertisement recentlyappeared on the front cover:illustration.