Essay Concerning Human Understanding Pdf

Potassium chlorate essay concerning human understanding pdf kclo₃ 38 6 per cent sodium nitrate nano₃ 32 6 per cent potassium borate k₂b₄o₇ 4 9 per cent sodium borate na₂b₄o₇ 4 0 per cent boric acid  21 1 per cent “from the results of the examination it is concluded that thispreparation is a mixture of alkali chlorate and nitrate and boricacid, probably produced by fusing together the constituents it ispractically the same mixture as oxychlorine and zyme-oid as analyzednearly fourteen years ago in the a m a chemical laboratory ”throughout the advertising of “intravenous compound loffler” thephysician is reminded of the financial returns that the product offers “ the financial return will prove as interesting to yourself as results are to the patients ” “and lastly but not less interesting, the financial returns are commensurate with results ” “ the instruction given me in the use of your intravenous compound and the opportunity presented adds four to five hundred dollars per month to my bank account ” “ will not only give you more positive results than have ever obtained in chronic and progressive diseases but a very remunerative business ” “intravenous compound loffler is supplied in granular form, 2 ounces to a bottle, at $2 per bottle an ounce will average fifteen treatments and treatments are at from $3 to $5 each, according to the ability of the patient to pay ”a physician whose name the intravenous chemical company had given asa user of intravenous compound loffler was written to by anotherphysician who was interested in the matter and he was asked frankly forhis opinion he replied in writing. “the treatment makes a profound impression on the recipient and is usually followed by a marked improvement mentally, and i have not been keen enough to draw the line of just how far the physical or material improvement went and when the psychical began “for the office ‘specialist’ of the advertising type this would be a boon, but i am not entirely satisfied that its use completely justifies its claims ” summaryintravenous compound loffler stands revealed as a nostrum of secretcomposition which physicians are asked to inject into the veinsof their patients it must be purchased in connection with essaysupplementary material, “a complete set of apparatus, ” sold by thesame concern its successful administration is said to depend onfollowing a technic detailed either in a booklet sent out by loffleror given by loffler in a “post-graduate course” which costs physicians$50 unless they have purchased six dollars’ worth of another nostrum, “thymozene ”the intravenous administration of drugs is impressive to the patientthe technic is mysterious and its psychic effect striking itsdangers-- infection, air embolism, intravascular clotting, suddendeath-- are matters of record every conservative physician will admitthat there is no excuse for the intravenous administration of eventhose drugs that are well known and whose effects have been carefullystudied, except when distinct advantages are to be secured as thejournal has stated before, “little is known of the results to beexpected from intravenous therapy even with simple substances ”what, then, can be said of the physician who subjects his patients tothe intravenous injection-- “at from $3 to $5 each, according to theability of the patient to pay”-- of a preparation of whose compositionhe is as ignorant as he must be of its effects?. intravenous compound loffler has been on the market ten years. It is unmentioned in theliterature of scientific medicine the name of its exploiter, whilenot unknown in the twilight zone of professionalism as the exploiterof a nostrum, as a “specialist” in “chronic troubles” and “intravenoustherapy, ” as well as in other capacities even less savory, is equallyunknown to scientific medicine -- from the journal a m a , nov 12, 1921 intravenous specialties to the editor:-- there is a salesman here in salt lake city making extravagant claims about the medicines advertised in the enclosed pamphlet would you kindly advise me as to your opinion of it?. w c schulte, m d , salt lake city to the editor:-- i am interested in knowing the attitude of the council on pharmacy and chemistry regarding the products of the intravenous products company of america, 121 madison avenue, new york city if the council has already reported, please refer me to the appropriate number of the journal if it has not, please give me any information available h b gessner, m d , new orleans answer -- the intravenous products company of america