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6 8 amperes the accident took placeout-of-doors on a very rainy night the amount of electricity which thepatient received was, as in all such paper, very uncertain fatal current the amount of current which will produce a fatal effect varies withthe character of the current and with the points of contact currentspassing through the head or those which affect the pneumogastric nervesare much more dangerous than others of the same character and equalstrength passing through one extremity, for example the same current will, of course, also produce different effects, according to the facility of its conduction into and through the body, and this depends again on the completeness of the contact and whetherthe body or the portion thereof concerned enters directly into thecircuit or only forms, as it were, a writingial conductor and diverts acertain portion only of the current to itself again, the condition ofthe epidermis, whether dry or wet, and the position of the person inrelation to good conductors, metallic or otherwise, has much effect if the skin and clothes be wet, the resistance to the current islessened and it passes more readily into the body in the same way, ifa person stands in close relation to a good conductor and places hishand on one wire of a high-tension electric circuit, he will receive amuch more severe shock than if not connected with such conductor thusa person standing in a pool of water water is a good conductor, andmore strongly if standing on the metallic rail of a railway track, andtouching one wire of an electric circuit with one hand, receives a muchstronger shock than if he were standing on dry land, or if his bootswere rubber or he was otherwise insulated the accidents most frequent in practice are those in which the currenthas been writingially diverted from its original course and the person hasnot entered fully into the circuit in such paper it is not usuallypossible to estimate accurately or even approximately the amount ofcurrent which the person has received no calculations can, therefore, be based on these accidents again, we find that a person may beseriously or even fatally injured by a current which another personseems to bear with impunity d’arsonval in 1887, in france, advised 500 volts as the maximum forthe continuous current and 60 volts as the maximum for the alternatingcurrent which might be employed without special permission our only accurate knowledge in regard to fatal currents comes from theexperience derived from electrocutions from these it appears that analternating current of 1, 500 volts is deadly if it passes through thebody for more than a few seconds and if the contact is perfect death - death may ensue immediately as the result of an electricshock without any evident preliminary symptoms, or it may occur later, either as the direct result of the shock or as the consequence of theexhaustion produced by the burns and other injuries, or directly fromthe injuries themselves if death does not occur immediately and ifappropriate means of aid are at hand, the sufferer usually survivesand the effect of the electric essay byline crossword clue shock gradually passes away the dangerafter this arises from the burns and other injuries, and almost all thedeaths not immediate are the results of these electrocution electricity has been adopted in the state of new york as the agentfor the execution of condemned criminals this has given rise to muchdiscussion as to what form of current were the best adapted for thispurpose and as to what amount were required to produce death at onceand painlessly these questions may now be regarded as practicallysettled, at least so far as regards the purposes mentioned, and weshall only refer incidentally to the discussions and their results early in 1890 a committee consisting of dr carlos f macdonald, dr a d rockwell, and prof l h landy made a report to the superintendentof prisons at albany in regard to the efficiency of the electricalappliances and dynamos placed in the state prisons of sing sing, auburn, and clinton this report gave details of various experimentsmade on animals to determine the amount of current and the timerequired to produce a fatal result on the 6th of august, 1890, occurred the first electrocution, that ofwilliam kemmler, alias john hart, at auburn prison dr macdonald inhis official report to the governor in relation to this says. “it isconfidently believed that when all the facts in the case are rightlyunderstood the first execution by electricity will be regarded asa successful experiment as might have been expected at the firstexecution by this method, there were certain defects of a minorcharacter in the arrangement and operation of the apparatus but inspite of these defects the important fact remains that unconsciousnesswas instantly effected and death was painless ”the efficiency, rapidity, and painlessness of this form of executionhave been confirmed by the later experiences up to the present date may 26th, 1892 eight condemned criminals have been executed in thestate of new york apparently all the officials who are intrusted withthe care and inspection of this subject seem satisfied that this is, onthe whole, the wisest, easiest, and most effective form of death thusfar practised among civilized nations the medico-legal journal ofnew york, in printing the official report of the recent executions offour men made by drs c f macdonald and s b ward to the warden ofsing sing prison, states that it furnishes “indisputable evidence ofthe fact 1 that the deaths were painless and the victims unconsciousfrom the instant of contact. 2 that they were certain and unattendedwith any of the revolting scenes so frequently witnessed at thescaffold. 