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“1 strong activity-- extensive bacteriological investigations on thesis pathogenic organisms, conducted in the lederle laboratories of new york, prove conclusively the high bactericidal value of ziratol in extremely dilute solutions a copy of the complete report will be mailed upon request ”in response to a request, the bristol-myers company sent a copy ofthe bacteriologic investigations of ziratol, said to have been madeby the lederle laboratories the organisms employed for these testswere staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus albus, streptococcus, green pus bacillus, b coli, and saliva no tests are given with thetyphoid bacillus the conclusion is reached that “in all the tests thesolutions of ziratol have several times greater killing efficiencythan those of phenol ” the “coefficients” or comparative values whichcan be calculated from the results after exposure of 15 minutes to thedisinfectants range from 2 0 to 4 0 this is in substantial accordwith the referee findings as regards the phenol-coefficient with essay conclusion help b typhosus as the test object while the new advertising circular avoidsthe former claim that ziratol is ten times more efficient than carbolicacid, in germicidal value, it still makes the unwarranted claims thatziratol is the “universal disinfectant ”the council declared ziratol inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies 1 because its composition is secret rule 1. 2 becausethe phenol coefficient, determined according to the method of thehygienic laboratory, u s p h s , is not stated on the label rule2. 3 because the label and the circular accompanying the tradepackage advises its use by the public as a “vaginal douche” rule 3;and 4 because the claim that ziratol is the “universal disinfectant”is exaggerated and unwarranted rule 6 before authorizing publication of the preceding report the councilsubmitted it to the bristol-myers company in order to give that companythe opportunity of revising its method of marketing ziratol in replythe company enlarged on its withdrawal on “our own initiative” ofthe claim that ziratol had a phenol-coefficient of over ten when thisclaim was shown to be incorrect “by authoritative sources ” one wonderswhether this is a euphemistic reference to the proceedings of thefederal authorities under the insecticide act against the bristol-myerscompany, just made public, 121 because of the false claims made forthe germicidal efficiency of ziratol this prosecution resulted in theseizure and condemnation of two lots of this proprietary which hadpassed in interstate commerce 121 u s dept of agric , insecticide and fungicide board, serviceand regulatory announcements, no 16, issued aug 8, 1917 no 244, misbranding of “ziratol ” u s v 100 bottles, more or less, of“ziratol”. Consent decree of condemnation and forfeiture. Productordered released on bond, p 248 no 256, misbranding of “ziratol ”u s v 936 bottles and 6 jugs of ziratol, consent decree ofcondemnation and forfeiture. Product ordered released on bond, p 260 the bristol-myers company in replying to the council report madeno offer to declare the exact composition of ziratol, to state theactual phenol-coefficient, or to remove the other objections pointedout in the report of the council in other words, the bristol-myerscompany has abandoned a definite but false claim of high germicidalpower-- a claim which subjected the firm to federal prosecution-- andhas substituted therefor indefinite statements which do not define theactual germicidal efficiency of ziratol -- from the journal a m a , oct 6, 1917 gonosan report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report on gonosan and authorizedits publication w a puckner, secretary gonosan riedel and company, inc , new york city comes in the form ofcapsules, each said to contain 5 minims of a mixture composed of oil ofsandalwood 80 per cent , and 20 per cent of alpha- and beta-resin ofkava, isolated by a patent process the mixture, as the name implies, is intended for the treatment of gonorrhea this proprietary preparation was under consideration by the council atvarious times from 1905 to 1910 during this time, the council agreedto accept the preparation if the suggestive name was changed, thetherapeutic exaggerations abandoned, and the drug kava admitted to newand nonofficial remedies the name was not changed, the other questionswere left open, and the preparation was not accepted recent and more objectionable advertising of gonosan makes it advisablefor the council to take action and to publish a report the tone ofthis advertising is reflected by the following quotation from a recentadvertising circular. “the old-established balsamic treatment of gonorrhea, for essay years neglected in favor of the local injection of organic silver and other germicidal salts, has, with the increasing knowledge and attention paid to the composition and purity of the balsams, regained to a large extent the confidence formerly reposed in them “it may now be said that the combined treatment with local injections and internal administration of natural balsamic products completely dominates modern gonorrheal therapy ”any one conversant with current medical literature and practice wouldstamp these statements as misleading exaggerations the balsams, oleoresins and volatile oils may have essay value as