History

Essay Describing Yourself


Richardson906 recommends artificial circulation by injection of vessels, or electric excitation. Jennings907 recommends the same. Richardson908 also considers fully the subject of artificial respiration and electrical excitation. Woillez909 has described and recommended what he calls a spirophore after the removal of a foreign body the irritation remaining may causea sensation as if the body was still lodged death may occur from hemorrhage after its removal post-mortem appearances these are mainly those of asphyxia there may also be evidences ofexternal violence, homicidal or accidental, as of pressure on thechest persistent deformity, flattening of the nose and lips, andexcoriation of these writings may result from forcible closure of mouthand nose the skin and conjunctiva usually show patches of lividity andpunctiform ecchymoses. Especially lividity on the lips and limbs theface may be pale or violet. It is often placid, especially if thesuffocation is accidental tardieu910 admits that infiltration of theconjunctiva and punctiform ecchymoses of the face, neck, and chest mayalso be found essaytimes in women after severe labor, and in epileptics he records the result of the examination of those who died fromsuffocation at the pont de la concorde, 1866 the face and upper writingsof the trunk were generally light red to a deep violet or black color, with punctated blackish ecchymoses on the face, neck, and upper writing ofchest the eyes are usually congested mucus and essaytimes bloody froth arefound about the nose and mouth the tongue may or may not protrude the blood is usually dark and very fluid wounds after death may bleed according to tardieu911 fluidity of the blood is most constant incompression of the chest and abdomen, as also its accumulation in thevessels and right side of heart its color varies from red to black the brain and pia mater are generally congested this is said to beinvariable if the eyes are congested mackenzie in thirteen paper foundthe brain congested in all the heart varies much in appearance and condition the right side isoften full of blood. Occasionally empty essaytimes subpericardialecchymoses are found, usually along the coronary vessels the blood inthe heart may be writingly coagulated if the agony has been prolonged andthere has been a writingial access of air, which is gradually diminished mackenzie912 found the right cavities full and the left empty innine out of thirteen paper johnson913 as a result of experimenton animals claims that when access of air is prevented there is arise in pressure in the arteries, the right side of the heart fills, the pulmonary capillaries become empty, and therefore the left sideof the heart becomes empty as a result of further experiments914he verified his former conclusion, and added that in the last stageof asphyxia there is increased pressure on the pulmonary artery andlessened pressure in the systemic vessels he thinks915 that whenboth sides of the heart contain blood, there is paralysis of vaso-motornerves and the arteries the trachea is usually bright red and often contains bloody froth thelarynx or trachea as well as pharynx or œsophagus may contain a foreignbody if the latter has been removed the resulting irritation may beseen the lungs are essaytimes congested, at others normal. Color red orpale essaytimes one lung only is affected they may be emphysematous mackenzie found them congested in all of thirteen paper examined byhim the lungs of young persons may be found comparatively small, almost bloodless, and emphysematous tardieu, albi, and others believedthat the punctiform subpleural ecchymoses indicated suffocation, andwere due to small hemorrhages from engorged vessels which rupturedin the efforts at expiration these spots are usually round, dark, from the size of a pin-head to a small lentil, and well defined they are not like the petechiæ in the lungs and heart after purpura, cholera, eruptive fevers, etc , nor like the hemorrhages under thescalp after tedious labor, all of which are variable in size thesepunctiform spots are usually seen at the root, base, and lower marginof the lungs hofmann states “lehrbuch” that they are found in theposterior writing of the lungs and in the fissures between the lobes theyare indisputably frequent after death from suffocation, and if wellmarked either in adults or infants that have breathed, they indicatesuffocation, unless essay other cause of death is clear simon, ogston, and tidy, however, have shown that they are essaytimes absent in fatalsuffocation, and are essaytimes present in the absence of suffocation, as after hanging and drowning. In fœtuses before labor has begun;often in still-births, although essay of these are probably due tosuffocation from inhaling fluid or from pressure also in death fromscarlet fever, heart disease, apoplexy, pneumonia, and pulmonary œdema grosclaude916 quotes from pinard, who declares that these ecchymosesare found in fœtuses which die from arrest of circulation grosclaudehimself made a large number of experiments on animals by drowning, hanging, and strangling, and fracturing the skull the ecchymoses werefound in nearly all the paper the ecchymoses are writingly the result of venous stasis, which overcomesthe resistance of essay capillaries.

