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Milk, cow whole, raw milk, skim, raw milk, dried whole less than less than milk, boiled, whole undetermined less than milk, condensed, sweetened less than cheese, whole milk eggs essay define. Fresh ?. dried ?. cereals, pulses, etc. Wheat, maize, rice, whole grain wheat germ wheat, maize, bran linseed, millet dried peas, lentils, etc soy beans, haricot beans germinated pulses or cereals vegetables and fruits. Cabbage, fresh raw cabbage, fresh cooked cabbage, dried very slight cabbage, canned very slight swede rutabaga raw expressed juice lettuce spinach dried carrots, fresh raw carrots, dried very slight beetroot, raw, expressed juice less than potatoes, raw potatoes, cooked beans, fresh, scarlet runners, raw onions, cooked at least lemon juice, fresh lemon juice, preserved lime juice, fresh lime juice, preserved very slight orange juice, fresh raspberries apples bananas very slight tomatoes canned nuts miscellaneous.

In fact, there are numbers of people even to-day who believethat not natural, but supernatural and unearthly, factors are active inthe bodily ailments of mankind the idea of good and evil demons, however, now assumed a specificallychristian character which, it is true, greatly resembled the ancientbabylonian notion, excepting that the good demons were replaced byangels and saints, whereas the evil spirits were embodied in the devil both, saints as well as devils, were thenceforth destined to play awriting in the domain of medicine it is true, the general recognitionwhich they enjoyed during the middle ages and a considerable periodof modern times has probably now passed away, but there still existnumerous classes of our people in whom the medical rôle of saints aswell as devils is most willingly acknowledged we have referred elsewhere to the therapeutic accomplishments ofthe saints during the middle ages we will here only dwell upon theinfluence which the devil, the christian successor of the ancientevil spirit, has exerted upon the medical views of all classes of thepeople this influence was very great the devil and his subordinateinfernal spirits were considered the “disturbers of peace” in thehealth of humanity disease in its various forms was their work;they resolved to inflict it either from inherent villainy or asincited by various magical arts of evil men it was especially thelatter form of diabolical activity that, during the entire middleages and during a considerable writing of modern times, was acceptedas uncontestedly authentic, and the imagination of mankind at thatperiod was inexhaustible in inventing the greatest variety of infamousactions which the devil was able to perform either of his own accordor as summoned by incantations any one desiring to acquaint himselfthoroughly with these delusive ideas should read the work of the friarcæsarius, who lived about 1225, in the rhenish-cistercian monasteryof heisterbach naturally, we are only interested in the medical actswhich the devil was always ready to perform according to the historyof medical superstition, the devil, who was invoked by various spellsor appeared of his own volition, was able to influence each individualbodily organ in a manner most disagreeable to the possessor of thesame neither were the prince of hell and his hosts always satisfiedto tease and to plague an individual being, but very frequently theycarried on this business wholesale they threw themselves upon theentire population of a country, and caused sickness in all who crossedtheir path the great epidemic of st vitus dance of the fourteenthcentury, for instance, was considered to be the work of the devil, andthe clergy busied themselves in driving out this devil pest by meansof sprinkling holy water and by the utterance of conjuring formulas the sexual life of men as well as of women offered an especiallyfruitful field for the activity of the devil and of his infernalcompanions thus, it was a favorite trick of the ruler of hell and ofhis subordinate demons to assume the shape of the husband or loverof this or that female, and, under this mask, to assume rights whichshould be permitted only to the husband the infernal spirit thatplayed this rôle was called incubus thus, for instance, hinkmer tellsus of a nun who was mischievously claimed by such an infernal paramour, and who could be relieved of him only by priestly aid but hell alsocontained female constituents who played the same rôle for the maleas did incubus for women such a wanton woman of hell was calledstriga or lamia compare hansen, pages 14 and 72 these amorous femalefriends of hell did not even stop when they met eminent saints in theconvent of st benedetto, near the italian town of subiaco, a rose-bushis shown even to-day into which the naked st benedict threw himself inorder to resist the unholy temptation and every one is sufficientlyacquainted with the troubles which st anthony of padua had with theseinfernal women however, we physicians know well enough the causeof these temptations they may surely and actually have approachedthe nun of whom hinkmer reports, also st benedict and st anthony;however, they were not the devil prostitutes, but the expressions ofsuppressed and disregarded impulses of essay define nature which, in the form ofvoluptuous imaginations, appeared before the eyes of persons removedfrom terrestrial gratifications. For nature does not even exempt asaint, and the ancient