3 that the method is humane so far as inflicting physicalpain or suffering, and from all sides considered infinitely preferableto the death by hanging. And that so long as capital punishment formurder exists in new york, we need not desire to change the method ofpunishment ” these claims would seem to be thus far substantiated the value of this method of execution is now beyond doubt whenproperly performed it is rapid, painless, and not repulsive thecriminal has probably no physical sensation of pain or discomfort dueto the mode of death from the moment the first shock occurs since therapidity of the transmission of the electric current through the bodyis in these paper much greater than the rapidity of the transmissionof sensation, it seems just to conclude that no sensation from theelectricity reaches the consciousness the only distress sufferedby the criminal is the unavoidable mental suffering natural to hisposition the mechanical means employed in electrocution are practically thesame at sing sing, clinton, and auburn prisons a special room isprovided for the purpose, which should be, if possible, in thebasement with a concrete floor. This room must be of sufficient sizeto admit readily the criminal with the attendant officers, the wardenand other officials in charge or on duty at the execution, and thewitnesses for whom seats are usually provided at a little distancefrom the criminal chair, and also to allow of plenty of room for themanagement of the electrical apparatus, and a good space around thechair in which the criminal is placed the electrical plant consists ofan alternating-current dynamo and its accessories, placed wherever maybe convenient, according to the arrangements of the buildings of theinstitution, but connected by means of wires with the switch-board inthe execution-room in the execution-room also should be the voltmeter, the ammeter, and such other instruments of measurement or precision asmay be required in charge of these and of the switch-board during theexecution is the electrical expert, an official paid by the state ofnew york means of communication by electric bells or otherwise are, ofcourse, arranged between the execution-room and the engineer in chargeof the dynamo, so that the current can be produced as desired the chair in which the criminal is placed is made of stout beams of oakand is securely fastened to the floor and insulated it is perfectlyplain, with broad arms and an upright back, which latter can be tiltedbackward a little by means of a special arrangement and firmly fixed inthe desired position this is accomplished by means of a bar of woodwhich is firmly attached at one end to the lower portion of the backand runs forward thence parallel to the seat of the chair and alongsideof it. To the anterior end of this is fastened a perpendicular barrunning downward, which can be raised or lowered at will, and securelyfastened at any height as this is raised or lowered, it raises orlowers the anterior end of the horizontal beam and correspondinglylowers or raises the opposite end to which the back of the chairis attached, thus moving the latter when the anterior end of thehorizontal bar is raised the posterior end is lowered and the back ofthe chair is straightened attached to the upper portion of the back ofthe chair is a head-rest, which can be raised or lowered as desired.

this manifests either ignorance onthe writing of the manufacturers, or an effort to impose on the medicalprofession both belladonna and hyoscyamus contain variable amountsof similar alkaloids, chiefly hyoscyamin hyoscyamus is feeblerthan belladonna in its action, as it contains less alkaloid thequalitative differences between the two drugs, with reference to theiruse as laxatives, is so slight as to make the company claim forhyoscyamus appear either deliberately misleading or to be the resultof crass ignorance promoting this mixture of well-known laxatives andcathartics essay byline crossword clue as an “ideal aid to any remedial agent when a mild, mediumor strong alimentary stimulant is needed” is a slur on the intelligenceof physicians pil cascara compound-robins is not acceptable for new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , jan 27, 1917 casta-flora report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycasta-flora is one of those complex preparations which are offeredto the medical profession, with plausible arguments in support ofthe claims made it is put out by the wm s merrell chemical co , cincinnati each fluidounce is said to represent. “castanea, fresh leaves, 40 gr. Passiflora, fresh plant, 40 gr. Gelsemium, green tincture, 8 minims. Inula, represented by the camphoraceous stearoptene helenin, 20 grs. Iodized lime, 8 grs. Menthol, 1-4 grs. Aromatic syrup yerba santa, 60 minims ”it is said to be. “a new combination of well-tried remedies of especial value in pertussis and other spasmodic coughs it is composed of astringent, antispasmodic, sedative and expectorant agents, that control the paroxysms, relieve the irritation, promote expectoration, and give tone to mucous membranes involved ”still more exaggerated claims are made for the individual constituentsof casta-flora, writingly by direct statement, writingly by inference forexample. “castanea is almost a specific in whooping cough and other spasmodic coughs “passiflora is a narcotic, sedative and antispasmodic without habit-forming properties, nor does it lock up the secretions and upset digestion like opiates “inula elecampane has been employed as a cough remedy in england for centuries its action is similar to guaiacol and creosote its active principle, helenin, is destructive of tubercle bacilli in dilutions of 1 to 10, 000 “iodized lime, menthol, and yerba santa are too well known as expectorants and antiseptics to require more than passing mention ”that casta-flora is a “new” combination may be admitted.

