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Essay For College Application


“i do not wish to trouble you with this kind of material, usually deposited safely in my waste paper basket, but the enclosed was handed to me today by a ‘bird’ who is calling on all the doctors and making strong statements when he claimed that ‘toxicide’ is being used in the presbyterian hospital, chicago, and that the council on pharmacy and chemistry is considering it seriously, etc , etc , i wish to know whether i am missing any real good thing if it has any real virtue, i would like to know about it, but if it has not, it seems to me that essaything ought to be done to head him off as essay doctors are sure to fall for essay of it ”the toxicide laboratories is, apparently, merely a trade name used bythe alleged originator of “toxicide, ” j f ruckel, m d according toour records, ruckel was born in 1860 and was graduated by the chicagohomeopathic medical college in 1886 he claims to have originatedtoxicide about twenty years ago and to have prescribed it “in over3, 000 paper ” in addition to toxicide, the toxicide laboratories alsoput out “dianasiac for nymphomania and satyriasis” and “somnosine forinsomnia ”-- from the journal a m a , oct 8, 1921 pil mixed treatment chichester report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report. W a puckner, secretary “pil mixed treatment chichester” is a proprietary preparation ofthe hillside chemical co , newburgh, n y it is sold in the form ofpills, each said to contain 1/20 grain of mercuric iodid and 5 grainsof potassium iodid in 1907 the council examined the therapeutic claims advanced for thispreparation and found that they were unwarranted, exaggerated andmisleading it found, also, thesis misleading statements in regard to theproduct itself furthermore, the a m a chemical laboratory found thepills to be “short weight” in potassium iodid content at the time that the council examined pil mixed treatment chichester, a dermatologist of recognized standing, to whom the“literature” for this product had been submitted for an opinion, madethe following report:“assuming that this pill contains what is claimed for it, one-twentieth 1/20 of a grain of biniodid of mercury and five 5 grains ofpotassium iodid, it presents neither an original nor a very usefulformula “the literature furnished by the company abounds in suggestions thatthe mixture, as they prepare it, represents essay unusual potency whichis not possessed by the ordinary mixture of these same drugs in thesame proportion these suggestions may of course be dismissed withoutconsideration there is nothing mysterious in a mixture of potassiumiodid and biniodid of mercury and this formula is no more entitledto special consideration than any other pill or tablet of the samecomposition prepared by any reputable pharmaceutical firm “the formula of this pill, however, does not represent a goodcombination it is offered for use both during the active secondaryperiod of syphilis and for tertiary lesions the pill does not containenough mercury to be an efficient remedy for secondary syphilis and notenough potassium iodid to be satisfactory in the treatment of tertiarylesions it is neither fish, flesh, fowl, nor good red herring apatient with secondary syphilis should not be dosed all the time withpotassium iodid and for the treatment of tertiary lesions he shouldhave a very much larger quantity of potassium iodid than can be givenin these pills without giving toxic doses of mercury “the statement that this pill ‘does not impair the appetite nor disturbdigestion and is well borne by patients who cannot tolerate iodidsotherwise administered’ is a bald claim which cannot be justified byexperience the most unsatisfactory way of administering potassiumiodid is in solid form a patient who can stand potassium iodid in pillform, as it is furnished in this preparation, can stand it in any formin which it is ever administered “in short this preparation is neither agreeable nor efficient thegreatest objection to it is its inefficiency, for it is offered asan adequate preparation for the treatment of syphilis in all of itsstages, whereas it is neither satisfactory for the treatment ofsecondary syphilis nor of tertiary lesions ”during the fourteen years which have elapsed since the council firstexamination of pil mixed treatment chichester, arsphenamin hasbeen added to the syphilographer armamentarium and much has beenlearned about syphilis and its treatment while there exist differencesof opinion as to the exact value of arsphenamin in the treatment ofsyphilis and there are even essay who desist from the use of arseniccompounds of any kind, no syphilographer of standing countenances theroutine treatment of syphilis with a fixed combination of mercuriciodid and potassium iodid the use of pil mixed treatment chichesteris on a par with the use of certain “blood purifiers” which wereadvocated at a time when the treatment of syphilis was a bafflingproblem present day claimsthe present advertising, which reads as if it had been written in theheyday of proprietary license, is, in effect, an invitation to treatsyphilis in its various stages and manifestations with pil mixedtreatment chichester if heeded by those who read the advertising ofthe hillside chemical co , it will result in much harm to the publicand the profession for this reason, the present report of the councilis published as a protest against any advertising propaganda advocatingthe routine treatment of a disease which requires that each case bestudied carefully so that prompt and efficient measures may be appliedto the various manifestations of the disease the following advertisement appeared recently in several medicaljournals. “medicine is an exact science-- on paper