History

Essay Conclusions


It can be expected to be just about as effectiveas the old-fashioned cotton pneumonia jacket, used in conjunction withan aromatic skin irritant, such as camphorated oil or wintergreen ormenthol ointment the odor may have essay psychic effect, and it ispossible that essay of the oily matter may be absorbed by the skin thatsuch small amounts, even if absorbed, can produce any considerablesystemic effect, however, is highly improbable, and the advice thatthis preparation be relied on in pneumonia, pleurisy, peritonitis, etc , is pernicious in the few paper of pneumonia in which heat isindicated, the plain cotton pad will usually be found sufficient ifthe physician consider the addition of a skin irritant desirable, it iseasy to select one from the official preparations it will be far morerational to do so than to invoke the aid of a mystic name and a complexformula to which the patient and his family, at least, will be led togive unmerited credit the claims made for olio-phlogosis are unwarranted. Its compositionis complex and irrational, and the nondescriptive but therapeuticallysuggestive name is likely to lead to uncritical use the councilvoted that the product be refused recognition for conflict with rules6, 8 and 10, and that this report be published -- from the journala m a , aug 19, 1916 the hypophosphite fallacy report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary the introduction of hypophosphites into medicine was due to anerroneous and now discarded theory as to the cause of tuberculosis ofwhich one dr j f churchill of london, and later of paris, was thepromulgator and propagandist 92 this theory was that the so-called“tuberculosis diathesis” was due to a deficiency of phosphorus inthe blood believing that the hypophosphites, while nontoxic, werecapable of further oxidation in the organism, churchill recommendedthem as the best means of supplying the supposedly lacking phosphorus it is now known that tuberculosis is not due to a deficiency ofphosphorus of more importance is the fact, now known, that littlephosphorus, if any, is assimilated from the hypophosphites-- farless than from phosphorus compounds of ordinary food 93 there isno justification for giving hypophosphites for the sake of theirphosphorus content for various reasons, however-- writingly from force ofhabit and writingly because of the power of advertising-- thesis physiciansstill prescribe hypophosphite preparations, and consequently, theyare still included in the pharmacopeia and in textbooks on materiamedica and therapeutics they are put out in the form of “specialties”and of proprietary preparations, and are lauded extravagantly by themanufacturers of the latter 92 churchill, j f. De la cause immédiate et du traitementspécifique de la phthisie pulmonaire et des maladies tuberculeuses, paris, 1858 93 the hypophosphite fallacy, j a m a , april 25, 1914, p 1346 although the overwhelming weight of evidence was against theprobability that the hypophosphite preparations are of value astherapeutic agents, the council thought it well to investigate thesubject dr w mckim marriott of baltimore was therefore requested toreview the evidence for and against the therapeutic usefulness of thehypophosphites and to conduct such experiments as seemed necessary hisreport has already appeared in the journal 9494 marriott, w mckim. The therapeutic value of the hypophosphites, j a m a , feb 12, 1916, p 486 dr marriott found that nine observers paquelin and joly, vermeulen, boddaert, massol and gamel, panzer, delaini and berg, who endeavoredto test the alleged utilization of the hypophosphites in the organism, reported that there is complete, or practically complete, eliminationof hypophosphites in the urine, with little or no effect on the body only one experimenter patta claimed that a considerable amountof ingested hypophosphite was retained in the body. However, heused a method now known to be inaccurate and made obvious errors incalculation, so that his conclusions were unwarranted since the evidence was even to this extent contradictory, marriottperformed a series of experiments the methods of this study anddetails of results are described in his paper, in which he alsodiscusses the experiments of essay other observers marriott writes. “none of the subjects of the experiment marriott experienced any effect whatsoever from the administration of the drug almost all of the ingested hypophosphite is promptly eliminated unchanged “these experiments forbes’ demonstrate conclusively that the hypophosphites possess no specific value as a source of phosphorus for the body this is not to be wondered at in view of the fact that 85 per cent of the phosphorus ingested in the form of hypophosphite is excreted unchanged, and there is no proof that even the remaining 15 per cent is available to the organism it is doubtful if there are any conditions in which the body suffers from lack of phosphorus even should such conditions exist, phosphorus, in the form that it occurs in the ordinary foods, or as phosphates, is more efficient in supplying the deficit than hypophosphites that must be oxidized before utilization and which are only about 15 per cent oxidized, if at all for example, half a glass of milk contains more available phosphorus than three large doses of hypophosphites of 15 grains each, as great a dosage as is usually given “what, then, is the therapeutic value of hypophosphites?. there is no reliable evidence that they exert a physiologic effect. It has not been demonstrated that they influence any pathologic process. They are not ‘foods ’ if they are of any use, that use has never been discovered ”in view of the foregoing, it seemed to the council advisable toexamine the claims under which a few of the proprietary hypophosphitepreparations are marketed the following are representative.