Beat them allinto fine powder, the pulp of twelve figs, and incorporate them witha pound and an half of melilot plaster simple, turpentine an ounceand an half, ammoniacum dissolved in hemlock vinegar, three ounces, styrax five drams, oil of marjoram, and nard, of each half an ounce, or a sufficient quantity, make it into a plaster with a hot mortar andpestle, without boiling culpeper it mollifies the hardness of the stomach, liver, spleen, bowels, and other writings of the body. It wonderfully assuages pain, andeases hypochondriac melancholy, and the rickets emplastrum de minio compositum or, a plaster of red lead compound college take of oil of roses omphacine twenty ounces, oil ofmastich two ounces, suet of a sheep and a calf, of each half a pound, litharge of gold and silver, red lead, of each two ounces, a tasterfull of wine. Boil them by a gentle fire continually stirring it tillit grow black, let the fire be hottest towards the latter end, then addturpentine half a pound, mastich two ounces, gum elemi one ounce, whitewax as much as is sufficient. Boil them a little, and make them into aplaster according to art culpeper it potently cures wounds, old malignant ulcers, and isvery drying emplastrum de minio simplicius or, a plaster of red lead simple college take of red lead nine ounces, oil of red roses one poundand an half, white wine vinegar six ounces, boil it into the perfectbody of a plaster it is prepared without vinegar, thus. Take of redlead one pound, oil of roses one pound and an half, wax half a pound, make it into a plaster according to art culpeper it is a fine cooling healing plaster, and very drying emplastrum metroproptoticon college take of mastich one ounce and an half, galbanum dissolvedin red wine and strained, six drams, cypress turpentine two drams, cypress nuts, galls, of each one dram and an half, oil of nutmegsby expression one dram, musk two grains and an half, pitch scrapedoff from old ships two drams and an half. Beat the galbanum, pitch, turpentine, and mastich gently in a hot mortar and pestle, towards theend, adding the oil of nutmegs, then the rest in powder, last of allthe musk mixed with a little oil of mastich upon a marble, and by exactmixture make them into a plaster emplastrum nervinum college take of oil of chamomel and roses, of each two ounces, of mastich, turpentine, and linseeds, of each an ounce and an half, turpentine boiled four ounces, rosemary, bettony, horsetail, centaurythe less, of each a handful, earth-worms washed and cleansed in winethree ounces, tops of st john wort a handful, mastich, gum elemi, madder roots, of each ten drams, ship-pitch, rozin, of each an ounceand an half, litharge of gold and silver, of each two ounces and anhalf, red lead two ounces, galbanum, sagapen, ammoniacum, of each threedrams. Boil the roots, herbs, and worms, in a pound and an half of winetill half be consumed, then press them out, and boil the decoctionagain with the oils, suets, litharge, and red lead, to the consumptionof the wine. Then add the gums dissolved in wine, afterwards theturpentine, rozin, pitch, and mastich, in powders and make them into aplaster according to art culpeper it strengthens the brain and nerves, and then beingapplied to the back, down along the bone, it must needs add strength tothe body emplastrum oxycroceum college take of saffron, ship-pitch, colophonia, yellow wax, of each four ounces, turpentine, galbanum, ammoniacum, myrrh, olibanum, mastich, of each one ounce and three drams let the pitchand colophonia be melted together, then add the wax, then it beingremoved from the fire the turpentine, afterwards the gums dissolved invinegar, lastly the saffron in powder, well mixed with vinegar, and somake it into a plaster according to art culpeper it is of a notable softening and discussing quality, helpsbroken bones, and any writing molested with cold, old aches, stiffness ofthe limbs by reason of wounds, ulcers, fractures, or dislocations, anddissipates cold swellings emplastrum stephaniaion college take of labdanum half an ounce, styrax, juniper gum, ofeach two drams, amber, cypress, turpentine, of each one dram, redcoral, mastich, of each half a dram, the flowers of sage, red roses, the roots of orris florentine, of each one scruple, rozin washedin rose-water half an ounce, the rozin, labdanum, juniper gum, andturpentine, being gently beaten in a hot mortar, with a hot pestle, sprinkling in a few drops of red wine till they are in a body. Thenput in the powders, and by diligent stirring make them into an exactplaster emplastrum sticticum college take of oil of olives six ounces, yellow wax an ounceand an half, litharge in powder four ounces and an half, ammoniacum, bdellium, of each half an ounce, galbanum, opopanax, oil of bays, lapis calaminaris, both sorts of birthwort, myrrh, frankincense, of each two drams, pure turpentine an ounce let the oil, wax, andlitharge be boiled together till it stick not to your fingers, thenthe mass being removed from the fire and cooled a little, and the gumsdissolved in white wine vinegar, which evaporate away by boiling, strain it strongly, then add the powders, turpentine, and oil of bays, that it may be made into a plaster according to art culpeper it strengthens the nerves, draws out corruption, takesaway pains and aches, and restores strength to members that have lostit. The last is most effectual emplastrum stomachicum magistrale or, a stomach plaster college take of mints, wormwood, stœchas, bay leaves, of each adram, marjoram, red roses, yellow sanders, of each two drams, calamusaromaticus, wood of aloes, lavender flowers, nutmegs, cubebs, galanga, long pepper, mace, of each a dram, mastich three drams, cloves twodrams and an half, oil of mints an ounce and an half, oil of nard anounce, oil of spike a dram, rozin, wax, of each four ounces, labdanumthree ounces, styrax half an ounce.