only!. ” every general practitioner of medicine is called upon to treat syphilis occasionally he cannot depend upon the use of arsenicals alone in most paper, “mixed treatment” the giving of mercury and iodides is required to get satisfactory results pil mixed treatment chichester accurately and successfully meets the indications and assures definite action important advantages. Ready solubility of mercury in combination with potassium iodide avoidance of gastric, buccal or intestinal disturbance easy administration, can be taken at any time, anywhere economical, both drugs in one combination accurate adjustment of dosage to each individual case full physiological action-- assured by purity of content secrecy-- patient or friends do not know nature of medicine pil mixed treatment chichester has been time tested and trial proven it needs no introduction to the thousands of physicians who prescribe or dispense it while the advertisement does not directly so advise, yet it is asubtle invitation to the general practitioner to use pil mixedtreatment chichester and thus save himself and his patient the timeand inconvenience which the rational treatment of syphilis imposes acircular “the treatment of syphilis simplified and improved” begins. “no therapeutic fact is more conspicuously and decisively established than that a radical cure of syphilis can be effected by the continuous administration, from the period of development, of a proper combination of mercury with iodine ”continuing, it is admitted that mercury is the most efficacious drug inthe primary and secondary stages of syphilis and iodin in the tertiarystage, but it is asserted that. “ it is now granted by all syphilologists that the antiluetic action of these drugs is immeasurably augmented by properly combining them, and that the best results are obtained when they are conjunctively administered throughout the entire course of the disease ”arguing along the same lines, this circular continues. “ it was not until mercury and iodine in the form of pil mixed treatment chichester was evolved that the marked advantages of the combined employment of these drugs in the various stages of syphilis became a scientific certainty ”further we are asked to believe that. “because of the greatly increased potency of mercury and iodine when combined, as in pil mixed treatment chichester, the foremost syphilologists are now agreed that the employment of these drugs in such form should be enjoined as soon as the disease develops, and should be thus continued until a cure has been effected.

Being taken with honey, it recovers hoarseness, orloss of the voice the often eating of them well boiled, helps thosethat are entering into a consumption the pulp of the middle ribs ofcoleworts boiled in almond milk, and made up into an electuary withhoney, being taken often, is very profitable for those that are puffyand short winded being boiled twice, an old cock boiled in the brothand drank, it helps the pains and the obstructions of the liver andspleen, and the stone in the kidneys the juice boiled with honey, anddropped into the corner of the eyes, clears the sight, by consumingany film or clouds beginning to dim it. It also consumes the cankersgrowing therein they are much commended, being eaten before meat tokeep one from surfeiting, as also from being drunk with too much wine, or quickly to make a man sober again that was drunk before for asthey say there is such an antipathy or enmity between the vine and thecoleworts, that the one will die where the other grows the decoctionof coleworts takes away the pain and ache, and allays the swelling ofsores and gouty legs and knees, wherein thesis gross and watery humoursare fallen, the place being bathed therewith warm it helps also oldand filthy sores, being bathed therewith, and heals all small scabs, pushes, and wheals, that break out in the skin the ashes of colewortstalks mixed with old hog-grease, are very effectual to anoint thesides of those that have had long pains therein, or any other placepained with melancholy and windy humours this was surely chrysippusgod, and therefore he wrote a whole volume on them and their virtues, and that none of the least neither, for he would be no small fool. Heappropriates them to every writing of the body, and to every disease inevery writing. And honest old cato they say used no other physic i knownot what metal their bodies were made of. This i am sure, cabbages areextremely windy, whether you take them as meat or as medicine. Yea, as windy meat as can be eaten, unless you eat bag-pipes or bellows, and they are but seldom eaten in our days. And colewort flowers areessaything more tolerable, and the wholeessayr food of the two the moonchallenges the dominion of this herb the sea coleworts descript this has divers essaywhat long and broad large and thickwrinkled leaves, essaywhat crumpled about the edges, and growing eachupon a thick footstalks very brittle, of a greyish green colour, fromamong which rises up a strong thick stalk, two feet high and better, with essay leaves thereon to the top, where it branches forth much. Andon every branch stands a large bush of pale whitish flowers, consistingof four leaves a-piece. The root is essaywhat great, shoots forth thesisbranches under ground, keeping the leaves green all the winter place they grow in thesis places upon the sea-coasts, as well on thekentish as essex shores. As at lid in kent, colchester in essex, anddivers other places, and in other counties of this land time they flower and seed about the time that other kinds do government and virtues the moon claims the dominion of these also the broth, or first decoction of the sea colewort, doth by the sharp, nitrous, and bitter qualities therein, open the belly, and purge thebody.

