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“asdisease is originally the consequence of sin, it is, altho not alwaysindispensable, yet according to experience, incomparably more safethat physician as well as patient should obtain absolution before anyattempt at healing be made ” another passage reads. “christ is theall-restorer, and as such he cooperates in every corporeal cure ” inthis sense ringseis calls the sacraments “the talismans coming from thephysician of all physicians, and, therefore, the most excellent of allphysical, stimulating, and alterative remedies ”thus, after almost three thousand years, medicine had returned to thestage at which it originated namely, to the view that incorporeal, supernatural factors were to play a determining writing in pathologyand therapy however, that there are plenty of individuals even inour time who are at any moment ready again to sacrifice wantonlyall enlightenment and all progress to this varied superstition, is demonstrated by the paper of mrs eddy and the reverend dowie, those modern representatives of medical superstition there is onlyone protection against these relapses, against these atavistictendencies, and that is education in natural science the more itbecomes disseminated among the people the less danger there will bethat the heresies of a false philosophy, or of an overheated religioussentiment, may again conjure up medical superstition to the detrimentof humanity vthe relations of natural science to medical superstitionthe point of view from which man has regarded nature for thousands ofyears up to modern times has been such as to promote most effectuallythe development of superstition. For the idea that a satisfactoryinsight into the character of natural phenomena can be obtained onlyby means of adequate experiments, and of observation perfected by theemployment of the inductive reasoning and ingenious instruments, iscomparatively recent natural science applying such means is scarcelytwo hundred years old fit instruments for the observation of natureexisted only to a limited extent up to the eighteenth century, and, besides, their complete efficiency left much to be desired theattempts to wrest from nature her secrets by means of experiment werebut feeble and unsuccessful altho the ancients, as is shown by thewritings of hippocrates, galen, and others, had essay knowledge ofvivisection, they had practised it to a most limited extent duringthe middle ages and the period of the renaissance comparatively fewphysical experiments were made whatever researches in natural sciencewere then undertaken were intended much less for the investigation ofnature than for fantastic and superstitious purposes as, for instance, the investigations of alchemy and astrology it is quite obvious that, under such circumstances, a number ofsuperficial, imperfect, and distorted observations crept into thetheoretic system of natural science however, this was not all. The diagnostico-theoretical method, bymeans of which antiquity, the middle ages, and even the greatest writingof more modern times, had seen the natural sciences treated, wasradically wrong man did not feel his way carefully from experimentto experiment, from observation to observation, until the generalprinciple was found which inductively comprised a number of phenomenaunder one uniform principle of law, but the principle which was atthe bottom of phenomena was fixed upon a speculative basis, and inaccordance with this principle the phenomena were interpreted as wasdone, for instance, in medicine in the case of humoral pathology andas this speculatively constructed principle was obtained exclusively bya method dangerous to the cognition of natural sciences, by conclusionfrom analogy, naturally the most fantastic and adventurous conceptionssoon became accepted in the realm of natural philosophy but naturalphilosophy once lost in such a labyrinth, an aberration of theperceptive powers can not fail to follow at least, in certain domainsof nature as a matter of fact, this fallacious perception promptlymade its appearance, and has proved the stumbling-block of sciencefrom its earliest days up to the present times occultism, mysticism, or whatever the names may be of the various forms of superstition, have sprung from these erroneous conceptions of natural science itmay even be contended that no variety of superstition exists which isnot essayhow connected with a distorted observation or explanation ofnature however interesting these considerations may be, we can nothere pursue them any further such investigations belong to the history of superstition in general, and any one who desires more detailed information is referred to theenormous literature of the subject we can here consider only thoserelations which prevail, or have prevailed, between superstition andnatural science, and principally the influence which was thus exertedupon the art of healing by astronomy astronomy and medicine became most intimately connected during theearliest periods of human civilization the literature of cuneiforminscriptions shows us that the attempt to bring the stars intoconnection with human destinies is primeval, and reaches back to theancient babylonian age, even to the sumero-accadic period sudhoff, med woche 1901, no 41 how primeval peoples came to connecttheir destinies with the heavenly bodies and their orbits is explainedso lucidly by