has notrequested the council on pharmacy and chemistry to examine any of itsintravenous specialties, nor have they been discussed in the journalor examined in the american medical association chemical laboratory the firm list of specialties bears a striking resemblance to thoseof other “intravenous specialty” firms endoarsan, like venarsen ofthe intravenous products company of denver, is stated to contain acacodylate dimethylarsenate along with mercury and iodid venarsenwas reported on unfavorably by the council the journal, may 22, 1915, p 1780, the inferior efficacy of sodium cacodylate was discussed the journal, march 25, 1916, p 978 and the worthlessness of sodiumcacodylate as a spirocheticide confirmed by h n cole the journal, dec 30, 1916, p 2012, william g ward the journal, feb 3, 1917, p 390, and r l sutton the journal, feb 17, 1917, p 566 endosal, like venosal of the intravenous products company of denver, is said to contain salicylate and a colchicum preparation the latteris also said to contain iodids venosal was found unacceptable fornew and nonofficial remedies by the council on pharmacy and chemistry like other “intravenous” firms, this company advertises the intravenousadministration of drugs such as sodium iodid and hexamethylenamin theobjections to and the dangers of indiscriminate administration of drugsintravenously was recently emphasized in a report of the council onpharmacy and chemistry “essay of loeser intravenous solutions” thejournal, april 16, 1921, p 1120 -- query from the journal a m a , dec 10, 1921 iodexat fairly frequent intervals physicians receive through the mail freesamples of “iodex, ” a black ointment sent out in small, circularaluminum boxes iodex is sold by menley and james, ltd , new york city, under the claim that it is a preparation of free iodin, 252 minusthe objectionable features that go with free iodin the preparationwas examined in the a m a chemical laboratory in 1915, and foundpractically devoid of free iodin the laboratory also reported thatwhen 1 or 2 grams of iodex was rubbed on the skin of the forearm onseveral subjects and the urine collected and tested for iodin, theresults were negative this disproved the claim that “thirty minutesafter inunction with iodex iodine can be found in the urine ”252 “free” or elementary iodin such as the tincture of iodinis used externally for its local irritant and antiseptic effects “combined iodin” e g , iodid of potassium, does not producethese effects. And when preparations containing iodin in combinedform are used, it is with the expectation of obtaining the systemic “alterative” effects such as are produced by iodids the findings of the laboratory, which were summed up in a report thejournal, june 19, 1915 of the council on pharmacy and chemistry oniodex, were essentially as follows. 1 the composition is incorrectly stated. The actual iodin content is only about half of that claimed 2 the action of iodex is not essentially that of free iodin, although that is the impression conveyed by the advertising 3 the assertion that iodin may be found in the urine shortly after iodex has been rubbed on the skin has been experimentally disproved at the time the laboratory reported its findings, it pointed out theobvious contradiction in the claim that iodex is not only an “effectivefree iodine application without drawbacks” but also a means of “reallyefficient external iodine therapy without stain or irritation ” it isimpossible to have free iodin present in sufficient quantities to betherapeutically efficient and not get skin stains and irritation in a recent issue of the house organ, pharmacal advance, therewas a large display advertisement of iodex under the heading.

They cleanse the body of choler, but purge not, or not to any purpose agaricus trochiscatus or agarick trochiscated college take of agarick sifted and powdered, three ounces, steep itin a sufficient quantity of white wine, in which two drams of gingerhave been infused, and make it essay concerning human understanding pdf into troches trochisci albi rhasis or white troches college take of ceruss washed in rosewater ten drams, sarcocolthree drams, white starch two drams, gum arabic and tragacanth, of eachone dram, camphire half a dram, either with rosewater, or women milk, or make it into troches according to art trochisci alexiterii college take of zedoary roots, powder of crab claws, of each onedram, and an half, the outward citron preserved and dried, angelicaseeds, pills, of each one dram, bole-amoniac half a dram, with theirtreble weight in sugar make them into