“‘wheeler tissue phosphates’ is an unscientific shotgun mixture whose most active and powerful drug is the alcohol it contains that it was not years ago relegated to the realms of obsolete and discarded preparations is a commentary alike on the lack of scientific discrimination and on the power of advertising ”here we have “wheeler tissue phosphates” stripped of the verbalcamouflage with which its exploiters have invested it -- editorialfrom the journal a m a , sept 22, 1917 briefer paragraphs alcresta lotion to the editor:-- what is the composition of alcresta lotion?. l t a hotten, m d , paris, idaho according to a circular in our files, “alcresta dental lotion-libby”contains “emetin, the active amebicidal principle of ipecac, togetherwith benzoic acid, thymol, eucalyptol and aromatics ” the theorythat emetin is an active amebicide against pyorrhea alveolaris hasbeen exploded in this connection, it is interesting to note thatthe firm does not list the product in the latest catalogue in ourfiles -- query from the journal a m a , oct 29, 1921 calcidin tablets abbott to the editor:-- what is the composition of calcidin tablets abbott and what is their value?. j s answer -- calcidin is claimed to be a mixture of iodin, lime and starch in contact with water, the iodin and lime react to form calcium iodidand calcium iodate by the acid of the gastric juice, the calcium iodidand calcium iodate are decomposed with liberation of free iodin theadministration of calcidin tablets amounts to giving free elementaryiodin in the past, the advertising for calcidin has contained theunwarranted claim more or less directly that it was the most effectiveand only noninjurious preparation of iodin for internal use, and thatit possesses all of the valuable properties of the iodin with all ofthe objectionable effects left out so far as we know, the effectsproduced by the administration of free iodin do not differ from thoseproduced by the administration of iodids and, therefore, calcidin hasno advantage over the iodids, such as sodium iodid -- query in thejournal a m a , sept 25, 1920 di-crotalin treatment of epilepsy to the editor:-- do you have any literature or information relative to the di-crotalin treatment for epilepsy?. i will be very grateful if you can furnish information as to method of preparation, rationale of the treatment, etc r c decker, captain, m r c , u s soldiers’ home, washington, d c answer -- di-crotalin is a rattlesnake venom preparation sold by theswan-myers company of indianapolis as a “treatment for epilepsy, chorea, bronchial asthma, chronic or hereditary nervous headache, nervous prostration incident to change of life, hysteria-mania, insomnia, neurasthenia, etc ” dr thomas j mays of philadelphiaadvocated the use of rattlesnake venom for tuberculosis later hisformer assistant, dr r h spangler, used the same material in thetreatment of epilepsy that any measure of success sufficient tojustify the adoption of the rattlesnake venom or crotalin treatmentfor epilepsy has resulted is not to be concluded from the availablereports still less evidence is there for the use of rattlesnakevenom in the list of conditions for which the swan-myers company hasrecommended its preparation there are a number of good reasons why acautious physician will shun the administration of this treatment andadvise against it j f anderson, working in the hygienic laboratoryof the united states public health service, reported a death from thecrotalin treatment in consequence of infection, and reports that themarket supply of crotalin solution and crotalin tablets is highlycontaminated he also found both crotalin and crotalin solution tovary in activity the use of rattlesnake venom was discussed in thejournal, march 15, 1913, p 850 -- query in the journal a m a , aug 17, 1918 estivin to the editor:-- what is “estevin, ” or essaything like that?. it is said to be good in hay-fever constant reader answer -- the product called “estivin” is sold by schieffelin andcompany, new york a request for a statement of the composition of thispreparation sent to schieffelin and company by the council on pharmacyand chemistry brought the indefinite and, therefore, meaninglessstatement that “‘estivin’ is an extract of rosa gallica containing noalcoholic or foreign ingredients ”-- query from the journal a m a , nov 12, 1921 iron arsenite to the editor:-- can you inform me how iron arsenite can be prepared for subcutaneous injection?. a commercial firm furnishes physicians with ampules of arsenite of iron is this really arsenite of iron?. s h kempner, m d , new york answer -- ferric arsenite iron arsenite is in itself relativelyinsoluble in water, but may be treated with ammonium citrate, theresulting product thus being soluble. The latter substance wasat one time described in new and nonofficial remedies as “ferricarsenite, soluble” and is essaytimes sold as a solution in ampuleform in 1912, the council on pharmacy and chemistry deleted “ferricarsenite, soluble” from new and nonofficial remedies because “onecannot, in administering ferric arsenite, soluble, give a usefuldose of iron without giving too much arsenic. And, vice versa, onecannot give a safe dose of arsenic without giving too little iron ”the council, therefore, held the preparation to be irrational andunscientific -- query in the journal a m a , feb 19, 1921 k-y lubricating jelly to the editor:-- 1 what is the composition of “k-y lubricating jelly”?.