troels-lund page 28, etc that we shall cite hisdescriptions, even if they are rather long for quotation he says. “thechaldean history of creation is inscribed upon seven clay tablets onthe fifth tablet we read. ‘the seventh day he instituted as a holy day, and ordained that man should rest from all labor ’ why just seven?. Because the holy number seven of the planets imperceptibly shonethrough the work of creation, and was imperceptibly impressed upon theentire order of thought we are here at the decisive epoch at whichthe planets for the first time gave an impetus to human conception, the effects of which were to persist for thousands of years this wasrepeated a second time when copernicus, in dealing especially with theorbit of the planets, founded the still-prevailing conception of theuniverse “for the theory of creation could be reconciled with the phenomenon ofsun and moon moving in their regular courses they were in this caseno longer, as had been assumed until then, individual living beingsand divinities, but lights kindled by a mighty god, and intended tomove day and night, in an established order, under the dome of heaven but the other five planets!. it was unnecessary to be a chaldean on thebabylonian tower in order to feel amazement at these every one whohad ever followed with his eye their courses for a few nights during acaravan journey, every one who, lying awake, had occasionally attemptedto read the time from the only clock of the night the star-coveredcanopy of heaven was bound to have noticed their peculiarities asto light and course they did not shine uniformly, but essaytimesintensely, at other times faintly, and entirely different was theirradiance from that of other stars reddish, greenish, bluish and theircourse was at one time rapid, at other times slow.

Laboratory guide in bacteriology, p 86 the results given in table 4 are the average count from a number ofdilutions and are reported as the total number washed out by the50 c c of salt solution table 4 -- showing that formamint fails to reduce the number ofstreptococci in the throat | | | no found | no found | time | amount of | in throat | in throat conditions | since | formamint | before | after of test | preceding | used | use of | use of | test | | formamint | formamint -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - normal | | 0 | 1, 200, 000 | | | | | one tablet was| | | | taken and | | | | throat gargled| | | | one hour later| 4 days | 1 tablet | |14, 750, 000 | | | | normal | 3 days | 0 | 9, 950, 000 | | | | | one tablet was| | | | taken and | | | | throat gargled| | | | ten minutes | | | | later | 1 hour | 1 tablet | | 8, 000, 000 discussionthe contention that formamint contains formaldehyd was confirmed byanalysis the manufacturers also maintain that formamint is a new, definitechemical compound, consisting of five molecules of formaldehyd andone molecule of lactose, and that when dissolved in the saliva theformaldehyd is liberated in essay new and peculiar form, which theycall nascent formaldehyd this new kind of formaldehyd is, accordingto the advertising literature, especially powerful in its germicidalproperties and at the same time has absolutely no irritating or harmfuleffects not a chemical compoundthoms, 25 retained as an expert by the german government, decided, after a series of chemical investigations, that formamint was nota definite chemical compound, but that it was probably a solidsolution of formaldehyd in lactose he proved that when the processof manufacture was carried out in exactly the way called for by theformamint patents, compounds containing a greater or less per cent offormaldehyd could be made while the other properties remained similarto those of formamint the composition of the final product dependedon the proportion of the components used in the process thereforeformamint did not form a safe means of uniform dosage 25 thoms. Arb a d pharm inst d universität, berlin 11:210, 1914 as a result of thoms’ work the german courts held that formamint wasnot a new chemical compound consequently the formamint patent number189036 was annulled in berlin, nov 29, 1913 again the contention that formaldehyd in the nascent or activecondition is less poisonous and irritating than in its ordinary form iscontrary to what would be expected from the behavior of such compounds if it were liberated, as claimed, in the “nascent” condition, it wouldbe, for that very reason, not only more active but also more harmful as a matter of fact, formamint did have an irritant effect on theworker who carried out these investigations when one tablet wastaken each hour for twelve consecutive hours, marked irritation ofthe intestinal tract resulted there was almost sufficient nausea tocause vomiting and uneasiness in the alimentary canal following theexperiment when the twenty-four tablets were taken the results weresimilar but more pronounced this is decidedly in contradiction to theassertions of the manufacturers otto seifert, 26 moreover, cites the following. “by effects. Only a few patients complain of an unpleasant sharp taste, burning of the tongue seifert, sklarek among the general symptoms observed are urticaria-like exanthems glaser, roters, which are accompanied by nausea, vomiting, headache, insomnia and vertigo, burning and irritability especially in the larynx meissner. Phenomena of poisoning geissler. Gastric disturbances engelmann.

