Essay For You

Bloody froth in larynx essay for you and trachea. Lungslarge, much congested, splenized in places, surface emphysematous, looking like white spots. Black fluid blood in heart. Brain essaywhatcongested 30 ibid , p 216 - wife of the celebrated painter gurneray. Founddead in bed, where a fire had been placed and slowly burnt and charredher lower limbs, belly, chest, and right hand a running noose aroundher neck injuries of head. Face livid. Tongue between teeth. Brainnormal.

And if it chance that ina tender body it causes any itchings or inflammations, by bathing theplace with a little vinegar it is helped another ill-favoured trick have physicians got to use to the eye, andthat is worse than the needle. Which is to take away the films bycorroding or gnawing medicine that i absolutely protest against 1 because the tunicles of the eyes are very thin, and therefore sooneaten asunder 2 the callus or film that they would eat away, is seldom of an equalthickness in every place, and then the tunicle may be eaten asunder inone place, before the film be consumed in another, and so be a readierway to extinguish the sight than to restore it it is called chelidonium, from the greek word chelidon, whichsignifies a swallow. Because they say, that if you put out the eyes ofyoung swallows when they are in the nest, the old ones will recovertheir eyes again with this herb this i am confident, for i have triedit, that if we mar the very apple of their eyes with a needle, she willrecover them again. But whether with this herb or not, i know not also i have read and it seems to be essaywhat probable that the herb, being gathered as i shewed before, and the elements draw awriting from itby art of the alchymist, and after they are drawn awriting rectified, theearthly quality, still in rectifying them, added to the terra damnata as alchymists call it or terra sacratisima as essay philosopherscall it the elements so rectified are sufficient for the cure of alldiseases, the humours offending being known and the contrary elementgiven. It is an experiment worth the trying, and can do no harm the lesser celandine, usually known by the name of pilewort and fogwort i wonder what ailed the ancients to give this the name celandine, which resembles it neather in nature nor form.

j a m a , jan 15, 1916, p 178 reports council on pharm and chem , 1915, p 98 105 so-called secretin preparations, j a m a , jan 15, 1916, p 208. Reports council on pharm and chem , 1915, p 96 the g w carnrick company has replied to the publication of thisreport in the letter printed below a portion of this letter, whichconsists of a communication from an unnamed correspondent of the g w carnrick company and the company comment thereon, has been omitted the council offered to publish this if the carnrick company wouldfurnish the name of the writer this it has not done as will be seen, the company now shifts ground, abandoning entirely the claim thatsecretogen contains secretin the council has authorized publicationof the letter omitting the writing just mentioned, together with thecomment that follows w a puckner, secretary “the council on pharmacy and chemistry of the american medicalassociation “gentlemen:-- the opinion of the council and the contribution byprofessor carlson which appeared in the journal of the american medicalassociation for jan 15, 1916, have been read by us with interest the column of current comment dealing with ‘tiger-bone therapy andclinical experience’ has appealed to our good nature and, under thecircumstances, our sense of humor “professor carlson seems to have quite well established that theso-called secretin preparations do not contain secretin to anyappreciable extent, and that they are inert in laboratory experimentson normal animals at the same time, to do away with an apparentdiscrimination on the writing of the management of the council, it wouldhave been well if professor carlson had included the so-called secretinpreparations belonging to another well-known firm which markets such aproduct this discrimination has already been referred to by us “had professor carlson stopped at the determination of the therapeuticavailability of secretin given by mouth, his work might have beenaccepted without comment, even if we should have thought it advisableto object to the matter published by the council but the professorwent beyond his province entirely when, in commenting on the findingsobtained by using secretogen clinically, he said. ‘it is, perhaps, impertinent for laboratory men to comment on these clinical results ’it is his point was well taken and it is a profound pity thatprofessor carlson did not observe his own ruling “in the words of a correspondent of the journal of the american medicalassociation, in discussing professor carlson criticism of dr crile‘kinetic drive, ’ ‘it behooves the laboratory man to be circumspect inhis criticism