minor adjuvantsin the treatment of gonorrhea, but that is all the position in thisrespect has not changed materially in recent years these agents do nothave a value equal to that of local treatment, as the quoted statementimplies the claims made for gonosan might with equal force be made for oil ofsantal alone kava kava, the other constituent, belongs to the pepperfamily. It had a temporary vogue essay two or three decades ago, but hasfailed to maintain a place it has never been recognized officially there is no scientific evidence that it has any value either alone oras an adjuvant to sandal oil the “clinical reports” quoted in theadvertising circulars, rather curiously, nearly all date back tenyears or more, viz , to a period when the attitude of the professiontoward proprietary remedies was less critical than it is now it wouldbe interesting to know whether these authors still adhere to theiropinion, or whether any of them have subsequently had experiencessimilar to that of a correspondent who wrote:“gonosan, at my hands, did not prove to be of more essentialvalue in the treatment of gonorrhea than any other sandalwood oilpreparation the various claims made for gonosan, that it possessessedative and anesthetic properties, that by its continuous use theurethral discharge disappears more rapidly and that, if combined withappropriate diet and rest, it is liable to prevent complications, are, according to my experience, not corroborated by actual results ”the only experimental work quoted in support of gonosan, that of pohl, is not convincing the doses that pohl found necessary to influenceexperimental purulent pleurisy makes it impossible to transfer his workto the clinic he found a dosage of oil of santal corresponding to anounce per day, for man, inefficient.

“american health college, cincinnati organized in 1874 and re-organized in 1876 conducted by a dr campbell who originated and copyrighted the so-called ‘vitapathic system, ’ fraudulent extinct about 1888 ”we have no record of an “american health university” of chicago, although there was an “illinois health university” of chicago, oneof the numerous diploma-mill swindles operated by armstrong it wasdeclared fraudulent by the essay conclusion help federal authorities and its charter wasrevoked in 1897 flower, according to the notice in polk directory, is. Ex-president maine eclectic society ex-president new england eclectic medical association member national eclectic medical association member american progressive medical society member massachusetts eclectic medical society z l baldwin, m d , kalamazoo, mich -- possibly the data just givenconcerning essay of those whose names appeared on the organizationstationery are more than sufficient for the average physician to get aperspective of the allied medical associations of america still, it isworth mentioning that in a letter recently sent out by ignatz mayer, extending an invitation to the annual convention of the allied medicalassociations of america, mayer took the opportunity of incorporating inhis letter a letter which one of the members of the “association” hadbeen sending out, urging individuals to join the member in questionwas dr z l baldwin of kalamazoo, mich dr baldwin, as essay ofour readers may remember, is the gentleman who, a few years ago, wasexploiting an “intravenous treatment” for the cure of tuberculosis according to the claims made at that time. “ for the first time in the history of medicine, we have a successful treatment for tuberculosis “ we are able to kill the germs of the disease in the body, thoroughly ridding it of all tubercular infection, destroying the germ and its poisons likewise ”this was a few years ago whether dr baldwin is still specializing inconsumption we do not know. Apparently not, as we notice that at thefirst meeting of the allied medical associations, baldwin name was onthe program for the “cure of goiter by adjustment of lenses ”george starr white, m d , f s sc , lond , los angeles, calif -- aletter received by a physician a few days before the recent conventionof the allied medical associations, held out as an inducement to bepresent the fact that “geo s white will show you how to diagnosedisease by means of dif colored lights and the reaction of the bodyto the magnetic meridian ” dr george starr white was the “secondvice-president” of the allied medical associations in 1918 white, according to our records, was graduated in 1908 when he was forty-twoyears old, by the new york homeopathic medical college and hospital he was licensed in new york in 1908, in california, connecticut andnevada in 1913, and in michigan in 1916 he seems to have been oneof the proponents of “spondylotherapy, ” “zonetherapy, ” etc , andin 1915 it was announced that he would give one week courses in“spondylotherapy” in chicago, kansas city and denver, respectively inhis advertisement he emphasized that he was a fellow of the americanmedical association, which, while true at the time, is no longertrue, as on feb 4, 1916, he was expelled from membership in the losangeles county medical association in may, 1915, white was arrestedin chicago and fined $100 and costs for practicing medicine without alicense dr white specialty seems to be what is ponderously knownas “bio-dynamo-chromatic diagnosis ” this has been described by one ofits enthusiastic adherents as “diagnosis by sympathetic vagal-reflex ”to obtain the “sympathetic vagal-reflex” it seems the patient must faceeast or west and have his bare abdomen percussed until a dull area islocated the patient is then faced north or south and again percussed then, it seems, different colored lights are thrown on the patient, the location of the areas of dullness being determined meanwhile acombination of ruby and blue lights “will cause a reflex in paper ofgonorrhea, ” a “green light will cause a reflex in paper of liver orgallbladder trouble, ” while the color for carcinoma is orange red!. During the height of the influenza epidemic last winter, white seemsto have put on the market “valens essential oil tablets” which werefor “gripping the flu out of influenza, ” and were also said greatly tobenefit or cure incipient tuberculosis, hay-fever, asthma, and “catar ”the letters “f s sc , lond ” after dr white name look well, soundwell, and have an air of erudition and mystery that is well worth whatthey cost they mean “fellow of the incorporated society of science, letters and arts of london, ltd ” the “fellowship” costs one guinea not a few “patent medicine” exploiters in the united states carrythese mystic letters after their names the society in question was aseriocomic concern that was exposed by london truth essay years agoand was also dealt with in the journal of may 29, 1909, in connectionwith the “aicsol consumption cure” exposé so much for the allied medical associations of america at theirrecent meeting in new york city they got much newspaper publicitybecause of their action on the prohibition question according to thenewspaper reports, the organization adopted a resolution declaringthat “properly brewed lager beer is absolutely essential in thetreatment of certain paper ” they were further reported as endorsingthe manufacture of light wines and of beer containing not to exceed2 75 per cent alcohol as a piece of publicity work this resolutionwas all that its sponsors could expect the journal office wasflooded with telegrams and letters from physicians, temperance workers, congressmen, church organizations, and others, asking, in effect, whatis the allied medical associations of america?. this is our apologyfor giving the amount of space necessary to a proper understanding ofthis organization today the rocket of the allied medical associationsof america is blazing a more or less erratic course across the sky ofpublicity the stick will be down anon!. any resolution or expressionof opinion by this organization, or others of its type, when dealingwith the broader problems of public health, is wholly withoutscientific significance, whether such resolutions are good, bad orindifferent -- from the journal a m a , july 5, 1919 “arsenicals”the september issue of the archives of dermatology and syphilologypresents a number of significant features regarding the use ofarsphenamin and related compounds that are at present being widelyemployed in the treatment of syphilis to one who studies thesestatements of laboratory and clinical investigators in the specialfield involved there must come the conviction that thesis therapeuticperplexities still remain at the end of nearly a decade of trial forthe types of compounds which ehrlich introduced it is well for thepractitioner to realize this, especially when expert workers stillmake an appeal for conservative interpretations stokes forcefullysummarized the situation when he stated at the new orleans session ofthe american medical association.

President new yorkpathological society, etc , etc medico-legal determination of the time of death signs of death the cessation essay conclusion help of respiration and the absence of audible heart-beatsare signs generally regarded as sufficient in themselves to determinethe reality of death but persons have been resuscitated from a stateof asphyxia or have recovered from a state of catalepsy or lethargy inwhom, to all appearances, the respiratory and circulatory processeshave been arrested so it is advisable that we should be acquainted with essay absolutetests of death which are not connected with the heart-sounds or therespiration it is well known that these important functions, although apparentlyheld in abeyance, must be speedily re-established so as to berecognized, or death will rapidly follow this condition of apparentlysuspended animation is seen among hibernating animals. The bear, forinstance, will remain for four or five months without food or drinkin a state of lethargy the heart-action and respiration hardlyappreciable yet it will be sufficiently rapid to sustain life duringthe slow metabolic processes a number of well-authenticated paper arereported in which persons could slacken their heart-action, so thatno movement of the organ could be appreciated the case of coloneltownsend, reported by cheyne, is an example he possessed the power ofapparently dying, by slowing his heart so that there was no pulse orheart-action discernible the longest period he could remain in thisinanimate state was half an hour instances have occurred in the new-born child where without questionthere have been no heart-beats or respiratory movements for a number ofminutes, the limit being set at five these are exceptional paper, and it is setting at defiance allphysiological experience to suppose that the heart-action andrespiration can be suspended entirely when once they are established, for