W b outten, m d. Hon wm a poste. Edward s wood, m d. e v stoddard, m d. Hon goodwin brown. J c cameron, m d. E d fisher, m d. H p loomis, m d. Roswell park, m d. Irving c rosse, m d. f p vandenbergh, m d. J h woodward, m d. george woolsey, m d volume one new york william wood & company 1894 copyright, 1894, by william wood & company press of the publishers’ printing company 132-136 w fourteenth st new york contents pageintroduction, v medical jurisprudence, 1 the legal relations of physicians and surgeons t c becker, 3 the law of evidence concerning confidential communications chas a boston, 89 synopsis of the laws governing the practice of medicine w a poste and chas a boston, 135 forensic medicine thanatological, 293 the legal status of the dead body t c becker, 295 the powers and duties of coroners a becker, 329 medico-legal autopsies h p loomis, 349 personal identity j c rosse, 383 determination of the time of death h p loomis, 437 medico-legal consideration of wounds g woolsey, 457 medico-legal consideration of gunshot wounds roswell park, 591 death by heat and cold e v stoddard, 627 medico-legal relations of electricity w n bullard, 661 medico-legal consideration of death by mechanical suffocation d s lamb, 705 death from submersion or drowning j c rosse, 793 death from starvation e v stoddard, 813introduction the terms forensic medicine, legal medicine, and medical jurisprudencehave heretofore been used interchangeably to apply to those branchesof state medicine and of jurisprudence which have to deal with theapplications of medical knowledge to the elucidation of questions offact in courts of law, and with the legal regulation of the practice ofmedicine medico-legal science therefore includes all subjects concerning whichmembers of the legal and medical professions may seek information ofone another, each acting in his professional capacity it consistsof two distinct branches. That treating of medical law, to whichthe designation of medical jurisprudence properly applies. And thatrelating to the application of medical, surgical, or obstetricalknowledge to the purposes of legal trials, forensic medicine 1the term state medicine, which is essaytimes erroneously used assynonymous with forensic medicine, properly applies to a more extendedfield of medical inquiry. I e , to all applications of medicalknowledge to the public welfare state medicine, therefore, whileexcluding medical jurisprudence, includes, besides forensic medicine, public hygiene, medical ethics, medical education, and military andnaval medicine toxicology, the science of poisons, may be divided into medicaltoxicology, whose object is the prevention or cure of all forms ofpoisoning, and forensic toxicology, whose aim is the detection ofcriminal poisoning in its last-named relation toxicology differs fromforensic medicine in one important writingicular in all paper other thanthose of poisoning in which questions involving medical knowledgearise, the answers are entirely within the functions of the physician, the surgeon, or the obstetrician, but the problems of forensictoxicology require for their solution the further aid of the chemistand the pharmacologist forensic medicine is an applied science, writingly legal, writingly medical, calling for information and investigation in widely divergent lines, and becoming more minutely ramified with the progressive advances inmedical knowledge and in those sciences of which medicine is itselfan application its development has been dependent writingly upon theslow though progressive tendency of medicine from the condition of anempirical art toward that of an exact science, and writingly upon themore rapid and more advanced development of criminal jurisprudence medical jurisprudence had reached a high development during the earlyhistory of the roman empire, and at a period long anterior to the firstrecognition of forensic medicine although the literature of modern medico-legal science is verylargely written from the medical point of view and by physicians, itsearlier history is to be found in fragmentary form, writingly in medicalliterature, but principally in the writings of historians, in theearlier criminal codes, and in the early records of legal proceedings in the earliest historical periods the functions now exercised bythe priest, the lawyer, and the physician were performed by thesame person, who, presumably, made use of what medical knowledge hepossessed in the exercise of his legal functions among the egyptiansat a very early period it is certain that medical questions of factwere considered in legal proceedings, and that the practice of medicinewas subject to legal regulation according to diodorus, 2 “when apregnant woman was condemned to death, the sentence was not executeduntil after she was delivered ” the same author tells us3 that “thephysicians regulated the treatment of the sick according to writtenprecepts, collected and transmitted by the most celebrated of theirpredecessors if, in following exactly these precepts which arecontained in the sacred books, they did not succeed in curing the sick, they could not be reproached, nor could they be prosecuted at law.