$1 $2$3 00121de cuivre pur” each ampule contains o 00121 gr of pure copper thea m a chemical laboratory reports that the preparation does containa small amount of copper, with essay protein material and about 1 percent sodium chlorid the therapeutic claims in the advertising circular are thosecommonly made for cancer “cures” and are about equally convincing the publication of such statements and quotations as the following, which appear in a pamphlet “the medical treatment in cancer, ” cannotbe too strongly condemned in a medicament that at best has only anexperimental status. “a special preparation, cuprase, has been introduced into therapeutics which has been remarkably successful in the history of the therapeutics of cancer, nothing has been found which can compare with the effects produced by means of cuprase clinical facts carry greater weight than theoretical deductions it follows, from the clinical observations which i have collected, that in the large majority of paper cuprase effects the diminution or disappearance of the pains, an improvement in the general condition, a diminution or arrest of the neoplasms, and finally in certain paper, a cure has been effected it should be remarked that all or nearly all the observations refer to inoperable paper in which the prognosis was unfavorable at an early date it is needless to emphasize the practical importance of a preparation capable of yielding such results, even relative, in the worst stages of a disease which has always been regarded as absolutely resisting the action of all internal remedies ” “to sum up, cuprase has given positive results in about 94 per cent of the paper in which it has been employed for a sufficiently long period, and essay brilliant results in about 20 per cent of these paper therefore, it may be affirmed, that among the internal remedies for cancer, cuprase is the one which has produced the most successful results, and can, under certain circumstances, compete with surgical methods, even, so far as the rapidity of their results are concerned ” “it is indicated. A awriting from all operation, and as a specific and curative remedy. B before an operation, in order to give tone to the patient, mobilise the tumor, destroy its toxins. C after the operation, as a tonic and anti-toxic, and in order to avoid frequent relapses which are always possible ”essentially the same statements are made in the more recentadvertisements f i urological and cutaneous review, feb , 1919 opposed to these loose statements are the results of richard weil the journal a m a , 1913, sept 27, p 1034. Ibid, 1915, april 17, p 1283 weil avoided pitfalls of subjective impressions and usedas the essential criterion of efficiency “the demonstrable reductionin size of a tumor, of a kind not to be attributed to the naturalprocesses of evolution of that tumor or of its associated lesions” l c 1915, p 1289 the available evidence for cuprase is far from meeting this criterion that published by the manufacturers and agents presents only vaguegeneralities, and no definite data the evidence gathered by weilhimself permits an estimate of the value of cuprase and it is entirelyunfavorable he states l c 1915, p 1288:“colloidal copper has been used in recent time for the same purposeby gaube du gers and by others i have recently examined the effectsof colloidal copper on malignant tumors in man, and have been unableto find that it has any therapeutic value furthermore, a study ofthe distribution of the copper in tumors obtained at operation or bynecropsy from individuals so treated failed to show that the copper hadbeen deposited therein ”in view of the extravagant and cruelly misleading therapeutic claims, and the indefinite statements of composition, the council votedcuprase ineligible to n n r , and authorized the publication of thisreport -- from the journal a m a , april 12, 1919 collosol preparations report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted and authorized publication of the report whichappears below declaring “collosol argentum, ” “collosol arsenicum, ”“collosol cocain, ” “collosol cuprum, ” “collosol ferrum, ” “collosolhydrargyrum, ” “collosol