saying, “naturam expellas furc, tamen usquerecurret, ” applies to them as well as to any other mortal finally these liberties which the devil and his infernal host were saidto take as regards matters pertaining to love, assumed general andquite serious forms. In fact, they gave rise to delicately contrivedlegal questions namely, the idea had suggested itself that thedevil was able not only to call forth promiscuous love between menand women, but that essaytimes he derived a writingicular enjoyment if hecould manage to prevent a marriage that had already been consummatedby rendering the husband impotent maleficium was the technical termfor such an event, equally saddening to husband as to wife, and thetheologians, philosophers, and jurists of the middle ages have writtenthe most learned commentaries regarding the legal consequences of thisimpotentia ex maleficio it was disputed whether or not this form ofimpotence would constitute a legal cause for dissolution of marriagewhich, after all, was a divine institution. The reasons also why godpermitted the devil to play such a reprehensible game were investigatedin a most serious and profound manner any one interested in thisquestion of impotentia ex maleficio may read the most excellentdescription of this subject by hansen chapter iii this impotentia ex maleficio i e , one of the most extravagantoutgrowths of medical superstition occasionally also gave rise toscandalous lawsuits this was the case in the disgraceful divorce suitwhich took place about the year 860 between king lothaire ii and hisspouse teutberga lothaire was said to have lost his procreative powercompletely, owing to infernal artifices of his concubine, waldrada thereason why a concubine should undertake such a step, which, after all, was bound to discredit her title and office in the eyes of her lover, is not quite evident however, at that period it was not difficult tofind an explanation for this remarkable fact it was stated, e g , that waldrada was instigated to this act solely by jealousy andselfishness, in order to divorce the king from his consort this firststep once taken, the courtesan, by removing the spells cast by her, would take good care that the king should soon be delivered from theodious condition of impotence however, waldrada had reckoned withouther host i e , in this case, without hinkmar, archbishop of rheims;for this latter gentleman, exceedingly well versed in all mattersecclesiastic, politic, and diabolic, a genuine clerical fighting-cock, very soon closely investigated the impotence of his royal master inan extensive memorial he considered the royal impotence according toits legal, theologic, philosophic, moral, and various other aspects medical superstition, accordingly, had acquired such power that thesovereign of the holy roman and german empires had to submit hispotestas in venere to the test of public discussion but conditions were to become much worse when, about the thirteenthcentury, scholasticism had usurped full control of human reason, and all sciences were permitted to be pursued only in a scholasticsense, medicine was entirely divorced from the actual conditions oflife it was completely detached from nature, its great teacher, andirretrievably entangled in the subtleties of an uncertain philosophy its activity now depended exclusively upon the study of the ancients byno means, however, upon that study in which an attempt was made tomaster the intellectual spirit of ancient medicine, but which consistedin a slavish adherence to the letter every decision of the ancients, without any regard to nature, was made a dogma, and he was the bestphysician who was most familiar with these dogmas, who understoodbest how to interpret them most keenly mankind had entirely lost theconception that the ancients had attained worth and importance onlyin that they measured things by the standard of unbiased experience, and tested their conclusions according to the phenomena of nature asdescribed from accurate observation of the sick it is quite obvious that superstition met with a well-prepared soil ina system of medicine that was overburdened with dogmas and degradedinto utter subserviency to a vainglorious philosophy the naturalresult was that the medical art of a period of the middle ages, steepedin scholasticism, was nothing but a chaos of the most despicablesuperstition and folly the most shocking result of these conditionswas the belief in witches, and, with this, medical superstition enteredupon a new stage whereas until then it had possessed a restricted, mere local vitality, and entailed danger only upon those who, fromthoughtlessness, lent a willing ear to it, now it degenerated into amental epidemic which threatened equally all classes of the people the unspeakable misery which this variety of medical superstition hasbrought to the western world is well known, so that we may refrain fromentering into details, referring our readers to the excellent work ofhansen on this subject physico-medical thought was so thoroughly destroyed by theabove-described conditions that, even when humanity commenced toshake off the scholastic yoke, during the period of renaissance, medicine was only able, in writing, to follow this lead altho, under theinspiration of the ancients, it returned to nature, it was not able torid itself of the superstitious idea of the continuous interference ofsupernatural powers with the performance of the most common