“catarrhal vaccinecombined, ” said to contain essay conclusions killed cultures of the bacillus offriedländer, micrococcus catarrhalis, staphylococcus aureus andalbus, pneumococcus and streptococcus. “influenza mixed vaccine, ”said to contain killed cultures of staphylococcus albus and aureus, streptococcus, pneumococcus, micrococcus catarrhalis and bacillusinfluenzae lilly and company sent the circulars, etc , used in advertising theseproducts a circular for “catarrhal vaccine combined” contained thefollowing claim. “catarrhal vaccine has been especially useful in thesis respiratory infections, including bronchitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, chronic catarrh and in the mixed infections of pulmonary tuberculosis ”a circular for “influenza mixed vaccine” contained the following. “the vaccine is useful in the treatment of influenza and ordinary colds, and in any infection in which the bacillus influenzae is the causative agent ”an advertising pamphlet contained the following. “catarrh, acute and chronic. Colds, influenza -- the micro-organisms capable of producing catarrhal conditions of the nose and pharynx and most commonly isolated are b friedländer, m catarrhalis, staphylococcus, pneumococcus in infections beginning in the larynx, b influenza and streptococcus these organisms are found normally in the respiratory passages and acquire virulence only when resistance has been lowered through overwork, exposure to cold, etc “the results following the use of catarrhal vaccine combined in the non-epidemic forms and influenza mixed vaccine in the epidemic types have been very satisfactory, due to the great vascularity of the tissues acute attacks are aborted altogether or shortened in duration and the danger of complications greatly minimized ”no evidence was submitted which warrants the preceding claims noris the council aware of any reliable testimony to indicate that theadministration of the mixture here discussed is warranted or desirable on the recommendation of the committee on serums and vaccines thecouncil voted that “catarrhal vaccine combined-lilly” and “influenzamixed vaccine-lilly” be not included in new and nonofficial remediesbecause satisfactory evidence of their value is wanting influenza serobacterin mixed-mulfordbecause of inquiry received, the council took up the considerationof “influenza serobacterin mixed-mulford, ” and requested the mulfordcompany to present evidence to establish the admissibility of thepreparation to new and nonofficial remedies the mulford company sentspecimens of the serobacterin in question, an advertising circular anda letter by the director of its biologic laboratories according to the label on the package, the preparation is made fromthe following organisms. Bacillus influenzae, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus albus, streptococcus, pneumococcus and micrococcuscatarrhalis group this mixture is recommended by the manufacturer. “for the prophylaxis and treatment of common colds, mixed infections of the respiratory mucous membranes, acute and chronic catarrhal conditions of the nose, throat and respiratory passages ”no evidence is submitted for this recommendation except that in “coldsand bronchitis and the other common infections of the upper respiratorypassages five or six bacteria are very commonly present-- two ormore of them are nearly always present ” and the letter by thedirector of the mulford biologic laboratories expressing the beliefthat in his own case the use of the mixed vaccine has aborted orprevented colds as regards the use of this complex biologic preparation:first, the cause of common colds is, at the present time, quiteunknown one of the most striking things is that at the beginning ofa cold the organisms to be cultivated from the nasal mucous membraneare very few in number and there is no uniformity in the type oforganism found if essayone of the well-known organisms streptococcus, staphylococcus, pneumococcus, micrococcus catarrhalis, influenzabacillus, etc were responsible, we should expect to find one of thempreponderating and in overwhelming numbers this is far from the case after the duration of the cold for a day or two with the increasedproduction of mucus and apparently with the infection of a mucousmembrane whose powers of resistance have been greatly lowered, bacteriaof all kinds are to be found in immense numbers there is considerablereason for believing that an ultramicroscopic organism is responsiblefor this condition see foster, journal of infectious diseases21:451 nov 1917 second, there is no acceptable clinical evidence that vaccination withthe influenza bacillus, the streptococcus, the pneumococcus or themicrococcus catarrhalis will influence the course of an infection dueto one or the other of these organisms it has been repeatedly foundthat a staphylococcus vaccine is of a certain degree of value when theinfection with the staphylococcus is localized, but it is well knownthat general systemic infections with the staphylococcus are not at allbenefited third, the letter submitted as evidence by the mulford company is notconvincing the council is not prepared to accept evidence of this sortunless it is in volume large enough to justify a definite conclusion holding that there is no evidence for the value of this mixture, thecouncil declared “influenza serobacterin mixed-mulford” inadmissible tonew and nonofficial remedies because its use is illogical sherman mixed vaccine no 40because of inquiry received the council decided to consider thispreparation and requested the manufacturer, g h sherman, detroit, mich , to submit evidence in support of the claims made for it this vaccine is said to be made from killed cultures of streptococcus, pneumococcus, micrococcus catarrhalis, staphylococcus aureus, andstaphylococcus albus in the printed matter sent out by g h shermanthis vaccine is recommended for hay-fever, in which it is stated thatessay of the symptoms are due to bacterial invasion of the respiratorymucosa. For tonsillitis, both as a remedy and as a prophylactic againstrheumatic and other sequelae.