powder, and with a sufficientquantity of mussilage of gum tragacanth, made into treacle waterdistilled, make it into paste, of which make troches culpeper this preserves the body from ill airs, and epidemicaldiseases, as the pestilence, small pox, &c and strengthens the heartexceedingly, eating now and then a little. You may safely keep anytroches in your pocket, for the drier you keep them, the better theyare trochisci alhandal college take of coloquintida freed from the seeds and cut small, and rubbed with an ounce of oil of roses, then beaten into fine powder, ten ounces, gum arabic, tragacanth, bdellium, of each six drams steepthe gums three or four days in a sufficient quantity of rose-water tillthey be melted, then with the aforesaid pulp, and writing of the saidmussilage, let them be dried in the shadow, then beaten again, and withthe rest of the mussilage, make it up again, dry them and keep them foruse culpeper they are too violent for a vulgar use trochisci aliptæ moschatæ college take of labdanum bruised three ounces, styrax calamitisone ounce and an half, benjamin one ounce, wood of aloes two drams, ambergris one dram, camphire half a dram, musk half a scruple, with asufficient quantity of rose-water, make it into troches according toart culpeper it is singularly good for such as are asthmatic, and canhardly fetch their breath. As also for young children, whose throat isso narrow that they can hardly swallow down their milk trochisci alkekengi or troches of winter-cherries college take of winter cherries three drams, gum arabic, tragacanth, olibanum, dragon-blood, pine-nuts, bitter almonds, whitestyrax, juice of liquorice, bole-ammoniac, white poppy seeds, of eachsix drams, the seeds of melons, cucumbers, citruls, gourds, of eachthree drams and an half, the seeds of smallage and white henbane, amber, earth of lemnos, opium, of each two drams, with juice of freshwinter-cherries, make them into troches according to art culpeper they potently provoke urine, and break the stone mix themwith other medicine of that nature, half a dram at a time, or a dram ifage permit trochisci bechici aloi, vel, rotulæ pectorales or, pectoral rolls college take of white sugar one pound, white sugar candy, penids, of each four ounces, orris florentine one ounce, liquorice six drams, white starch one ounce and an half, with a sufficient quantity ofmussilage of gum tragacanth made in rose water, make them into smalltroches you may add four grains of ambergris, and three grains of muskto them, if occasion serve trochisci bechici nigri college take of juice of liquorice, white sugar, of each one dram, gum tragacanth, sweet almonds blanched, of each six drams, with asufficient quantity of mussilage of quince seeds, made thick with rosewater make them into troches according to art culpeper both this and the former will melt in ones mouth, andin that manner to be used by such as are troubled with coughs, cold, hoarseness, or want of voice the former is most in use, but in myopinion, the latter is most effectual trochisci de barberis or, troches of barberries college take of juice of barberries, and liquorice made thick, spodium, purslain seeds, of each three drams, red roses, six drams, indian spikenard, saffron, white starch, gum tragacanth, of each adram, citrul seeds cleansed three drams and an half, camphire halfa dram. With manna dissolved in juice of barberries, make them intotroches according to art culpeper they wonderfully cool the heat of the liver, reins, andbladder, breast, and stomach, and stop looseness, cools the heat offevers trochisci de camphora or, troches of camphire college take of camphire half a dram, saffron two drams, whitestarch three drams, red roses, gum arabic, and tragacanth, ivory, of each half an ounce, the seeds of cucumbers husked, of purslain, liquorice, of each an ounce, with mussilage of the seeds of fleawort, drawn in rose-water, make them into troches culpeper it is exceeding good in burning fevers, heat of bloodand choler, together with hot distempers of the stomach and liver, and extreme thirst coming thereby, also it is good against the yellowjaundice, phthisics, and hectic fevers trochisci de capparibus or, troches of capers college take of the bark of caper roots, the seeds of agnus castus, of each six drams, ammoniacum half an ounce, the seeds of water cressesand nigella, the leaves of calaminth and rue, the roots of acorus andlong birthwort, the juice of maudlin made thick, bitter almonds, ofeach two drams, hart-tongue, the roots of round cypress, madder, gumlac of each one dram.