None, 39 essay for college application 0. unrecorded, 12 2 3 with guaiacol severe, 18 9. Mild, 67 5. None, 8 1. unrecorded, 5 5 the manufacturer of biniodol supplied the names of several physicianswho have used that preparation in their practice correspondence withthese elicited the following statements:one had used biniodol in forty-eight paper and states that “only a fewpatients complain of pain at all and then only of a general soreness inthe muscle ” this physician reports a limited experience with the useof another manufacturer “mercury biniodide oil solution” apparentlysix paper, but severe pain following the injections made it necessaryto abandon that preparation another of these physicians named by the manufacturer, withoutreference to any series of paper, reports that “biniodol is superior toany oily solution of mercury biniodid that i have tried ”a third physician has “used it biniodol a few times” and is“convinced that it has no special action or virtue” over “any redmercuric iodide in oil ”this evidence, in its most favorable estimate, shows biniodol to bea good 1 per cent solution of mercuric iodid in oil, but fails tojustify attributing to the preparation any unique characteristics thepreparations made in the laboratory were as satisfactory, or betterthan the biniodol, and the presence or absence of the guaiacol was ofno consequence biniodol conflicts with rule 6, since claims of superior therapeuticefficiency made for it are not established. And with rules 8 and10, since it is an unessential modification of an establishednonproprietary article marketed under a proprietary name in view of the foregoing, the referee recommends that biniodol benot accepted for new and nonofficial remedies, and that this report, including the clinical investigations of drs cole and keidel, beauthorized for publication comparative symptoms resulting from the use of several oily suspensions of red mercuric iodid mercury biniodid report of dr h n colecc from the dewritingment of dermatology and syphilology of the westernreserve university and of the cleveland city hospital at the request of prof torald sollmann of the council on pharmacy andchemistry of the american medical association, we made a comparativestudy of several oily preparations of red mercuric iodid forintramuscular injections in syphilis the information, concerning the preparations submitted to theinvestigators, was as follows. Oily solution of red mercuric iodid“it is desired to ascertain whether there is any difference betweenthree preparations, each containing 1 per cent of mercuric iodid, asto pain, discomfort, induration, etc the preparations will be labeled“1, ” “2” and “3 ” they will be sterile “one of these preparations will be a plain solution in oil. Anotherwill contain, in addition, 2 5 per cent of guaiacol. The third will bea proprietary preparation containing the guaiacol “it is also desirable to know how the oily solution compares with theplain watery solution. But this is of secondary importance ”the preparations all had the same appearance the patients were takenindiscriminately, and we attempted to keep them on the injections aslong as possible, in order to compare symptoms owing, however, todischarge from hospital, symptoms of mercury intoxication, etc , wewere unable in all paper to give a thorough trial with each preparation in all, eleven patients were treated and seventy-one injectionsgiven-- by which time our experimental supply was exhausted in each case the drug was given intramuscularly in the buttocks and thepatients carefully observed for subjective symptoms of pain and forobjective symptoms of swelling, induration, abscess formation, etc thedetails are given in table 1 as will be noted, in several of the paper the patients were more orless confused and gave rather indefinite and conflicting answers inattempting to compare the results from the different drugs, by carefultabulation one finds that symptoms were more marked with the respectivesample as follows. Preparation 1 was worse than preparation 2 or 3 in six paper preparation 2 was worse than preparation 1 in two paper preparation 2 was worse than preparation 3 in five paper preparation 3 was