iodin, ” “collosol manganese, ” “collosol quinin”and “collosol sulphur” inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies, because their composition is uncertain conflict with rule 1 in thefew paper in which the therapeutic claims for these preparations wereexamined, the claims were found to be so improbable or exaggerated conflict with rules 6 and 10 as to have necessitated the rejection ofthese products w a puckner, secretarythe anglo-french drug co , ltd , london and new york, in november, 1918, requested the council to consider the products “collosolargentum, ” “collosol arsenicum, ” “collosol cocain, ” “collosol cuprum, ”“collosol ferrum, ” “collosol hydrargyrum, ” “collosol iodin, ” “collosolmanganese, ” “collosol quinin” and “collosol sulphur ” the term“collosol” appears to be a group designation for what are claimed tobe permanent colloidal solutions, marketed by the anglo-french drugco , ltd were this claim correct, “collosols” should contain theiractive constituents in the form of microscopic or ultramicroscopicsuspensions, protected against spontaneous precipitation by thepresence of proteins or essay similar “stabilizers ”according to the original patent specifications for collosols, themetals are precipitated or treated with “peptone, ” which acts as thesuspending or stabilizing agent the method of using the peptone makesit doubtful, in the first place, whether the major writing of the metalsis present in colloidal form, or merely in the form of peptonates, i e , as ordinary salts moreover, the later patents indicate that theproducts have been unsatisfactory.

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For the spleen being no waysaddicted to concoction, binding medicines do it harm, and not good 3 essaytimes the spleen is not only obstructed, but also hardened bymelancholy humours, and in such paper emolient medicines may be wellcalled splenicals, not such as are taken inwardly, for they operateupon the stomach and bowels, but such as are outwardly applied to theregion of essay describing yourself the spleen and although essaytimes medicines, are outwardly applied to hardness ofthe liver, yet they differ from splenicals, because they are binding, so are not splenicals chapter vii of medicines appropriated to the reins and bladder the office of the reins is, to make a separation between the blood andthe urine. To receive this urine thus separated from the blood, is thebladder ordained, which is of a sufficient bigness to contain it both these writings of the body officiating about the urine, they are bothusually afflicted by the vices of the urine 1 by stones 2 by inflammation 3 by thick humours medicines appropriated to the reins and bladder are usually callednephriticals, and are threefold. Essay cool, others cut gross humours, and a third sort breaks the stone in the use of all these, take notice, that the constitution of thereins and bladder is such, that they abhor all binding medicinesbecause they cause stoppage of urine take notice, that the reins and bladder being subject to inflammationsendure not very hot medicines because the bladder is further remote from the centre of the body thanthe kidnies are, therefore it requires stronger medicines than thekidnies do, lest the strength of the medicine be spent before it become to the writing afflicted chapter viii of medicines appropriated to the womb these, physicians call hystericals, and to avoid multiplicity ofwords, take them in this discourse under that notion take notice that such medicines as provoke the menses, or stop themwhen they flow immoderately, are properly hystericals, but shall bespoken to by and by in a chapter by themselves as for the nature of the womb, it seems to be much like the nature ofthe brain and stomach, for experience teacheth that it is delightedwith sweet and aromatical medicines, and flies from their contraries for example. A woman being troubled with the fits of the mother, whichis drawing of the womb upward, apply sweet things, as civet, or thelike, to the place of conception, it draws it down again. But applystinking things to the nose, as assafœtida, or the like, it expels itfrom it, and sends it down to its proper place chapter ix of medicines appropriated to the joints the joints are usually troubled with cephalic diseases, and then are tobe cured by cephalic medicines medicines appropriated to the joints, are called by the namearthritical medicines the joints, seeing they are very nervous, require medicines which areof a heating and drying nature, with a gentle binding, and withal, suchas by peculiar virtue are appropriated to them, and add strength tothem it is true, most cephalics do so, yet because the joints are moreremote from the centre, they require stronger medicines for removing pains in the joints this is the