It cleanses and strengthens the neck and throat, and helpsthose swellings which, when people have, they say the almonds of theears are fallen down it is excellently good for the rankness of thegums, a safe and present remedy for the king evil they are excellentfor the stone and gravel, especially the nuts, being dried they alsoresist poison, and bitings of venomous beasts campion, wild descript the wild white campion has thesis long and essaywhat broaddark green leaves lying upon the ground, and divers ribs therein, essaywhat like plantain, but essaywhat hairy, broader, but not so long the hairy stalks rise up in the middle of them three or four feet high, and essaytimes more, with divers great white joints at several placesthereon, and two such like leaves thereat up to the top, sending forthbranches at several joints also. All which bear on several foot-stalkswhite flowers at the tops of them, consisting of five broad pointedleaves, every one cut in on the end unto the middle, making them seemto be two a-piece, smelling essaywhat sweet, and each of them standingin a large green striped hairy husk, large and round below next to thestalk the seed is small and greyish in the hard heads that come upafterwards the root is white and long, spreading divers fangs in theground the red wild campion grows in the same manner as the white. But itsleaves are not so plainly ribbed, essaywhat shorter, rounder, and morewoolly in handling the flowers are of the same form and bigness. Butin essay of a pale, in others of a bright red colour, cut in at the endsmore finely, which makes the leaves look more in number than the other the seeds and the roots are alike, the roots of both sorts abiding thesisyears there are forty-five kinds of campion more, those of them which are ofa physical use, having the like virtues with those above described, which i take to be the two chief kinds place they grow commonly through this land by fields andhedge-sides, and ditches time they flower in summer, essay earlier than others, and essayabiding longer than others government and virtues they belong to saturn, and it is found byexperience, that the decoction of the herb, either in white or red winebeing drank, doth stay inward bleedings, and applied outwardly it doesthe like. And being drank, helps to expel urine, being stopped, andgravel and stone in the reins and kidneys two drams of the seed drankin wine, purges the body of choleric humours, and helps those that arestung by scorpions, or other venomous beasts, and may be as effectualfor the plague it is of very good use in old sores, ulcers, cankers, fistulas, and the like, to cleanse and heat them, by consuming themoist humours falling into them and correcting the putrefaction ofhumours offending them carduus benedictus it is called carduus benedictus, or blessed thistle, or holy thistle i suppose the name was put upon it by essay that had little holinessthemselves i shall spare a labour in writing a description of this as almost everyone that can but write at all, may describe them from his own knowledge time they flower in august, and seed not long after government and virtues it is an herb of mars, and under the signof aries now, in handling this herb, i shall give you a rationalpattern of all the rest. And if you please to view them throughout thebook, you shall, to your content, find it true it helps swimming andgiddiness of the head, or the disease called vertigo, because ariesis in the house of mars it is an excellent remedy against the yellowjaundice and other infirmities of the gall, because mars governscholer it strengthens the attractive faculty in man, and clarifies theblood, because the one is ruled by mars the continual drinking thedecoction of it, helps red faces, tetters, and ring-worms, because marscauses them it helps the plague, sores, boils, and itch, the bitingsof mad dogs and venomous beasts, all which infirmities are under mars;thus you see what it doth by sympathy by antipathy to other planets it cures the french pox by antipathy tovenus, who governs it, it strengthens the memory, and cures deafness byantipathy to saturn, who has his fall in aries, which rules the head it cures quartan agues, and other diseases of melancholy, and adustcholer, by sympathy to saturn, mars being exalted in capricorn alsoprovokes urine, the stopping of which is usually caused by mars or themoon carrots garden carrots are so well known, that they need no description. Butbecause they are of less physical use than the wild kind as indeedalmost in all herbs the wild are the most effectual in physic, as beingmore powerful in operation than the garden kinds, i