worse than preparations 2 or 1 in one case table 1 -- details of investigation by dr cole* | | | | | | symptoms | | | |prepar-|dose, -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - case|age|sex| date | ation | grain| induration-- | objective | | † | | | | pain | | | | | | | | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 | 25| ♂ | 6/11/16 | 2 | 1/5 |none |still painful | | | 6/12/16 | 1 | 1/4 |none |none | | | 6/13/16 | 2 | 1/5 |none |quite painful | | | 6/14/16 | 2 | 1/4 |hurt for essay |very tender | | | | | | time | | | | 6/16/16 | 2 | 1/5 |hurt for essay |very tender | | | | | | time | | | | 6/17/16 | 3 | 1/5 |not so painful |less tender | | | | | | | than with | | | | | | | prepar- | | | | | | | ation 2 | | | 6/18/16 | 3 | 1/5 |not so painful | can sit on | | |discontinued| | | | area. As | | | salivation| | | | needle prick | | | | | | | is only place | | | | | | | that it hurts | | | 6/22/16 | 2 | 1/4 |hurt, but not |slight indur- | | | | | | so long | ation and | | | | | | | slight | | | | | | | tenderness | | | 6/24/16 | 2 | 1/4 |hurt, but not |pain “dead | | | | | | so long | stinging” | | | | | | | lasts 1 hour | | | 6/25/16 | 1 | 1/4 |not so bad |about the same -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2 | 32| ♂ | 6/24/16 | 2 | 1/4 |essay pain |no induration | | | 6/25/16 | 1 | 1/4 |more pain |slight indur- | | | | | | | ation -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 3 | | ♂ | 6/12/16 | 1 | 1/5 |no symptoms |painful | | | 6/13/16 | 2 | 1/4 |no symptoms |painful | | | 6/14/16 | 2 | 1/4 |says the last |painful | | | 6/16/16 |arseno-| | two have hurt | | | | |benzol | | the more | | | | 6/17/16 | 3 | 1/5 |more pain than |small painful | | | | | | previously | area | | | 6/17/16 | 3 | 1/5 | | | | | 6/18/16 | 3 | 1/5 |not so much |essay indur- | | | | | | pain.

did he not cure madness?. The very word “epilepsy” shows by its derivation, ἐπίληψις to seizeupon, that possession was the presumable nature of the malady the noble work accomplished by the “pagan” pioneer alienists wasdiscredited or forgotten, and the church originated a process by whichthe possessed were to be treated this method of treatment was derivedpurely from theologic sources, tempered with sufficient dogma at firstthe treatment was gentle, in accordance with the spirit of the greatphysicians of antiquity, and if the afflicted one was not violent hewas permitted to attend public worship sacred salves and holy water, the breath or the spittle of the officiating priest, the touching ofrelics, or a visit to holy places, were the principal therapeuticagents employed these methods, even if they did no good essaytimesmerely the consolation of a kind word from the priest had a beneficialeffect, certainly did no harm, even tho such practises were factors inthe spread of superstition this mild form of treatment did not, however, long continue soonmeasures were directed toward driving out the evil spirit from thepossessed this was attempted in various ways. First, by exorcism, inthe period of justin martyr, and continued up to almost recent times see lecky, “history of european morals” “from the time of justinmartyr for about two centuries, there is, i believe, not a singlechristian writer who does not solemnly and explicitly assert thereality and frequent employment of this power ”one of the chief attributes of the devil was pride, therefore attemptswere made by exorcism to pierce this vulnerable point in the armor ofthe evil one, and the foulest, vilest epithets were used to attain thisend it is impossible to-day to print these expressions, even in a workof scientific character, and it is better, perhaps, to refer such asare especially interested in them to the manuale benedictionum, bythe bishop of passau, published in 1849, and similar works adjuvantsto this form of treatment consisted in “frightening” the devil bylong words, difficult to pronounce, commonly derived from orientallanguages, by the administration of malodorous and filthy “drugs, ” andsimilar practises it was claimed that thesis devils were thus driven out, and the annals ofthe church contain numerous records of persons cured in this manner “the jesuit fathers at