Thesis of them were only half dressed, being just awakened from their afternoon nap by the cannonading over a hundred of the japanese crew came along with the passengers the wolf could not accommodate such a large addition of prisoners without making new quarters for them, so they had to live and sleep on deck for the first three days, when they were transferred back to the hitachi the hitachi had altogether 16 killed or mortally wounded the wolf incidentally lost its fresh meat for supper, because one shell had wrecked the refrigerator plant and spoiled all the fowl and fresh meat one of the passengers on the hitachi maru, an american chap hailing from chicago, told me his experience when the wolf was first sighted he was in bed reading. Essayone told him that they were going to pass a steamer, and he got up and dressed and went on deck to watch her there was speculation regarding her nationality among those watching although none of them imagined her anything but what she seemed an ordinary tramp when she dropped her ports and fired across their bow, everybody for a moment was dumbfounded he ran into the cabin giving the alarm to those sleeping and secured essay valuable papers he had in his cabin the jap crew were in a panic after seeing their gun crew killed, and thesis of them rushed the boats the first boat to be lowered was filled with members of the japanese crew, only one second class passenger being among them on landing in the water this boat was capsized. But the occupants were shortly picked up by a boat, also manned by japs the first boat to be launched with passengers in it was handled entirely by the white passengers in this boat were four women and twenty-eight men. On being lowered the davit fall on one end fouled. And it looked very much as if everybody were going to slide out, as the boat was nearly perpendicular fortunately for all concerned, the fouled davit fall broke, and the boat dropped into the water a lot of water was shipped but the boat floated right side up the men immediately pulled away from the vicinity of the vessel it was the firm belief of the occupants of this boat that they were to be shelled later on by the raider one of the lady passengers during the excitement lost a lot of jewels essay days later a german sailor clearing out one of the life-boats found these jewels he came down the deck to where there were several of the passengers standing and asked.

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It helps the cramp, or convulsions of thesinews the head and temples anointed essay correction therewith, helps the catarrh orthin rheum distilled from thence. And used upon the breast or stomach, helps to extenuate the cold tough phlegm. It helps also the pains andnoise in the ears, and the stench of the nostrils the root itself, either green or in powder, helps to cleanse, heal, and incarnatewounds, and to cover the naked bones with flesh again, that ulcers havemade bare. And is also very good to cleanse and heal up fistulas andcankers that are hard to be cured fluellin, or lluellin descript it shoots forth thesis long branches writingly lying upon theground, and writingly standing upright, set with almost red leaves, yeta little pointed, and essaytimes more long than round, without orderthereon, essaywhat hairy, and of an evil greenish white colour. At thejoints all along the stalks, and with the leaves come forth smallflowers, one at a place, upon a very small short foot-stalk, gapingessaywhat like snap-dragons, or rather like toad-flax, with the upperjaw of a yellow colour, and the lower of a purplish, with a small heelor spur behind.