shall thereforebriefly describe the wild carrot descript it grows in a manner altogether like the tame, but thatthe leaves and stalks are essaywhat whiter and rougher the stalks bearlarge tufts of white flowers, with a deep purple spot in the middle, which are contracted together when the seed begins to ripen, that themiddle writing being hollow and low, and the outward stalk rising high, makes the whole umbel to show like a bird nest the root small, long, and hard, and unfit for meat, being essaywhat sharp and strong place the wild kind grows in divers writings of this land plentifullyby the field-sides, and untilled places time they flower and seed in the end of summer government and virtues wild carrots belong to mercury, andtherefore break wind, and remove stitches in the sides, provoke urineand women courses, and helps to break and expel the stone. The seedalso of the same works the like effect, and is good for the dropsy, and those whose bellies are swelling with wind. Helps the cholic, thestone in the kidneys, and rising of the mother. Being taken in wine, orboiled in wine and taken, it helps conception the leaves being appliedwith honey to running sores or ulcers, do cleanse them i suppose the seeds of them perform this better than the roots. Andthough galen commended garden carrots highly to break wind, yetexperience teaches they breed it first, and we may thank nature forexpelling it, not they. The seeds of them expel wind indeed, and essaynd what the root marrs carraway it is on account of the seeds principally that the carraway iscultivated descript it bears divers stalks of fine cut leaves, lying upon theground, essaywhat like to the leaves of carrots, but not bushing sothick, of a little quick taste in them, from among which rises up asquare stalk, not so high as the carrot, at whose joints are set thelike leaves, but smaller and finer, and at the top small open tufts, orumbels of white flowers, which turn into small blackish seed, smallerthan the anniseed, and of a quicker and hotter taste the root iswhitish, small and long, essaywhat like unto a parsnip, but with morewrinkled bark, and much less, of a little hot and quick taste, andstronger than the parsnip, and abides after seed-time place it is usually sown with us in gardens time they flower in june and july, and seed quickly after government and virtues this is also a mercurial plant carrawayseed has a moderate sharp quality, whereby it breaks wind and provokesurine, which also the herb doth the root is better food than theparsnip. It is pleasant and comfortable to the stomach, and helpsdigestion the seed is conducing to all cold griefs of the head andstomach, bowels, or mother, as also the wind in them, and helps tosharpen the eye-sight the powder of the seed put into a poultice, takes away black and blue spots of blows and bruises the herb itself, or with essay of the seed bruised and fried, laid hot in a bag or doublecloth, to the lower writings of the belly, eases the pains of the windcholic the roots of carraway eaten as men do parsnips, strengthen the stomachof ancient people exceedingly, and they need not to make a whole mealof them neither, and are fit to be planted in every garden carraway comfits, once only dipped in sugar, and half a spoonful ofthem eaten in the morning fasting, and as thesis after each meal, is amost admirable remedy, for those that are troubled with wind celandine descript this hath divers tender, round, whitish green stalks, with greater joints than ordinary in other herbs as it were knees, very brittle and easy to break, from whence grow branches with largetender broad leaves, divided into thesis writings, each of them cut in onthe edges, set at the joint on both sides of the branches, of a darkblueish green colour, on the upper side like columbines, and of a morepale blueish green underneath, full of yellow sap, when any is broken, of a bitter taste, and strong scent at the flowers, of four leavesa-piece, after which come small long pods, with blackish seed therein the root is essaywhat great at the head, shooting forth divers longroots and small strings, reddish on the outside, and yellow within, full of yellow sap therein place they grow in thesis places by old walls, hedges and way-sidesin untilled places. And being once planted in a garden, especially essayshady places, it will remain there time they flower all the summer, and the seed ripens in the meantime government and virtues this is an herb of the sun, and under thecelestial lion, and is one of the best cures for the eyes. For, allthat know any thing in astrology, know that the eyes are subject to theluminaries.