vienna, in 1583, glorified in the fact thatin such a contest they had cast out twelve thousand, six hundred andfifty-two living devils” white the prevalence of these ideas tosuch a degree in the minds of the people may be noted from the factthat, in the churches themselves, such scenes are carved in stone anddepicted on canvas medieval drama teemed with similar conceptions, and this condition of affairs prevailed for over one thousand years, unfortunately not in this harmless manner, but supplemented by greatcruelty, which forms, perhaps, the most terrible chapter in the historyof medical superstition the subtleties of theologic interpretation soon evolved a morecomprehensive method of dealing with the “possessor” and the possessed as an appeal to pride was ineffectual and noxious drugs unavailing, it was found necessary to whip the devil out, or the unfortunateindividuals were imprisoned, and as a refinement of this treatment theywere even tortured thus the jailer for a long time played the writingof a specialist in lunacy, with the clergy in consultation places inwhich the insane were confined were known as “fool towers” and “witchtowers ”this state of things was not altered with the dawn of the reformation the writings of luther conclusively show his ideas in regard topossession and witchcraft, and these views under calvin reachedenormous development even cotton mather, in thesis respects far inadvance of his times, and who himself had known persecution, was notemancipated from these delusions, and salem has thesis a story to tell ofpossession and witch-baiting it is true we may quite properly considerthese views as the thought of the times, but, in thesis other respects, luther, calvin, and mather were in advance of their period, and, therefore, a justification for their actions is not quite apparent marcus aurelius also was much superior to his age, yet was grateful tohis teachers that they taught him to disregard superstition in all itsvarious forms it is not unlikely that conditions of this kind frequently led toepidemics if not of actual insanity, at least to hysteria which notrarely developed in cities, nunneries, and monasteries. Thus theepidemics in erfurt in 1237, in the rhine countries in 1374, and thesisothers see hirsch it is rather remarkable that while such views and practises prevailedin the christian church, the followers of mohammed not only helddifferent views, but adopted a mode of treatment of the insane whichlaid the foundation of modern therapeutics in diseases of the mind in the twelfth century, in bagdad, a palace called the “home of mercy”was built, in which the insane were confined, examined every month, andreleased as soon as they had recovered an asylum in cairo was foundedin 1304, while the first christian asylum expressly for the mad isnoted in 1409 lecky but science fought its way through the barriers of ignorance, misdirected zeal, and superstition altho there were physicians and“magicians, ” who conformed to the views of the church, the seed sown bythe earlier schools of medicine slowly but surely began to put forthshoots, and the result was a tree of knowledge, the fruit of whichmay be observed in every modern insane asylum of the world, wherethe unfortunate sufferer is treated with kindness and skill, which, fortunately, often results in cure scientific reason frequently rebelled against the “insanesuperstition, ” at first mildly, but constantly increasing in strength, until an effectual protest was finally raised by john weir, of cleves, who was soon followed by michel de montaigne and now a battle royalwas waged between the adherents of theology and the disciples of the“resurrected” truth, and once more in the history of the world wasdemonstrated the correctness of the saying, that “truth crushed toearth shall rise again ” all over the world the warfare was carried, and at the end of the eighteenth century new champions arose jeanbaptiste pinel in france, and william tuke in england their followersare legion, and in the book of life, in letters of gold, thesis a namehas been written of those who trod in the footsteps of these pioneers theology no longer interferes in the treatment of the insane.