And there is nothing to guide in thefurther use of the nostrum, for mixtures of narcotics commonly havemuch less uniformity of action than a single drug the irritant action of hydrated chloral on the stomach can be avoidedby the use of bland fluids or essay byline crossword clue dilute solutions the following serves asan example of the way in which it may be prescribed conveniently. Gm or c c hydrated chloral 2|6 gr xl syrup of orange peel | water of each 30| fl ℥ ia tablespoonful 15 0 c c of this mixture, containing 10 grains 0 65 gm of hydrated chloral, will often induce sleep in the absenceof severe pain or serious disturbance, and seldom does this dose haveto be repeated more than once in such simple paper hydrated chloralis often used in essaywhat smaller doses in combination with potassiumbromid, which may be prescribed in a mixture such as the following. gm or c c hydrated chloral 1|3 gr xx potassium bromid 3|9 gr lx syrup of orange peel | water of each 30| fl ℥ iin producing sleep when severe pain is absent this is as effective asthe preceding, in similar doses the use of repeated doses of hydratedchloral in such a mixture as this, or in the form of bromidia or othernostrum when sleeplessness is due to severe pain is highly dangerous it should be remembered that while hydrated chloral is an effectivehypnotic in case of simple sleeplessness, it is not actively analgesicexcept in distinctly dangerous doses bromidia in repeated doses willinduce sleep even in the presence of pain, of course.

To the anterior end of this is fastened a perpendicular barrunning downward, which can be raised or lowered at will, and securelyfastened at any height as this is raised or lowered, it raises orlowers the anterior end of the horizontal beam and correspondinglylowers or raises the opposite end to which the back of the chairis attached, thus moving the latter when the anterior end of thehorizontal bar is raised the posterior end is lowered and the back ofthe chair is straightened attached to the upper portion of the back ofthe chair is a head-rest, which can be raised or lowered as desired. Itmay, as in the case of kemmler, have a horizontal arm which projectsforward and from which the head-electrode may be suspended the chairis also furnished with broad leather straps firmly attached, two ofwhich pass around the body, one around each upper arm, one around eachlower arm, and one around each leg there is also a broad conjoinedor compound strap which passes over the head, encircling the foreheadand the chin and securing the head firmly to the head-rest whenthese straps are properly adjusted and fastened, any marked degree ofmovement is impossible the adjustment and fastening of these strapscan be performed very rapidly, in practiced hands taking not more thanforty seconds the electrodes used have varied slightly in different paper in thecase of kemmler they each consisted of a bell-shaped rubber cup aboutfour inches in diameter, with a wooden handle through which passedthe wires into the bell to end in a metallic disk about three inchesin diameter, faced with sponge the upper electrode was so arrangedas to rest firmly on the top of the head, where it was held closelyby means of a spiral spring. It was attached to the horizontal arm ofthe head-rest, a sliding arrangement shaped like a figure 4 the lower electrode was in this case attached to the lower writing of theback of the chair, and projected forward at a level with the hollow ofthe sacrum there was also connected with it a sliding arrangement, and a spiral spring which in connection with a broad strap around theprisoner lower abdomen rendered contact secure in the later executions these electrodes have been essaywhat modifiedand differently applied the head-electrode is now so formed as tocover the forehead and temples, and can be easily fastened in thisposition without a spring the lower electrodes have been applied tothe leg in each case, essaytimes apparently to the calf and essaytimesmore to the outer side, where they are securely strapped they aremade of such a shape as to cover a considerable portion of the surfacein this region it is not a matter of importance to which leg theindifferent electrode is attached, but they have actually been appliedin most paper to the right leg, though in essay they were attached tothe left they are thoroughly moistened, usually with a solution ofsalt and water, and a drip may be arranged so as to keep them wetduring the passage of the current or other means employed to thiseffect the electromotive pressure, as shown by readings of the voltmeter byprofessor laudy, in the paper of slocum, smiler, hood, jugigo, andloppy, varied from 1, 458 to 1, 716 volts the ammeter showed a variationof from two to seven amperes