a period as long so, then, if no motion of the heart occurs duringa period of five minutes a period five times as great as observationwarrants death may be regarded as certain the respiratory movements of the chest are essaytimes very difficultto observe they can always be better appreciated if the abdomen andchest are observed together there are two methods to determine whetherrespiration is absolutely suspended or not first, by holding a mirrorin front of the open mouth, observing whether any moisture collects onits surface second, by placing on the chest a looking-glass or basinof water, and reflecting from it an image by artificial or sun light the slightest movement would be registered by a change in position ofthe image while the writer considers the absence of heart-beats and ofrespiratory movement an absolute test of death, still essay paper mayoccur in which the establishment of this test is very difficult, andthe following additional tests may be employed:1 temperature of the body same as surrounding air 2 intermittent shocks of electricity at different tensions passed intovarious muscles, giving no indication whatever of irritability 3 careful movements of the joints of the extremities and of the lowerjaw, showing that rigor mortis is found in several writings 4 a bright needle plunged into the body of the biceps muscle cloquet needle test and left there, showing on withdrawal no signsof oxidation 5 the opening of a vein, showing that the blood has undergonecoagulation 6 the subcutaneous injection of ammonia monte verde test, causinga dirty-brown stain indicative of dissolution 7 a fillet applied to the veins of the arm richardson test, causing no filling of the veins on the distal side of the fillet 8 “diaphanous test:” after death there is an absence of thetranslucence seen in living people when the hand is held before astrong light with the fingers extended and in contact 9 “eye test:” after death there is a loss of sensibility of the eyeto light, loss of corneal transparency, and the pupil is not responsiveto mydriatics post-mortem changes the human body after death undergoes certain changes which will bediscussed under the following heads:1 cooling of the body 2 flaccidity of the body 3 rigor mortis 4 changes in color due to a cadaveric ecchymoses b putrefaction cooling of the body immediately after death there is a slight rise of temperature, supposedto be due to the fact that the metabolic changes in the tissues stillcontinue, while the blood is no longer cooled by passing through theperipheral capillaries and lungs the body gradually cools and reaches the temperature of the surroundingair in from fifteen to twenty hours. This is the ordinary course, but the time may be influenced by a variety of causes, such as thecondition of the body at the time of death, manner of death, andcircumstances under which the body has been placed in certain diseases, as yellow fever, rheumatism, chorea, and tetanus, the temperature of the body has been known to rise as high as 104° f and remain so for a time again, it has been observed that when deathhas taken place suddenly, as from accident, apoplexy, or acute disease, the body retains its heat for a long time the bodies of persons dyingfrom hanging, electrocution, suffocation, or poisoning by carbondioxide, do not generally cool for from twenty-four to forty-eighthours, and paper are recorded where three days have elapsed before thebody was completely cold on the other hand, bodies dead from chronicwasting diseases or severe hemorrhage cool very rapidly, even in fouror five hours in determining the temperature of a dead body the hand is not areliable guide. The thermometer should always be used flaccidity the first effect of death from any cause is general relaxation of theentire muscular system the lower jaw drops, the eyelids lose theirtension, the limbs are flabby and soft, and the joints become flexible in from five to six hours after death, and generally while the body isin the act of cooling, the muscles of the limbs are observed to becomehard and contracted, the joints stiff, and the body unyielding muscleswhich are contracted in the death-agony do not necessarily becomerelaxed at any time the muscular tissues in the dead body can be considered as passingthrough three stages. 1 flaccid but contractile, 2 rigid andincapable of contraction, 3 relaxed and incapable of furthercontractility rigor mortis this is essaytimes called cadaveric rigidity and occurs generally withinsix hours after death and disappears within sixteen to twenty-fourhours thesis theories have been advanced to account for it, but the mostprobable one is that the rigidity is due to the coagulation of themyosin in the muscles by the weak acids which are no longer removedfrom the system. The muscles always give an acid reaction and areopaque instead of transparent. After putrefaction has set in ammonia isdeveloped, the myosin dissolved, and so flaccidity results rigor mortis occurs first in the muscles of the eyelid, next themuscles of the lower jaw and neck are affected, then the chest andupper extremities. Afterward it gradually progresses from abovedownward, affecting the muscles of the abdomen and lower limbs therigidity disappears in the same sequence the period after deathwhen rigor mortis manifests itself, together with its duration, ischiefly dependent upon the previous degree of muscular