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“woman, age 52 -- diagnosis of acquired syphilis made by one of our most eminent clinicians ?. abrams test showed tuberculosis of the apex of the right lung no syphilis fourteen treatments with the oscilloclast at 5 patient gained fourteen pounds in three weeks now in perfect health ” “mechanic, age 22 -- acute acquired syphilis general eruption, throat, mouth symptoms and chancre thirteen treatments with the oscilloclast at 3, and splenic sterilization only complete abatement of all symptoms ” “woman, age 42 -- strep infection of the second upper cuspid tooth of three years’ standing well developed sinus regular discharge of pus eight treatments with the oscilloclast at 2 clinically cured ” “cancer of the pylorus and pylorectomy executed at the mayo clinic later, vomiting, severe pains, loss in weight, etc after the third treatment with “oscilloclast” pains ceased and, after 14 treatments, she was well and continued so when i last saw her ” “cancer of uterus inoperable severe uterine hemorrhages electrode of oscilloclast to cervix and hemorrhage ceased after second treatment after 14 treatments the patient declared she was well another case of the same character was followed by equally good results ” economic results with oscilloclastit also seems to be a great business-getter, as the followingtestimonials published by dr abrams show. “the oscilloclast has doubled my business ”-- s king, m d pa “i am doing good work with the oscilloclast in t b and when i get more room i shall want another machine ”-- h michener kas “we are swamped with work and our three cord oscilloclast is working to full capacity we are still astonishing the incredulous and keeping busy we must have another oscilloclast at once for there are so thesis here who demand treatment ”-- w p myers, m d cal the electrobioscopemore recently, dr abrams has extended his observations andexperiments, using what apparently is a modification of the oldfashioned pith ball suspended by a silk thread from a rubber rod withwhich we all experimented during our high school days this devicedr abrams has called the “electrobioscope ” it is for sale by thephysico-clinical co the “electrobioscope, ” in addition to doingthesis other things, has demonstrated to dr abrams the “sexualityof numbers and sounds ” thus, if the pith ball is charged negativelyand the numbers 1 to 9 are marked on a narrow board and the vowelsand consonants are marked on another board, it will be found-- stillaccording to dr abrams-- that even numbers repel the pith ball whileodd numbers attract it vowels repel and consonants attract “a femalehair repels and a male hair attracts ” from these data dr abramsdeduces that “even numbers and vowels are female and odd numbers andconsonants are male ”the value of music as a therapeutic agent is briefly touched on bydr abrams and we are told that the overture of “tannhäuser” willincrease the pulse rate whereas “meditation” diminishes blood pressureand pulse rate “in dogs, music augments elimination of carbonic acidand increases the consumption of oxygen ” love, says dr abrams, “isdependent upon matter in vibration and the passional component has awave metric index of 14 in both sexes ” in referring to legendary lore, dr abrams apparently assigns a scientific basis for the belief amongthe bucolic that carrying around a potato has therapeutic virtue thus. “a cut potato carried on the person prevents elicitation of the stomach reflex when the negative pole of a bar-magnet is presented to the stomach region whereas the positive pole will evoke dulness ”it seems also that the “rheumatic rings” of iron “when worn yield aneutral energy which prevents the elicitation of the stomach reflexby either pole of a bar-magnet ” we learn, too, that the divining rod“no longer belongs to occultism but is entitled to consideration as ascientific fact ”dr abrams also has investigated methods whereby the sex of the fetusmay be diagnosed in the human these investigations have, apparently, been so limited as to permit only tentative conclusions in the case ofeggs of the domestic fowl, dr abrams reports that with four eggs thatyielded negative polarity, the result of incubation was four hens offive eggs yielding a positive polarity only two hatched, one was a henand one a rooster, giving an “error in observation ” three eggs testedyielded neutral polarity and “as predicted the eggs were sterile ” incase of an egg yielding a negative female polarity “an attempt wasmade to reverse the sex by painting one end of the egg with a yellowcoloring material ” the result was a rooster much more might be written about what one of our correspondents callsthe wonderful things they are doing in the west, but space forbids “neither the fury of tongue, ” says dr abrams in the preface to hisbook, new concepts in diagnosis and treatment, “nor the truculenceof pen can discredit the author observations which are capableof analyzation and demonstration ” if there is any scientificfoundation for the marvels that dr abrams so picturesquely features, the scientific world has not yet found it out!. -- from the journala m a , march 25, 1922 dr abrams’ graduationin this dewritingment of the journal for march 25 appeared an article ondr albert abrams and essay of his discoveries we have now receiveda letter from a physician, who asks that his name be not published, reading. “to the editor:-- i notice in your article on albert abrams the statement that he was born in 1864 and received his degree of m d in heidelberg 1882. If these data are furnished by himself and not a typographical error-- though i find the same data in the american medical directory for 1916-- then it is high time that essay board of censors should make a careful examination of his credentials “anybody, like myself, who is acquainted with medical matters in gerthesis knows that it is preposterous to assume that anybody could obtain the degree of m d in any german university at the age of 18 years m d , leipzig ”eighteen is rather young to receive an m d degree from heidelberg!.