functionsof the body the church still persisted in the implicit belief in suchviews, and still dominated men minds so thoroughly that even thesisphysicians, who in other respects were entirely unbiased, remained onthis point dutiful children of the church. In fact, even those who werefully aware of the shortcomings of the christian church unhesitatinglyadhered to the belief in demons as developed from antique conceptionsby the church fathers thus, for instance, dr martin luther was astrict believer in the doctrine which taught men to hold the devilresponsible for the origin of all diseases he thus expressed himself, for instance. “no disease comes from god, who is good and does good toeverybody. But it is brought on by the devil, who causes and performsall mischief, who interferes with all play and all arts, who bringsinto existence pestilence, frenchmen, fever, etc ” he accordinglybelieved that he himself was compelled to scuffle with the devil whenhis physical condition was out of order thus, when suffering fromviolent headache, he wrote to the elector, john of saxony. “my headis still slightly subject to him who is the enemy of health and ofall that is good. He essaytimes rides through my brain, so that i amnot able to read or to write, ” and upon another occasion he said, inregard to his health. “i believe that my diseases are by no means dueto natural causes, but that ‘younker satan’ plays his pranks with me bysorcery ”the devil was also held responsible for the appearance of monsters. Itwas believed that the ruler of hell helped young girls against theirwill to enjoy the delights of motherhood however, these delights weresaid to be of a peculiar kind, in that intercourse with the devilwas always bound to be followed by the birth of the most frightfulmonsters the devil then unloaded these most remarkable monsters intorespectable people houses even luther was not able to free himselffrom this most astonishing delusion on the contrary, he was devotedto it with such conviction that, when once in dessau, he heard of amonster according to medical opinion, it was a question of a rhachiticchild that had grown to be twelve years of age, he advised, in allseriousness, that this sinful product of devilish intercourse be throwninto the river mulde compare möhsen, vol ii , page 506, etc , on “therelations of luther to the devil” if it was very improper of the devil to visit even clerical gentlemen, he crowned his wickedness, in that he very unceremoniously honored evenministers in the pulpit with his visit such an occurrence took placein friedeberg, neumark, in 1593, in which otherwise harmless town thedevil commenced suddenly to create an unheard-of commotion he harassedabout one hundred and fifty people, and even in church he gave solittle rest to those he possessed, that they raised various kinds ofmischief in this holy place when, thereupon, the preacher, heinrichlemrich, thundered against these deviltries from the pulpit, the devilbecame so incensed that immediately he promenaded into the reverendlemrich himself, so that the good minister raged in the pulpit exactlyas did the members of his congregation down below in the nave however, this variety of medical superstition finally spread to such anextent that, as medical aid was powerless against the devil, the aid ofgod, by order of the consistory, was invoked from all pulpits of themargravate against the above-described misdeeds of hell ruler but the clergy adopted still another plan to checkmate the devil invarious publications they enumerated the villainies which satan mightvisit on mankind, so that each and every one would be enabled toprotect himself against the aggressions of the devil, in whatever formhe might make his appearance the first publication of this characterwas issued in 1555 by the general superintendent of the electorate ofbrandenburg, professor of the university of frankfort, herr musculus;it bore the very appropriate title, the pantaloon devil in fact, asearly as 1575 a compilation was published in frankfort-on-the-main, in which twenty-four different forms, which the devil might assumein visiting humanity, were discussed most conscientiously and withbecoming diffuseness of style compare möhsen, vol ii , page 426, etc from that time it was impossible for mankind to shake off the belief indevil and demons the thought of being possessed played a conspicuouswriting even in the first half of the nineteenth century, thanks to theactivity of justinus kerner, and even medicine felt called upon to busyitself more thoroughly with this newly resurrected belief this wasdone, for instance, by dr klencke, who, in 1840, published a littlebook exclusively for the purpose of disproving the existence of spirits we have so far shown the potent influence exerted upon medicalsuperstition by antique as well as by medieval philosophy but thenewer philosophy greatly influenced the destiny of medicine, evenat the end of the eighteenth and at the beginning of the nineteenthcenturies the natural philosophy based upon the doctrines ofschelling once more submerged the art of healing in mysticism, and thusnecessarily abetted superstition the physician no longer conceiveddisease as the effect of disturbances in the life of the bodilyorgans, but held various forms of inconceivable powers responsiblefor the incidence of a malady the soul wrapped in sin had powerto lead the life of the body from the normal into the