exhaustion brown-séquard has demonstrated that the greater the degree of muscularirritability at the time of death, the later the cadaveric rigiditysets in and the longer it lasts he has also shown that the laterputrefaction sets in, the more slowly it progresses the more robust the individual and the shorter the disease, the moremarked and persistent is this muscular rigidity it has been noticedthat the bodies of soldiers killed in the beginning of an engagementbecome rigid slowly, and those killed late quickly this explains thereason why bodies are essaytimes found on the battle-field in a kneelingor sitting posture with weapons in hand if the rigidity of rigor mortis after it is once complete is overcome, as in bending an arm, it never returns. But if incomplete it mayreturn this will serve at times to distinguish real death fromcatalepsy and its allied conditions while the average duration ofrigor mortis has been given as sixteen to twenty-four hours, it mustbe remembered that in essay paper it has been known to last only a fewhours, as in death by lightning or by electrocution in other paper ithas persisted for seven and fourteen days this long continuance of rigor mortis has been noted in death fromstrychnine and other spinal poisons, in suffocation, and in poisoningby veratrum viride atmospheric conditions modify to a large extent the duration of rigormortis dry, cold air causes it to last for a long time, while warm, moist air shortens its duration also immersion in cold water brings onrigor mortis quickly and lengthens its duration cadaveric ecchymosis cadaveric lividity or hypostasis within a few hours after death the skin of the body, which is of apale, ashy-gray color, becomes covered by extensive patches of a bluishor purple color, which are most pronounced and are first seen on theback writing of the trunk, head extremities, ears, face, and neck, and aredue to the blood, before coagulating, settling in the most dependentwritings of the body, producing a mottling of the surface with irregularlivid patches there is also a stagnation of blood in the capillaryvessels, especially in those in the upper layer of the true skin or inthe space between the cuticle and cutis the discoloration continues toincrease until the body is cold, when it is entirely arrested lateron, just before putrefaction begins, the color deepens, and the changeappears to proceed from an infiltration of blood pigment into thedependent writings of the body at the same time the discolorations are appearing on the surface of thebody, internal hypostasis is also taking place, most marked in thedependent portions of the brain, lungs, intestines, kidneys, and spinalcord this condition in the brain may be mistaken for so-called congestiveapoplexy. In the lungs, for pulmonary apoplexy or the first stageof lobar pneumonia. In the intestines and spinal meninges, for thebeginning of inflammatory changes the position of these hypostases will afford the best correction forthis possible error the appearances presented by cadaveric ecchymoseshave often been mistaken for the effects of violence applied duringlife innocent persons have been accused and tried for murder ormanslaughter on charges afterward proved to be groundless therefore itis of the utmost importance that the medical jurist should be able todistinguish between ante-mortem and post-mortem ecchymoses the following are the points of difference:1 situation post-mortem ecchymoses are seen on that portion of thebody which has been most dependent, generally the posterior aspect, and they involve principally the superficial layers of the true skin;ante-mortem ecchymoses may occur anywhere, and generally the deepertissues are discolored 2 in cadaveric lividity there is no elevation of the skin and thediscoloration terminates abruptly 3 after cutting into the tissues where an ecchymosis has been producedby violence, the blood without the vessels is free in the tissue. Thisis not so in cadaveric ecchymosis 4 post-mortem ecchymoses are very extensive, ante-mortem generallylimited in area a peculiar appearance of cadaveric lividity is observed in bodieswhich have been wrapped in a sheet and allowed to cool or that havecooled in their clothing it occurs in the form of bands or stripesover the whole surface, and often gives an appearance as of a personflogged the explanation of this appearance is that the congestion ofthe vessels takes place in the interstices of the folds, while thewritings compressed remain whole the unbroken condition of the cuticle, together with the other characteristics just mentioned, are sufficientto distinguish these ecchymoses from those produced by violence whilecadaveric lividity is seen in all bodies after death, it is especiallypronounced in those persons who have died suddenly in full health orby violence, as from apoplexy, hanging, drowning, or suffocation itis very slight in the bodies of those who have died from hemorrhage oranæmia the time at which cadaveric lividity appears varies greatly casper, who has investigated the subject thoroughly, sets the time at fromtwelve to fifteen hours after death putrefaction at a period varying from a few hours to three days after death, certainchanges are seen in the human body which show that putrefaction hascommenced a change of color appears first upon the middle of theabdomen and gradually spreads over the rest of the body.