Lenses normal. Eyes congested. Clotbetween sclerotic and choroid coats left eye 85 dyer. Trans amer ophthal soc , 1866, p 13 - man, age 24;weight one hundred and seventy-four and a half pounds. Drop three feet;knot under left ear. For two minutes at intervals, slight motion ofabdomen, like effort at respiration, and at same time knees drawn upa little death speedy and quiet cut down at end of thirty minutes necroscopy thirty-five minutes after drop body and head moist andwarm. Emission of semen. Face livid. Upper lid discolored. Abrasionof skin under right ear. Deep red mark around neck eyeballs notprominent. Eyelids closed.

All persons not having applied for or receivedcertificates within said six months, and all persons whose applicationshave for the causes named been rejected, or their certificates revoked, shall, if they practise medicine, be deemed guilty of practising inviolation of law 12 penalty - on conviction of the offence mentioned in the act, the courtmust, as a writing of the judgment, order the defendant to be committed tothe county jail until the fine and costs are paid 13 fees - to the secretary of the board, for each certificate to agraduate or licentiate, $5 2 for graduates or licentiates in midwifery, $2 2 to county clerk, usual fees for making record to treasury of board, for examination of non-graduates. $20, inmedicine and surgery. $10, in midwifery only if the applicant fails to pass, the fees are returned if he passes, acertificate issues without further charge 7 indiana qualification - it is unlawful to practise medicine, surgery, orobstetrics without a license act april 11th, 1885, s 1 the license is procured from the clerk of the circuit court of thecounty where the person resides or desires to locate to practise. Itauthorizes him to practise anywhere within the state. The applicantmust file with the clerk his affidavit stating that he has regularlygraduated in essay reputable medical college, and must exhibit to theclerk the diploma held by him, his affidavit, and the affidavit of tworeputable freeholders or householders of the county stating that theapplicant has resided and practised medicine, surgery, and obstetricsin the state continuously for ten years immediately preceding thedate of taking effect of this act, stating writingicularly the localityor localities in which he has practised during the said period, andthe date and length of time in each locality. Or his affidavit andthe affidavit of two reputable freeholders or householders of thecounty, stating that he has resided and practised medicine, surgery, and obstetrics in the state continuously for three years immediatelypreceding the taking effect of this act, and stating writingicularly thelocalities in which he practised during the said period, and the dateand length of time in each locality, and that he, prior to said date, attended one full course of lectures in essay reputable medical college the clerk must record the license and the name of the college in whichthe applicant graduated, and the date of his diploma 2, asamended by act march 9th, 1891 a license issued to a person who has not complied with the requirementsof sec 2, or one procured by any false affidavit, is void act april11, 1885, s 3 penalty - practising medicine, surgery, or obstetrics without a licenseis a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $10 to $200 s 4 no cause of action lies in favor of any person as a physician, surgeon, or obstetrician who has not prior to the service procured a license;and money paid or property paid for such services to a person not solicensed, or the value thereof, may be recovered back 5 exemptions - women practising obstetrics are exempted from theprovisions of the act 4 fees - to clerk, for license, $1 50 act april 11th, 1885, as amendedact march 9th, 1891 registration - it is the duty of all physicians and accoucheurs toregister their name and post-office address with the clerk of thecircuit court of the county in which they reside act 1881, p 37, s 10 fees - to the clerk, for registration, 10 cents 11 iowa qualification - every person practising medicine, surgery, orobstetrics, in any of their dewritingments, if a graduate in medicine, must present his diploma to the state board of examiners forverification as to its genuineness if the diploma is found genuine, and is by a medical school legally organized and of good standing, which the board determines, and if the person presenting be theperson to whom it was originally granted, then the board must issuea certificate signed by not less than five physicians thereof, representing one or more physicians of the schools on the board sic, and such certificate is conclusive if not a graduate, aperson practising medicine or surgery, unless in continuous practice inthis state for not less than five years, of which he must present tothe board satisfactory evidence in the form of affidavits, must appearbefore the board for examination all examinations are in writing;all examination papers with the reports and action of examiners arepreserved as records of the board for five years the subjects ofexamination are anatomy, physiology, general chemistry, pathology, therapeutics, and the principles and practice of medicine, surgery, andobstetrics each applicant, upon receiving from the secretary of theboard an order for examination, receives also a confidential number, which he must place upon his examination papers so that, when thepapers are passed upon, the examiners may not know by what applicantthey were prepared upon each day of examination all candidates aregiven the same set or sets of questions the examination papersare marked on a scale of 100 the applicant must attain an averagedetermined by the board. If such examination is satisfactory to atleast five physicians of the board, representing