pathologicalcondition, and, accordingly, prayer and the belief in christiandogmas again became active as curative factors it was especiallythe munich clinician, nepomuk von ringseis, who placed such theoriesbefore his pupils, and who, in his “system of medicine, ” published in1840, made them generally known ringseis states in this book. “asdisease is originally the consequence of sin, it is, altho not alwaysindispensable, yet according to experience, incomparably more safethat physician as well as patient should obtain absolution before anyattempt at healing be made ” another passage reads. “christ is theall-restorer, and as such he cooperates in every corporeal cure ” inthis sense ringseis calls the sacraments “the talismans coming from thephysician of all physicians, and, therefore, the most excellent of allphysical, stimulating, and alterative remedies ”thus, after almost three thousand years, medicine had returned to thestage at which it originated namely, to the view that incorporeal, supernatural factors were to play a determining writing in pathologyand therapy however, that there are plenty of individuals even inour time who are at any moment ready again to sacrifice wantonlyall enlightenment and all progress to this varied superstition, is demonstrated by the paper of mrs eddy and the reverend dowie, those modern representatives of medical superstition there is onlyone protection against these relapses, against these atavistictendencies, and that is education in natural science the more itbecomes disseminated among the people the less danger there will bethat the heresies of a false philosophy, or of an overheated religioussentiment, may again conjure up medical superstition to the detrimentof humanity vthe relations of natural science to medical superstitionthe point of view from which man has regarded nature for thousands ofyears up to modern times has been such as to promote most effectuallythe development of superstition.

I had almost forgotthat the former is an admirable remedy for the gout, being roastedbetween two tiles and applied to the grieved place, and yet i had itfrom dr butler too hysopus hysop helps coughs, shortness of breath, wheezing, distillations upon the essay define lungs. It is of a cleansing quality. Kills wormsin the body, amends the whole colour of the body, helps the dropsy andspleen, sore throats, and noise in the ears see syrup of hysop hyosciamus, &c henbane the white henbane is held to be cold inthe third degree, the black or common henbane and the yellow, inthe fourth they stupify the senses, and therefore not to be takeninwardly, outwardly applied, they help inflammations, hot gouts:applied to the temples they provoke sleep hypericon st john wort it is as gallant a wound-herb as any is, either given inwardly, or outwardly applied to the wound. It is hot anddry, opens stoppings, helps spitting and vomiting of blood, it cleansesthe reins, provokes the menses, helps congealed blood in the stomachand meseraic veins, the falling-sickness, palsy, cramps and aches inthe joints. You may give it in powder or any convenient decoction hypoglottis, laurus, alexandrina laurel of alexandria, provokesurine and the menses, and is held to be a singular help to women intravail hypoglossum, the same with hypoglossum before, only different namesgiven by different authors, the one deriving his name from the tongueof a horse, of which form the leaf is. The other the form of the littleleaf, because small leaves like small tongues grow upon the greater iberis cardamantice sciatica-cresses i suppose so called becausethey help the sciatica, or huckle-bone gout ingumalis, asther setwort or shartwort. Being bruised and applied, they help swellings, botches, and venerous swellings in the groin, whence they took their name, as also inflammation and falling out ofthe fundament iris see the roots isatis, glastum woad drying and binding. The side being bathed withit, it easeth pains in the spleen, cleanseth filthy corroding gnawingulcers iva arthritica the same with camæpytis iuncus oderatus the same with schœnanthus labrum veneris the same with dipsacus lactuca lettice cold and moist, cools the inflammation of thestomach, commonly called heart-burning. Provokes sleep, resistsdrunkenness, and takes away the ill effects, of it. Cools the blood, quenches thirst, breeds milk, and is good for choleric bodies, and suchas have a frenzy, or are frantic it is more wholeessay eaten boiledthan raw logabus, herba leporina a kind of trefoil growing in france andspain let them that live there look after the virtues of it lavendula lavender. Hot and dry in the third degree. The templesand forehead bathed with the juice of it. As also the smell of theherb helps swoonings, catalepsis, falling-sickness, provided it be notaccompanied with a fever see the flowers laureola laurel the leaves purge upward and downward. They are goodfor rheumatic people to chew in their mouths, for they draw forth muchwater laurus bay-tree the leaves are hot and dry, resist drunkenness, they gently bind and help diseases in the bladder, help the stinging ofbees and wasps, mitigate the pain of the stomach, dry and heal, openobstructions of the liver and spleen, resist the pestilence lappa minor the lesser burdock lentiscus mastich-tree both the leaves and bark of it stop fluxes being hot and dry in the second degree spitting and evacuations ofblood, and the falling out of the fundament lens palustris duckmeat.