And 3the character of the current for practical purposes of the more severecurrents we have only to deal with the continuous and alternating symptoms direct symptoms the direct symptoms produced by powerful mechanical currents ofelectricity may essay conclusion help be divided into three classes. I the mechanical. Ii the essential or internal. Iii the mental or psychical these classes are fairly distinct, but they are not absolute, andcertain symptoms are on the borders the most important mechanical symptoms produced by these currents areburns these occur at all points of strong resistance externally, hence especially at the points of entrance and dewritingure of thecurrent they vary from all grades, from the lightest possible, whereonly the fine hairs on the skin are singed, to those of extraordinarydepth and severity the characteristic burn from powerful currentsis, however, well distinguished it consists in a deep hole ofvarious shapes with clear-cut edges surrounded by an inflamed areaand containing in its cavity a mass of blackened tissue which onlyseparates from the portions below after several days, and causesa wound which, though not very painful, heals very slowly theseverity of electric burns is often at first sight underrated, andtheir duration, when severe, is unexpectedly long it occasionallyhappens that after a burn of this character appears nearly healed, thesurrounding and, in appearance, healthy tissue breaks down, perhapsunder a healthy skin, and a destructive process occurs which muchretards recovery this is evidently due to tissue destruction from astrong electric current of such a character as to produce necrobiosiswithout the external appearances of a burn these burns are, perhaps, oftenest seen on the hands, but this is only because these writings aremore likely to come into contact with the current they may occur inany portion of the body eyes - the injurious effect of electric light upon the eyes has beencarefully studied by several competent observers so far as known ithas been caused solely by the arc light the symptoms produced byexposure of the eyes for a considerable period to the electric lightmay be slight or severe in the slighter paper we find merely an acuteconjunctivitis with a slight central scotoma which passes off withintwenty-four to forty-eight hours the symptoms are those usual in acuteconjunctivitis photophobia, lachrymation, sensation of a foreign bodyunder the lids, discomfort in the eyes, and swelling of the lids inthe more severe paper all these symptoms are increased. The photophobiaand lachrymation may be intense there is essaytimes severe pain inthe supra-orbital nerve, and occasionally a tendency to somnolence in these paper we find an intense conjunctivitis with chymosis, acentral scotoma which may render the patient for the time practicallyblind, and on ophthalmoscopic examination a congestion of the vesselsof the retina and choroid, a neuro-retinitis, and essaytimes evenhemorrhages into the retina there is essaytimes peripapillary œdemaand infiltration around the optic nerve the pupil of the eye in thesepaper is usually much contracted there is essaytimes loss of epitheliumfrom the cornea in certain severe paper there is produced in addition to the eyesymptoms an erythema of the face bresse states that this erythema canbe produced on the face, arm, or hand by exposure to the voltaic arcat a distance of thirty to forty centimetres the blush grows deeperfor three or four hours, then remains stationary for a time, and endsin desquamation leaving a very durable pigmentation the erythema isaccompanied by a sensation of smarting the strength of the light and the length of time required to producethese effects probably vary essaywhat according to the color of thelight emrys jones states that he is informed that either excess ordefect of current gives a less injurious light than the normal current;the excess gives a more violet, the defect a more orange light on theother hand, charcot considered that the harmfulness of the electriclight was due at any rate in considerable writing to the chemical orviolet rays, and bresse found that when violet rays were added to anelectric light as by aluminium it was more injurious than before toanimals what writing the brilliancy of the light plays in determiningthe pathological results is not yet fully settled the heat, however, does not, as a rule, seem to have much effect unless in extraordinaryinstances where the cornea is burned muscular contractions - another effect of electricity which isexternally visible on the human system is muscular contraction slight muscular contractions are produced purposely in thesis paper inmedical treatment therapeutically or for the sake of diagnosis whenthe stimuli are sufficiently strong and follow each other with greatrapidity, or when a strong continuous current is passed through themuscles, they are brought into a state of continuous contraction ortetanus, and in this condition they will remain for a long periodor until the electric stimulus is removed in paper where a severeelectric shock is received as from an electric wire, the muscleswhich come in contact with the wire immediately contract and remaincontracted while the current continues to pass through them as aresult of this we often find that when a severe electric shock has beenreceived through the hands by means of a wire or other conductor thesufferer hands are involuntarily closed upon the wire or conductor, and cannot be unclosed by any voluntary effort until the current isstopped while thus holding the conductor the hands are often veryseverely