of clinical theories, since going beyond the bounds ofwell-established things weakens his position, not merely with referenceto the writingicular subject under discussion, but with reference toclinical phenomena in general ’ clinical results have definitelyestablished the value of secretogen as the matter now stands thisstatement is beyond criticism “when secretogen was first introduced we assumed that it depended onsecretin for results produced in this assumption we were in goodcompany, as witnessed by the testimony of moore, edie and abram when, in the course of their investigations as to the value in diabetesof a secretin-bearing extract given by mouth, 106 they said. ‘inthe majority of these paper there has been no appreciable fallin the output of sugar in essay of these negative paper there hasbeen noted, however, improvement in the digestion and, in certainpaper, the patient weight has increased ’ they also state thatthe secretin-bearing product ‘appears to stimulate the functionalactivity of the duodenum ’106 they give a most significantreport 107 we quote from the paper as follows:106 all italics are ours g w carnrick company 107 bio-chem jour 1:28, 1906 “‘the patient had been under observation for six months beforetreatment and the sugar was not reducible by diet almost at once thedyspepsia from which he was suffering was relieved and his generalnutrition improved to such an extent that he regained over eighteenpounds in weight, which he had previously lost, and this improvementwas accompanied by complete recovery of his physical and mentalenergies ’106“inasmuch as this improvement could not have been due to the containedsecretin it must have been due to essay other principle containedin the extract our experience and that of the physicians who haveused secretogen establish the fact that moore, edie and abram madeno mistake when they came to the conclusion that what they termed asecretin-bearing extract stimulates the functional activity of theduodenum and improves the digestion “when professor carlson was investigating secretogen he must haverealized that he was dealing essentially with an extract of theduodenal mucosa it is, therefore, all the more surprising, consideringhis extensive researches into the literature, that he should haveignored the testimony of essay of his own authorities, writingicularlyhallion, as to the value of extracts of the duodenal mucosa in duodenalinsufficiencies the meticulous carefulness with which this evidencewas avoided is hardly worthy of the best traditions of physiology, ascience which has truth for its first and last aim “hallion in his ‘la pratique de l’opothérapie’ says that the ‘aims ofduodenal opotherapy are. 1, to supply deficient duodenal juice 2, above all to stimulate and to relieve this organ-- notably to aid theproduction of secretin4-- and so profit by the stimulating actionwhich duodenal extract exercises on the duodenal mucosa which actionwe, enriquez and myself, believe and have experimentally proved, conforms to the general principles of opotherapy 3, by means of theproduction of secretin, to reinforce the biliary, pancreatic andintestinal secretions 4, to stimulate intestinal peristalsis “‘principal indications.

Ref , münchen med wchnschr , 1912, p 1782 essay for you 275 contamin, detoeuf and thomos. Bull de l’assn franç pourl’étude du cancer, vi, 62 276 apolant, h. Vi tag der freien vereinigung für mikrobiologie , berlin, 1912 ref münchen med wchnschr , 1912, p 659 the most important critique of eosin-selenium has been contributedby the subsequent investigations of one of wassermann originalcollaborators, f keysser 277 keysser publication contains a largenumber of very careful observations on the various forms of eosinsupplied by the german manufacturers, as well as on other matters whichcannot here be considered in detail he finally reached the conclusionthat the eosin furnished by the manufacturing house of sandoz wasthe most effective for his purposes, inasmuch as it combined thelowest grade of toxicity with the highest capacity for discoloringthe tissues the selenium he used in the form of selenio-vanadiumfurnished by clin of paris, which was the identical preparation usedby werner and szécsi in combination with borcholin the maximum doseof this selenio-vanadium is 0 06 c c for each gram of mouse eosin, 0 01 gm , dissolved in 0 5 c c of physiologic salt solution, is mixedwith 0 5 c c of the selenio-vanadium this mixture is then used forintravenous injections the results produced by the injection of thismixture are to all intents and purposes similar to those obtained bywassermann, except that keysser induced cure in a larger proportion ofanimals, namely, from 6 to 8 per cent it is evident from his carefuldescription of his experiments that the treatment is extremely toxic tothe animals the therapeutic dose is considerably greater than one-halfthe toxic dose