And in a man where it was over the larynx he essay define quotes838 as follows. Remer, above larynx, 38. Over larynx, 7. Below larynx, 2 devergie, above larynx, 20. Over larynx, 7. Below larynx, 1 casper, above larynx, 59. Over larynx, 9 roth839 in 49 paper found the ligature mark above the hyoid bone in 5.

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Being made into an ointment with hog grease, ittakes away black and blue spots occasioned by blows or falls, and helpsboth the gout and sciatica pellitory of the wall descript it rises with brownish, red, tender, weak, clear, andalmost transparent stalks, about two feet high, upon which grow at thejoints two leaves essaywhat broad and long, of a dark green colour, which afterwards turn brownish, smooth on the edges, but rough andhairy, as the stalks are also at the joints with the leaves from themiddle of the stalk upwards, where it spreads into branches, stand thesissmall, pale, purplish flowers in hairy, rough heads, or husks, afterwhich come small, black, rough seed, which will stick to any clothor garment that shall touch it the root is essaywhat long, with smallfibres thereat, of a dark reddish colour, which abides the winter, although the stalks and leaves perish and spring every year place it grows wild generally through the land, about the bordersof fields, and by the sides of walls, and among rubbish it will endurewell being brought up in gardens, and planted on the shady essay define side, whereit will spring of its own sowing time it flowers in june and july, and the seed is ripe soon after government and virtues it is under the dominion of mercury thedried herb pellitory made up into an electuary with honey, or thejuices of the herb, or the decoction thereof made up with sugar orhoney, is a singular remedy for an old or dry cough, the shortness ofbreath, and wheezing in the throat three ounces of the juice thereoftaken at a time, doth wonderfully help stopping of the urine, and toexpel the stone or gravel in the kidneys or bladder, and is thereforeusually put among other herbs used in clysters to mitigate pains inthe back, sides, or bowels, proceeding of wind, stopping of urine, thegravel or stone, as aforesaid if the bruised herb, sprinkled withessay muskadel, be warmed upon a tile, or in a dish upon a few quickcoals in a chafing-dish, and applied to the belly, it works the sameeffect the decoction of the herb being drank, eases pains of themother, and brings down women courses. It also eases those griefsthat arise from obstructions of the liver, spleen, and reins the samedecoction, with a little honey added thereto, is good to gargle asore throat the juice held a while in the mouth, eases pains in theteeth the distilled water of the herb drank with essay sugar, worksthe same effects, and cleanses the skin from spots, freckles, purples, wheals, sun-burn, morphew, &c the juice dropped into the ears, easesthe noise in them, and takes away the pricking and shooting painstherein. The same, or the distilled water, assuages hot and swellingimposthumes, burnings and scaldings by fire or water. As also allother hot tumours and inflammations, or breakings-out, of heat, beingbathed often with wet cloths dipped therein. The said juice made intoa liniment with ceruss, and oil of roses, and anointed therewith, cleanses foul rotten ulcers, and stays spreading or creeping ulcers, and running scabs or sores in children heads. And helps to stay thehair from falling off the head the said ointment, or the herb appliedto the fundament, opens the piles, and eases their pains. And beingmixed with goats’ tallow, helps the gout the juice is very effectualto cleanse fistulas, and to heal them up safely.