burnt under these circumstances a strong force is required toremove a person from a charged wire if the current be not turned off, and it can only be done at a considerable risk unless by those expertand provided with special means not only the muscles immediately in contact with the conductor, butnearly all the voluntary muscles of the body may be thus affectedby a powerful current another effect of this involuntary muscularcontraction is the forcible muscular movements produced by the shock as previously stated, when a sufficiently strong shock occurs, thevoluntary muscles of the trunk and limbs may be thrown into suddencontraction in such a manner as to throw the person violently andforcibly on to the ground, or against essay object or objects in theneighborhood in this way one may be propelled several feet, and thesisvarieties of surgical injury may be caused rarely the force of thecontraction is such as of itself to rupture muscles or tendons, and itmight even fracture bones or dislocate joints already predisposed essential or internal symptoms we pass now to what we may consider the internal or essentialconditions of electric shock, leaving the mental or psychical resultsfor examination later when a person receives a severe electric shock, the symptoms areusually as follows. In the first place there may be little or nothingexcept a burn or burns, though usually there is essay sensation at themoment of the shock this may be a simple dizziness, and is oftenaccompanied by the sensation of a brilliant flash of light before theeyes, and essaytimes by a sense of impending danger usually, however, there is a loss of consciousness more or less complete and more orless lasting according to the severity of the shock and the characterand course of the current in the less severe paper this graduallypasses away, and in thesis paper the patient, although weak and feelingshaken and tired, suffers no further ill effects beyond those of theburns and mechanical injuries essaytimes there follows a general tremorwhich may last a few hours or for days, and occasionally a clonicrhythmical spasm of one or more extremities the loss of consciousnessmay, however, be accompanied or followed by a condition of collapse, in which the pale face, profuse perspiration, cold extremities, and feeble pulse all suggest the administration of stimulants andrestoratives as a rule, in the stage of unconsciousness the face isreddened and rather cyanotic the pupils are dilated as a rule and therespiration stertorous or absent. The pulse may be full or feeble, essaytimes imperceptible for a time the unconsciousness essaytimeslasts for hours, and all means of stimulation, electricity, artificialrespiration, rubbing, have to be applied before the patient can berestored essaytimes this condition is succeeded by delirium moyer ina certain number of paper the shock is immediately fatal, and in othersthe patients cannot be recalled from their unconsciousness the secondary results of the shock, aside from the injuries, may bevery slight or again may be serious and lasting they are far moreapt to be of the first class, and when long or continued motor orsensory changes unconnected with injuries follow, we are justifiedin suspecting mental or psychical phenomena one class of secondaryresults is the motor in addition to weakness, unsteadiness and tremorof the limbs and trunk, it is not uncommon for the patient to sufferfrom grand rhythmical movements, at first, perhaps, of all extremities, but soon limited to the extremity or extremities which were mostexposed or injured by the current we have personally seen thesemovements, and feel convinced that they can be distinguished from mostof the ordinary forms of convulsive motions and tremors the wholelimb is moved at once and not separate muscles, and the movement is alarge, rhythmical one, slow and co-ordinated, not at all suggestive oftremor movements of this character are essaytimes seen in so-calledfunctional disease hysteria and allied conditions they more nearlyresemble the movements seen in essay forms of jacksonian epilepsythan any others known to me as occurring in organic disease, but ibelieve them in these paper to be always strongly suggestive, if notabsolutely significant, of functional affections a case reported bydr robert, of el paso, well illustrates this condition the patient, a male, twenty-eight years old, received a shock through a telephonewire when seen first, reaction was slowly taking place, the entiremuscular system was in clonic convulsions temperature 97°. Pulserapid and of low tension. Respiration 50. No cerebral symptoms anhour later the movements were limited to the left upper and the rightlower extremities, and there was pain running from the region of thespine down the left arm twenty-four hours after the shock, temperature99 5°. Respiration 40. Pulse 100 had slept well, but the movements inthe left arm had never ceased the next day these motions were limitedto the muscles of the forearm, and on the fourth day they had whollyceased these convulsions consisted in extensive motions of the wholeextremity or of muscles or muscle-groups, and not of simple tremor ifthe movements were forcibly controlled, severe pain ensued next to the motor symptoms the sensory are the most important painnot infrequently occurs after the recovery of consciousness in theaffected limb. It is apt to be sharp, severe, darting and neuralgicin character this may last at intervals for essay days, a dull acheoccurring at first between the intermissions it disappears of itselfin time without lasting effects hyperæsthesia may exist at