this accounts for the fact that an extremely largeproportion of the animals perish during the course of the treatment the tumors failed to be influenced unless the dose given fell verylittle short of the fatal amount moreover, in order to accomplish acomplete cure, at least eight to ten injections must be given, and inessay instances not less than fourteen 277 keysser, f. Ztschr f chemotherap , 1914, orig , ii, 188 keysser most important conclusions, however, were obtained byfollowing an altogether different line of procedure it has beenpointed out by carl lewin272 that the therapeutic results obtainedfrom subcutaneous mouse tumors, however encouraging, could not belogically applied to the treatment of human cancers the subcutaneoustransplanted tumors, as is well known, are as a rule limited by adistinct capsule and show no tendency to infiltrative growth in thiswritingicular they present a most striking difference when comparedwith human tumors on the other hand, the metastases of mouse tumorsin the internal organs present an infiltrative mode of growth andthus approximate very much more closely to the human type of tumors keysser, therefore, determined to test the therapeutic effectivenessof his compounds on tumors implanted in various organs he developed atechnic which enabled him to implant tumors in the liver, the spleen, the kidneys and other writings of the mouse by means of injection throughspecial needles, often without the assistance of a cutting operation the tumors so implanted grew rapidly, and within from two tothree weeks reached the size of cherry pits the growth wascharacteristically infiltrative animals with these tumors were thensubmitted to intravenous injection of the therapeutic agents in exactlythe same fashion as the animals carrying subcutaneous tumors theresults, however, were absolutely different whereas the subcutaneoustumors invariably showed a much more intense discoloration than theother tissues of the mouse, this feature was entirely lacking in thecase of the internal tumors softening and liquefaction, which almostinvariably follows on the third or fourth injection in the case ofsubcutaneous tumors, and which is the first symptom of cure, neverpresented itself in the case of the internal tumors their consistencythroughout the treatment was indistinguishable from that of the tumorsof control animals the treatment, in fact, appeared to exercise notthe slightest influence on internal tumors there was neither cessationnor retardation in growth, but the tumors continued their normal rateof destructive increase with the production of metastases, leadingeventually to the death of the animal either during the course of thetreatment or shortly thereafter microscopic changes, such as had beenobserved by hansemann in the case of subcutaneous tumors, were entirelylacking no matter in what organ the tumors were implanted, theseresults remained the same no matter what type of tumor was employed, whether carcinoma, adenocarcinoma or sarcoma, the therapeutic outcomewas regularly and consistently nil these results induced keysser to determine whether or noteosin-selenium could actually be shown to exercise a deleteriouseffect on cancer cells outside the body in order to do this he made asuspension of mouse tumor cells in salt solution and mixed this withthe eosin-selenium-vanadium, using the latter in amounts equivalent tothree times the fatal dose for a mouse after the mixture had stoodfrom one to three hours, it was injected either subcutaneously orintravenously into mice in order to test the vitality of the cells in every instance the injections resulted in the production of tumorswhich could be in no way distinguished from the tumors produced byuntreated cancer cells in other words, the therapeutic preparation hadabsolutely no effect on the tumor cells in the same way keysser carried out experiments along the linesinaugurated by neuberg, using a combination of glycocoll and copper he also tested the combination of borcholin with selenium-vanadiumused by werner and szécsi he was able to confirm the fact that bothof these substances produced an unmistakable therapeutic effect onsubcutaneous tumors on the other hand, they were absolutely withoutinfluence on the internal tumors in this respect, therefore, they wereentirely comparable with the eosin-selenium compound the theoreticalbasis constructed by neuberg, which rests on the assumption that themetallic compounds stimulate autolytic processes in the tumors, wasalso subjected by keysser to destructive criticism finally, keysser showed that none of these therapeutic agents wereeffective even in the case of subcutaneous tumors, unless the latterhad reached at least the size of cherry pits if a therapeuticinjection were made immediately after inoculation of the tumors, noeffect was observed the tumors grew exactly as in the control animals, and the injected animals