method of proceeding pain is either taken away or eased, for the true cure is to take awaythe cause of the pain, essaytimes the vehemency of the pain is so greatthat you must be forced to use anodines for so physicians call suchmedicines as ease pain before you can meddle with the cause, andthis is usually when the writing pained is inflamed, for those medicineswhich take away the cause of pain being very hot, if there be anyinflammation in the writing pained, you must abstain from them till theinflammation be taken away section iii of the propriety or operation of medicines chapter i of emolient medicines the various mixtures of heat, cold, dryness, and moisture in simples, must of necessity produce variety of faculties, and operations in them, which now we come to treat of, beginning first at emolients what is hard, and what is soft, most men know, but few are able toexpress phylosophers define that to be hard which yields not totouching, and soft to be the contrary an emolient, or softeningmedicine is one which reduceth a hard substance to its propertemperature but to leave phylosophy, and keep to physic. Physicians describehardness to be two-fold 1 a distention or stretching of a writing by too much fulness 2 thick humours which are destitute of heat, growing hard in that writingof the body into which they flow so thesis properties then ought emolient medicines to have, viz tomoisten what is dry, to discuss what is stretched, to warm what iscongealed by cold. Yet properly, that only is said to mollify whichreduceth a hard substance to its proper temperature dryness and thickness of humours being the cause of hardness, emolientmedicines must of necessity be hot and moist. And although you mayperadventure find essay of them dry in the second or third degrees, yetmust this dryness be tempered and qualified with heat and moisture, forreason will tell you that dry medicines make hard writings harder mollifying medicines are known, 1 by their taste, 2 by their feeling 1 in taste, they are near unto sweat, but fat and oily. They areneither sharp, nor austere, nor sour, nor salt, neither do theymanifest either binding, or vehement heat, or cold to be in them 2 in feeling you can perceive no roughness, neither do they stick toyour fingers like birdlime, for they ought to penetrate the writings tobe mollified, and therefore thesis times if occasion be, are cuttingmedicines mixed with them chapter ii of hardening medicines galen in lib 5 de simple, med facult cap 10 determineshardening medicines to be cold and moist, and he brings essay argumentsto prove it, against which other physicians contest i shall not here stand to quote the dispute, only take notice, thatif softening medicines be hot and moist as we shewed even now thenhardening medicines must needs be cold and dry, because they arecontrary to them the universal course of nature will prove it, for dryness and moistureare passive qualities, neither can extremeties consist in moisture asyou may know, if you do but consider that dryness is not attributed tothe air, nor water, but to the fire, and earth 2 the thing to be congealed must needs be moist, therefore themedicine congealing must of necessity be dry, for if cold be joinedwith dryness, it contracts the pores, that so the humours cannot bescattered yet you must observe a difference between medicines drying, makingthick, hardening, and congealing, of which differences, a few wordswill not do amiss 1 such medicines are said to dry, which draw out, or drink up themoisture, as a spunge drinks up water 2 such medicines are said to make thick, as do not consume themoisture, but add dryness to it, as you make syrups into a thickelectuary by adding powders to them 3 such as congeal, neither draw out the moisture, nor make it thickby adding dryness to it, but contract it by vehement cold, as water isfrozen into ice 4 hardness differs from all these, for the writings of the body swell, and are filled with flegmatic humours, or melancholy blood, which atlast grows hard that you may clearly understand this, observe but these two things 1 what it is which worketh 2 what it worketh upon that which worketh is outwardly cold that which is wrought upon, is acertain thickness and dryness, of humours, for if the humour were fluidas water is, it might properly be said to be congealed by cold, but notso properly hardened thus you see cold and dryness to be the cause ofhardening this hardening being so far from being useful, that it isobnoxious to the body of man i pass it without more words i supposewhen galen wrote of hardening medicines, he intended such as makethick, and therefore amongst them he reckons up fleawort, purslain, houseleek, and the like, which assuage the heat of the humours inswellings, and stops subtil and sharp defluxions upon the lungs.