the alternating current in the case of mcelvaine made roughly 150periods per second the number of contacts made in each case and the duration of eachcontact were as follows. ═══════════════════╤════════════╤═════════════════════════════════════ │ │ time, seconds │ number of ├─────────┬────────┬────────┬───────── │ contacts │ 1st │ 2d │ 3d │ 4th ───────────────────┼────────────┼─────────┼────────┼────────┼───────── kemmler │ 2 │ 17 │ 70 │ │ slocum │ 2 │ 27 │ 26 │ │ smiler │ 4 │ 10 │ 10 │ 10 │ 19 hood │ 3 │ 20 │ 20 │ 20 │ jugigo │ 3 │ 15 │ 15 │ 15 │ loppy │ 4 │ 15 │ 11 │ 15½ │ 10½ mcelvaine │ 2 │ 50 │ 36 │ │ tice │ 4 │ total time, 50 ───────────────────┴────────────┴─────────────────────────────────────in the case of mcelvaine, the first contact of fifty seconds was madethrough the hands, the second contact of thirty-six seconds from thehead to the leg the hands were immersed in cells containing tepidsalt water, connected respectively with the opposite poles of thedynamo kennelly states that in this case, with the hands immersedand the electromotive force at 1, 600 volts, the current began at 2 0amperes, and in fifty seconds had increased to 3 1 amperes, indicatinga resistance between the electrodes of from 800 ohms at the beginningto 516 ohms at the end in the second application from the foreheadto the leg with an electromotive force of 1, 500 volts, the currentamounted to 7 0 amperes during the thirty-six seconds contact, indicating a resistance practically steady at 214 ohms alternating currents of from 1, 600 to 1, 700 volts and upward may beconsidered fatal currents, and as capable of producing death whencontact is perfect dr macdonald goes so far as to say. No human beingcould survive the passage through his body of an alternating currentof more than 1, 500 volts for a period of even twenty seconds, contactbeing perfect ”the physical phenomena caused in the body by electrocution as atpresent conducted are comparatively simple, and such as we shouldlogically expect the instant the body of the patient enters into thecircuit of the current, all the voluntary muscles appear to be throwninto a condition of violent contraction which continues so long asthe current lasts, and on cessation of the current is replaced bya condition of extreme muscular relaxation all consciousness isapparently lost immediately on the application of the current thisprobably has never returned in any case, but on the removal of the bodyfrom the circuit of the current the relaxation of the muscles causesmovement, and essaytimes, as in the case of kemmler, slight spasmodicmovements of the chest have occurred the pupils in this case weredilated the condition of contraction and rigidity is renewed at eachnew application of the current, to cease immediately when the currentis removed in kemmler chest movements and possibly heart-beat occurred after thefirst contact, the former perhaps half a minute after the cessation ofthe current in slocum there were chest movements and radial pulsation after thefirst contact in smiler no movement of the chest, but radial pulsationafter the third contact in jugigo a slight fluttering of the radialpulse when final contact was broken, which rapidly ceased in hood nomovement or pulse-beat in essay of the patients superficial burns have been caused by imperfectcontact of the electrodes, either on the head or at the position of thelower electrode in kemmler case the cerebral cortex was essaywhataffected under the head-electrode the practical effect of the application of the current to the criminalfastened in the death-chair, as seen by the bystander, is thatimmediately on its reaching him the whole body is straightened andrendered rigid in extension, the extremities tend to straighten out, and the face may grow red and turgid there is reported at timesswelling and turgidity of the neck the whole body remains in thistetanic, stiffened condition until the removal of the current, when allthe muscles relax and the body sinks back into the chair in a state ofcomplete muscular collapse mental or psychical symptoms the third class of results which are found after electrical shocksfrom high-tension currents are the mental or psychical by the use ofthese terms we do not wish to imply that they are voluntary they are, however, so far as our present knowledge of pathology reaches, largelyfunctional this is precisely the class of paper which, when resultingfrom railway accidents, are placed under the head of railway-brainor railway-spine they may be considered in the present state of ourknowledge as traumatic functional neuroses, though it is probable thatwhen our means of examination and investigation are more completewe may succeed in discovering a visible or perceptible lesion thesymptoms affecting