died in about the same period of time as they all of these facts, which taken together constitute a very remarkableand convincing piece of scientific investigation, permit of butone conclusion it is quite clearly established that none of thepreparations of which the therapeutic effectiveness has hitherto beenproclaimed exercise any direct influence on the life or developmentof the tumor under certain very definite and restricted conditions, however, they do appear to produce certain changes in the tumors, and in a small proportion even cures these results, however, areobtained only in the case of tumors which are subcutaneous in locationand not smaller than a cherry pit in size keysser interpretationof the striking differences between tumors is of interest in thisconnection he believes that the constant palpation and examinationof the subcutaneous tumors, which is prompted by interest in theexperiment, produces circulatory changes with hyperemia and hemorrhage these circulatory changes are responsible for the increased tendencyof the injected substances to lodge in the tumors, thereby possiblyincreasing the tendency to autolysis which the circulatory changes haveinaugurated it is, of course, questionable whether this explanationcan be regarded as final in a series of experiments which i performedthesis years ago, i was able to show that sodium iodid when injectedintravenously accumulates in tumors in larger amounts than in any othertissue of the body in rats a similar observation has been recordedby wells, de witt and corper 278 in the same way i found thatvarious dyes, such as congo red, when injected intravenously, could bedemonstrated in tumors long after the rest of the body had recoveredits normal color. The liver alone vied with the tumors in this respect the dyestuff was invariably sharply localized in the necrotic portionsof the tumor the conclusion seemed obvious that, owing to circulatoryconditions or possibly even to chemical conditions, the dye wasretained longest in the necrotic writings of the tumor this effect wasunquestionably not due to handling, inasmuch as the animals in myexperiments were not palpated from the time of injection until death 278 wells, h g , de witt, and corper. Ztschr f chemotherap , 1914, orig , ii, 110 i have, however, had an even more striking demonstration of the samefact i have given intravenous injections of dyes to patients sufferingwith various forms of internal tumors, as, for example, cancer of thebreast, in the hope of favorably influencing the growths at operation, the picture presented by the tumor is striking in the extreme itpresents areas of various size which are intensely discolored by thedye these areas, both to the naked eye and under the microscope, are the necrotic writings of the tumor the actively growing areas oftumor tissue and all the normal tissues of the organ present theirnormal color all of these observations lead to the conclusion thatthe necrotic areas in tumors either possess a higher affinity forsodium iodid and for the dyes than do the normal tissues, or thatthese substances are more slowly absorbed from the necrotic areasowing to the circulatory deficiency whichever of these explanationsis accepted, it is quite reasonable to believe that necrotic areasmight well undergo liquefaction under the influence of the varioussubstances which have been used for therapeutic injection such aresult is, of course, without direct effect on the growth or vitalityof the living writing of the tumor this fact is quite clearly evidencedby the experimental data, which show that the internal portions of thetumor might undergo liquefaction and yet the tumors were not cured indeed, löhe, who made microscopic examinations of the tumors treatedby caspari and neuberg, states writingicularly, with reference to a tumorwhich had been subjected to treatment, that “the central portion ofthe tumor showed softening, while the external margin was composed ofactively growing cells ” the central portions of implanted tumors are, of course, those which first undergo spontaneous necrosis it still remains to explain the small percentage of cures achieved bywassermann and by keysser it does not appear to me that this problempresents any insuperable difficulties the fact must be emphasizedthat practically 95 per cent of the animals die under the treatment, which sufficiently indicates the toxic effects of the agent used wemust remember that transplanted tumors are under all circumstancesat a certain disadvantage as compared with the normal tissues of thebody after all, they are implanted on a foreign soil their bloodsupply is impoverished and imperfect they have a natural tendency toundergo necrosis, and in thesis paper spontaneous retrogression it isnot strange, therefore, that they should prove in slight degree moresusceptible to toxic effects than are the normal tissues of the body if we