first should this continue, or ifanæsthesia not due to secondary traumatic conditions should appearlater, we should be inclined to place these symptoms in the third class of other symptoms occurring in accidents from currents of highpotential, those which seem to be due to the direct action of theelectricity are not serious buzzing in the ears and a metallic tastein the mouth often occur at the very beginning before the consciousnessis involved nausea and vomiting frequently occur later there isoften considerable dizziness and vertigo patients essaytimes complainof sensations as of an electric shock running through the body whichoccur without cause essay hours or even days after the real shock essayof these sensations are certainly to be reckoned under the mental orpsychical symptoms susceptibility to the effects of electricity, oflightning, and of thunder-storms, though undoubtedly in thesis paperpsychical, has probably in essay paper an actual foundation this iscertainly the case in lightning stroke on the other hand, in the largemajority of paper of electric accidents no such result follows, and inthesis we are expressly told that such a result was looked for but notfound the temperature, as affected by the electricity alone and not assecondary result of injuries, is not always easy to determine it seemsto be in most paper lowered at first, being in that of moyer 97 5° andin that of robert 97° later it may rise to a certain extent, usuallyto not more than 101°, but here again the influence of traumata isdifficult to separate the pulse may be full and soft or weak and compressible it isfrequently very feeble, essaytimes almost imperceptible, and oftenrapid it is apt to remain rapid and essaywhat soft for days in severepaper the respiration is at first rapid in severe paper unless the shock beso great as to cause its cessation this rapidity remains for a varyingperiod and then disappears as a typical case of the results of shock from an electric wire, wewill mention the one reported by dr f w jackson the patient, aman twenty-two years old, came in contact with a live electric-lightwire, touching it with his hands he was thrown a distance of aboutten feet and then back again, “swinging back and forth two or threetimes ” his hands were in contact with the wire about three minutes, when the current broke and he fell to the ground unconscious was seentwo hours later by physician temperature 100°.

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“each fluidounce represents nux vomica 8 grains, damiana 64 grains, combined with glycerophosphates of calcium and sodium ” “alcohol 20 per cent ”sharp and dohme essay conclusion help call this mixture a “reconstructive nerve stimulant, aphrodisiac, ” and claim that. “phosphorus in elemental form has long been prescribed under the title of elixir phosphorus, nux vomica and damiana, but due to the rapidity of chemical change occurring in preparations containing this form of phosphorus, much of the physiologic action is lost the glycerophosphates present phosphorus in its most available form-- the form in which it exists in the brain and nervous system they powerfully stimulate the functions of nutrition and are rapidly assimilated by the system “nux vomica is a general nerve tonic damiana exerts a stimulant effect upon the sexual appetite and function ”the claim that the glycerophosphates may be substituted for elementaryphosphorus is, at least, novel the elixir is an unscientific semisecret combination recommendationsall of the preparations mentioned violate rule 6 unwarrantedtherapeutic claims in addition, robinol and elixir glycerophosphates, nux vomica and damiana violate rule 1 secrecy of composition inthat not all the quantities of the ingredients are declared. Tonols, phosphorcin compound and robinol violate rule 8 objectionable names it is recommended that the council endorse marshall findings98 anddeclare that tonols schering and glatz, phosphorcin compound eimerand amend, robinol john wyeth and brother, phosphoglycerate oflime chapoteaut e fougera and co , and elixir glycerophosphates, nux vomica and damiana sharp and dohme are ineligible for new andnonofficial remedies -- from the journal a m a , sept 30, 1916 hydras report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryhydras, sold by john wyeth and brother, philadelphia, is one of thethesis proprietary, so-called “uterine tonics ” it is said to contain“cramp bark, helonias root, hydrastis, scutellaria, dogwood andaromatics, ” but as the amounts of the several ingredients are notgiven the statement regarding its composition is valueless the labeldeclares the presence of 24 per cent alcohol the name “hydras, ” taken in connection with the statement ofcomposition, would suggest that hydrastis golden-seal is an importantconstituent the report of the chemical laboratory of the americanmedical association, however, indicates that hydrastis is present inunimportant amounts:“the hydrastin content of hydras was determined by extraction withimmiscible solvents pharm review, may, 1908, p 132 twenty-fivec c was found to yield an alkaloid residue of 0 0160 gm thepreparation contains, therefore, not more than 0 064 gm ‘hydrastin’per 100 c c inasmuch as hydrastis is required to contain about 2 5per cent ‘hydrastin, ’ hydras contains an equivalent of not more than2 56 gm hydrastis golden seal in 100 c c and the stated dose ofhydras-- one dessertspoonful 8 c c -- represents not more than 0 2 gm or 1/10 of the u s p average dose of hydrastis ”the label of a recently purchased bottle of hydras bears the followingrecommendations for its use.