They take away obstructionsor stoppings, open the pores of the skin, but not in the same mannerthat such do as are hot in the first degree, for they do it withoutforce, by a gentle heat, concocting, and expelling the humours, bystrengthening and helping nature in the work. But these cut toughhumours, and scatter them by their own force and power when naturecannot of medicines hot in the third degree those which attain the third degree of heat, have the same facultieswith those before mentioned. But as they are hotter, so are they morepowerful in their operations, for they are so powerful in heating andcutting, that if unadvisedly given they cause fevers use their useis to cut tough and compacted humours, to provoke sweat abundantly;hence it comes to pass they all of them resist poison of medicines hot in the fourth degree those medicines obtain the highest degree of heat, which are so hotthat they burn the body of a man, being outwardly applied to it, andcause inflammations, or raise blisters, as crowfoot, mustard-seed, onions, &c of these more hereafter of cooling medicines physicians have also observed four degrees of coldness in medicines, which i shall briefly treat of in order of medicines cold in the first degree those medicines which are least cold of all, obtain the first degree ofcoldness. And i beseech you take notice of this, that seeing our bodiesare nourished by heat, and we live by heat, therefore no cold medicinesare friendly to the body, but what good they do our bodies, they do itby removing an unnatural heat, or the body heated above its naturaltemper the giving then of cold medicines to a man in his natural temper, theseason of the year also being but moderately hot, extinguishes naturalheat in the body of man yet have these a necessary use in them too, though not so frequent ashot medicines have. And that may be the reason why an all wise god hathfurnished us with far more hot herbs and plants, &c than cold use 1 their use is first, in nourishment, that so the heat of foodmay be qualified, and made for a weak stomach to digest use 2 secondly, to restrain and assuage the heat of the bowels, andto cool the blood in fevers therefore if the distemper of heat be but gentle, medicines cold inthe first degree will suffice. Also children, and such people whosestomachs are weak, are easily hurt by cold medicines of medicines cold in the second and third degree use 1 such whose stomachs are strong, and livers hot, may easilybear such medicines as are cold in the second degree, and in paper ofextremity find much help by them. As also by such as are cold in thethird degree, the extremity of the disease considered, for by boththese the unbridled heat of choler is assuaged use 2 also they are outwardly applied to hot swellings, dueconsideration being had, that if the inflammation be not great, usethose that are less. If the inflammation be vehement, make use ofmedicines cold in the second or third degree, always let the remedycorrespond to the just proportion of the affliction use 3 thirdly, essaytimes the spirits are moved inordinately throughheat, thence follows immoderate watchings, if not deprivation of thesenses, this also must be remedied with cold medicines, for cold stopsthe pores of the skin, makes the humours thick, represses sweat, andkeeps up the spirits from fainting of medicines cold in the fourth degree lastly, the use of medicines cold in the fourth degree, is, to mitigatedesperate and vehement pains, stupifying the senses, when no othercourse can be taken to save life. Of the use of which more hereafter of moistening medicines there can be no such difference found amongst moistening medicines, that they should surpass the second degree for seeing all medicinesare either hot or cold, neither heat nor cold, seeing they areextremes, can consist with moisture, for the one dries it up, the othercondensates it use phylosophers therefore call moisture and dryness, passivequalities, yet have they their operation likewise. For moist medicineslenify and make slippery, ease the cough, and help the roughness of thethroat these operations are proper to medicines moist in the firstdegree those which are moister, take away naturally strength, help thesharpness of humours, make both blood and spirits thicker, looses thebelly, and fits it for purgation the immoderate or indiscreet use of them dulls the body, and makes itunfit for action of drying medicines drying medicines have contrary faculties to these, viz to consumemoisture, stop fluxes, and make such writings dry as are slippery, theymake the body and members firm, when they are weakened by too muchmoisture, that so they may perform their proper functions yet although the members be strengthened by drying medicines, they havenotwithstanding their own proper moisture in them, which ought to beconserved, and not destroyed, for without it they cannot consist. Ifthen this moisture be consumed by using, or rather over use of dryingmedicines, the members can neither be nourished, nor yet perform theirproper actions such medicines as are dry in the third degree, being unadvisedlygiven, hinder the writings of the body they are appropriated to, of theirnourishment, and by that means brings them into consumption besides, there is a certain moisture in the body of man, which iscalled radical moisture, which being taken away, the writings must needsdie, seeing natural heat and life also consists in it, and this may bedone by too frequent use of medicines dry in the fourth degree.

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Mittheil d wien med doct colleg , 1878, iv , p 45 - a man found hanging the examiner declared that he had hunghimself eight years afterward, suspicion of violence a commissionappointed the protocol essay concerning human understanding pdf had shown the blood fluid. A red-brown dryfurrow around the neck. Ecchymoses in connective tissues of same;the entire back and posterior writings of limbs showed post-mortemsuggillation the commission declared that the man had been strangled, had lain for at least three hours on his back, and then been hung up the murderer confessed 21 ibid , p 46 - woman, age 50, found dead in bed blood fluid. Twoecchymoses size of beans in crico-thyroid muscles of each side.