remember that the various therapeutic agents introduced in allprobability reach a essaywhat higher degree of concentration in thenecrotic areas of the tumor than in the normal tissues of the body, anassumption which is entirely in accord with the facts as observed inthe case of sodium iodid and of various dyes, we may be quite preparedto believe that this factor is sufficient to induce the destruction ofthe marginal healthy and living cells of the tumor the fact that smallsubcutaneous tumors were found by keysser to be entirely refractoryto the treatment is entirely in accord with this assumption, in viewof the fact that tumors of this size present practically no centralnecrosis the same explanation holds of the observation previouslycited from caspari that the primary spontaneous tumors of animalsdo not yield to the treatment indeed, he himself states that thetreatment is effective only in tumors in which autolysis takes placeduring life the word autolysis, however, in this connection is amisnomer and represents a gratuitous assumption. As an actual fact, one is entitled to say only that such tumors undergo central necrosis, in all probably owing to defective circulatory supply the process isexactly similar to the coagulation necrosis described in the case oftubercles by weigert if autolysis occurs, it is only secondary to thepreceding necrosis this explanation, however, is confronted by the fact that the internaltumors produced by keysser showed no tendency to effect a localizationof the dyes, and correspondingly no tendency to be affected by thetherapeutic agents one might be permitted to inquire whether theseinternal tumors had undergone any necrosis keysser unfortunately makesno mention of this matter it is certainly true that the infiltrativemode of growth of the internal tumors, which is entirely differentfrom that of the subcutaneous implantations, is associated with amuch better blood supply and a lessened tendency to undergo necrosis that such tumors can undergo necrosis, however, is evidenced bycertain illustrations given by carl lewin in his paper on internaltumors but such changes usually occur only in advanced stages tojudge from his plates, keysser worked with relatively small tumors, an assumption which is rendered even more likely by the fact that hisinjections were undertaken in a fairly early stage of their growth inthis connection i may quote certain experiments of my own on internaltumors 279 the implantations made in my experiments were produced byintravenous injections of a tumor suspension into the jugular vein ofrats such injections resulted almost invariably in the production ofa large number of tumors in the lungs, which, as is well shown in thefigures accompanying the original article, differed very markedly insize the smaller of these tumors are composed throughout of activelygrowing cells, while the large tumors present an area of centralnecrosis exactly as do the subcutaneous tumors if such an animal begiven an intravenous injection of a dye such as congo red, it will befound that the larger tumors present an area of central discolorationcorresponding to the area of previous necrosis, while the smallertumors, like normal tissues, are not colored thus, it is clear thatthe internal tumors implanted in animals are subject to the same lawsconcerning the distribution of dyes and, of course, other substances asare the subcutaneous tumors as i have stated previously, an exactlyanalogous observation has been made in a human breast tumor in theabsence of any contradictory evidence, therefore, i think that it isperfectly justifiable to assume that keysser failed to achieve a resultin the internal growths simply owing to the fact that those growthspresented practically no areas of necrosis at the time of his injection 279 j m research, 1913, p 497 another theoretical question which bears closely on the recenttherapeutic investigations in human beings concerns the rôle ofcolloids, as such, in the procedure it is quite clear from what hasalready been said that all experiments with animal tumors have beenlargely influenced by the belief that metals in the colloidal formexercise a peculiar and characteristic influence on the destructionof tumors even when the therapeutic agents have been introducedin crystalline form, as by neuberg and caspari, the authors findthemselves compelled to assume that the metals are reduced to colloidalform within the tumors for the latter assumption there is absolutelyno evidence. It is due simply to the influence of the colloidal theory if one critically examines the data on which this theory is based, oneis forced to the conclusion that it has practically no establishedclaim to validity if we grant that colloidal metals have been shown tostimulate autolysis in the test tube, the same fact must be admitted ofmetals in noncolloidal solution the experiments, however, are very farfrom