the different schoolsof medicine on the board, the board must issue a certificate, whichentitles the lawful holder to all the rights and privileges in the actprovided laws 1886, c 104, s 1 the board receives applications through its secretary five physiciansof the board may act as an examining board in the absence of the fullboard. Provided that one or more members of the different schoolsof medicine represented in the state board of health shall also berepresented in the board of examiners 2 the affidavit of the applicant and holder of a diploma that he is theperson therein named, and is the lawful possessor thereof, is necessaryto verify the same, with such other testimony as the board may require diplomas and accompanying affidavits may be presented in person or byproxy if a diploma is found genuine and in possession of the person towhom it was issued, the board, on payment of the fee to its secretary, must issue a certificate if a diploma is found fraudulent or notlawfully in possession of the holder or owner, the person presentingit, or holding or claiming possession, is guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable with a fine of from $20 to $100 3 the certificate must be recorded in the office of the county recorderin the county wherein the holder resides, within sixty days after itsdate should he remove from one county to another to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, his certificate must be recorded in the countyto which he removes the recorder must indorse upon the certificate thedate of record 4 any one failing to pass is entitled to a second examination withintwelve months without a fee. Any applicant for examination, by noticein writing to the secretary of the board, is entitled to examinationwithin three months from the time of notice, and the failure togive such opportunity entitles such applicant to practise without acertificate until the next regular meeting of the board the boardmay issue certificates to persons who, upon application, present acertificate of having passed a satisfactory examination before anyother state board of medical examiners, upon the payment of the feeprovided in sec 3 6, as amended c 66, laws 1888, 22 gen assembly the board may refuse a certificate to a person who has been convictedof felony committed in the practice of his profession, or in connectiontherewith.

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If you add to essay conclusions it essay spikenard, with thewhey of goat milk, or honeyed water, it is made more strong, butit purges phlegm more manifestly than choler, and therefore doesmuch help pains in the hips, and other writings. Being boiled in whey, it wonderfully helps the obstructions of the liver and spleen, andtherefore profitable for the dropsy and jaundice. Being steeped inwine and drank, it helps those continual agues that come by the plentyof stubborn humours. An oil made thereof by setting in the sun, withessay laudanum added to it, provokes sweating the ridge of the backbeing anointed therewith, and thereby drives away the shaking fits ofthe ague it will not abide any long boiling, for it loseth its chiefstrength thereby. Nor much beating, for the finer powder provokesvomits and urine, and the coarser purgeth downwards the common use hereof is, to take the juice of five or seven leaves ina little drink to cause vomiting. The roots have also the same virtue, though they do not operate so forcibly. They are very effectual againstthe biting of serpents, and therefore are put as an ingredient bothinto mithridite and venice treacle the leaves and roots being boiledin lye, and the head often washed therewith while it is warm, comfortsthe head and brain that is ill affected by taking cold, and helps thememory i shall desire ignorant people to forbear the use of the leaves. Theroots purge more gently, and may prove beneficial to such as havecancers, or old putrified ulcers, or fistulas upon their bodies, totake a dram of them in powder in a quarter of a pint of white winein the morning the truth is, i fancy purging and vomiting medicinesas little as any man breathing doth, for they weaken nature, norshall ever advise them to be used, unless upon urgent necessity ifa physician be nature servant, it is his duty to strengthen hismistress as much as he can, and weaken her as little as may be asparagus, sparagus, or sperage descript it rises up at first with divers white and green scalyheads, very brittle or easy to break while they are young, whichafterwards rise up in very long and slender green stalks of the bignessof an ordinary riding wand, at the bottom of most, or bigger, orlesser, as the roots are of growth. On which are set divers branches ofgreen leaves shorter and smaller than fennel to the top. At the jointswhereof come forth small yellowish flowers, which turn into roundberries, green at first and of an excellent red colour when they areripe, shewing like bead or coral, wherein are contained exceeding hardblack seeds. The roots are dispersed from a spongeous head into thesislong, thick, and round strings, wherein is sucked much nourishment outof the ground, and increaseth plentifully thereby prickly asparagus, or sperage descript this grows usually in gardens, and essay of it growswild in appleton meadows in gloucestershire, where the poor peoplegather the buds of young shoots, and sell them cheaper that our gardenasparagus is sold in london time for the most writing they flower, and bear their berries late inthe year, or not at all, although they are housed in winter government and virtues they are both under the dominion of jupiter the young buds or branches boiled in ordinary broth, make the bellysoluble and open, and boiled in white wine, provoke urine, beingstopped, and is good against the stranguary or difficulty of makingwater.