establishing either of these facts satisfactorily but even werethis the case, it is an unjustifiable inference that living tumor cellswould be influenced in anything like the same manner as are the deadcells observed in test tube experiments as an actual fact, we knowfrom the work of evans and schulemann that only the “scavenger cells”of the body take up foreign colloids, and to this class the tumor cellsdo not belong moreover, the form in which metals are introducedinto the circulation is not necessarily or even probably the form inwhich they act on the tissues colloidal solutions of the metals arecertainly subject to precipitation and other changes on entering theblood this fact i have shown experimentally in a previous study oncolloidal copper 280 in the same way it is probable, as has beenpointed out by wells, that metals when introduced in crystalloid formmay rapidly be altered so that they are carried throughout the body incolloidal form all of these considerations indicate how unjustifiableis the assumption that colloidal metals exercise a peculiar action ongrowing tumors it is hardly surprising that their empiric use hasfailed to measure up to expectations based on so slim a foundation offact 280 weil, richard. The effects of colloidal copper with an analysisof the therapeutic criteria in human cancer, j a m a 61:1034 sept 27 1913 clinical observationclinicians have not been slow in following the lead suggested by thetherapeutic experiments in animals it is perfectly proper that thisshould be the case in dealing with a disease of the character ofcancer, in thesis instances entirely beyond our power to influence, noone can question the advisability of trying any and every agent whichholds out the slightest promise unfortunately, a closer analysis ofthe animal experiments fails to vindicate even that degree of faith when one considers the facts which have been analyzed in the precedingdiscussion, it would appear not only futile but actually dangerous toattempt to benefit cancer sufferers by means of any of the agencieswhich have been employed in animal experimentation nevertheless, thefact remains that a variety of preparations have been used in the humanclinic the various types of preparations may be satisfactorily groupedunder four classes, namely:1 the crystalline salts of selenium 2 selenium in colloidal solution 3 other metals in colloidal solution 4 compounds of metals with organic radicals these substances have been administered by injection or by the mouth in the case of injection, the injections have been made either into thesubcutaneous tissues, intramuscularly, or intravenously, or finally, directly into the tumors before passing to a further considerationof this subject in detail, it may be well to recall the fact that inthe experimental tumors of animals, no matter what preparation hasbeen used, it has been possible to accomplish therapeutic effects onlyby the use of relatively enormous doses of the medicament, of doses, in fact, which were scarcely lower than the lethal dose certainexperimenters have noted that smaller doses actually stimulated thegrowth of the tumors in the second place, it has almost invariablybeen found necessary to administer the treatment intravenously, inasmuch as the other modes of administration failed of therapeuticeffect it is quite apparent that a procedure in human beings in anydegree analogous to that pursued in animals is entirely impossible thedoses used, with one notable exception to be subsequently mentioned, have invariably been relatively small hence it is apparent at theoutset that at least one fundamental condition of success in thetreatment of animal tumors has been necessarily excluded in theclinical application the salt used by wassermann is not stated in his original publication wolff281 speaks of it as a sodium salt, whereas keysser says that itwas a combination with potassium cyanid in only one instance, as faras i am aware, has the sodium salt been used therapeutically in humanbeings delbet282 states that he employed this salt intravenouslyin one case, and that its use was shortly followed by death unquestionably the salts of selenium are very much too toxic to be usedin this way 281 wolff. Die lehre von der krebs krankheit 3:1913 282 delbet, p. Bull de l’assn franç pour l’étude du cancer5:121, 1912.

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Boiled, the liquor absolutely and speedily cures essay for you scabsand itch. Neither is there any better salve in the world for woundsthan may be made of it. For it cleanses, fetches out the filth thoughit lie in the bones, brings up the flesh from the bottom, and all thisit doth speedily. It cures wounds made with poisoned weapons, and forthis clusius brings thesis experiences too tedious here to relate it is an admirable thing for carbuncles and plague-sores, inferiorto none. Green wounds ’twill cure in a trice.