motion and sensation in these paper are frequentlyaccompanied by others of an emotional character, and in thesis paperthere seem to be writingially or wholly voluntary conditions and symptomswith the involuntary there is in thesis paper a characteristic loss ordiminution of the force and power of volition, but in others this isnot perceptible these conditions are so well known when produced by other causes thatwe do not consider it proper to enter into a full consideration of themhere, but we cannot leave this important subject without a few generalremarks no form of affection or disease has caused more discussion among themedical profession or figured more prominently in the courts than this, and even now there are thesis questions in relation to these conditionsstill under dispute our own view, confirmed both by observation andexperience, is that the tendency in new england, at least, has beenon the whole to underrate the severity, the duration, and the amountof suffering caused by these conditions that because there havebeen paper of malingering, of deception, and of rapid cure afterthe receipt of damages, and because in addition to this a certainvisible emotional and at times apparently controllable element exists, the profession, and above all the laity, are led to conclude thatthis forms the essential condition and basis of the disease on thecontrary, in a very large proportion of paper the symptoms are such ascannot possibly be voluntarily assumed. They produce extreme discomfortand often much suffering for the patient, and frequently last foryears, rendering their victims incapable of carrying on their formeroccupations fortunately in the patients suffering from electric shock theseverer forms of these affections are not so common in most of thepaper reported recovery has been more or less rapid paper in whichprevious hysteria or neurasthenia have existed are more liable tothese manifestations than persons of a previously equable nervousconstitution, but these latter are by no means wholly exempt toconsider these conditions, as is essaytimes done, as the fault of thepatient seems to us both unwarrantable and unjust lightning we now come to the consideration of the action of electricity inanother form, that of natural electricity or lightning the effectsof this are practically the same as those of the forms previouslydescribed, except such differences as seem to be fairly accounted forby the vastly greater force of the currents with which we have todeal injuries and deaths from lightning stroke have been recognizedand described for thesis centuries, and we have now a large collectionof careful observations on them they occur in most temperate regionswith comparative frequency in france the number of deaths from 1835to 1852 inclusive eighteen years was 1, 308 in england, includingwales, there were in twenty years, 1865 to 1884 inclusive, 416 deaths in 1846 mr eben merriam, of brookline, wrote to mr arago that in thethree last years about 150 persons had been killed by lightning in theunited states in thirty years, from 1855 to 1884 inclusive, we find101 deaths in massachusetts from this cause exposure - injuries and deaths from lightning may occur in variousplaces and under various conditions the severe lightning strokes arepopularly supposed to occur only during thunder-storms, and in thislatitude this is undoubtedly, as a rule, true, but lightning strokesare reported to have occurred, writingicularly in the south, from a clearsky, and there seems no reason to doubt that this may happen it issaid also that dangerous discharges from the earth to the atmospheremay take place at a considerable distance from an atmospheric storm as a rule, the lightning is more likely to strike essay tall object, as a tree or a tower or steeple, and for this reason, and to avoidinjury from falling branches, the shelter of trees should not be soughtduring thunder-storms if lightning stroke be dreaded ships at sea arefrequently struck by lightning, writingly perhaps on account of the heightof the masts and writingly on account of the metal in or on them lightning obeys the same general laws as the other forms ofelectricity and naturally follows the paths of least resistance persons, therefore, who are in the neighborhood of or in contactwith good conductors are in more danger of injury by lightning thanwhen surrounded by or in contact with poor conductors the proximityor contact of a large metallic object exposed in a thunder-storm isconsequently more or less dangerous on the other hand, the absenceof tall objects or of specially good conductors of any kind does notinsure safety in thesis paper persons in fields are struck, and paperare related of persons struck on the prairies in the west in fredetcase a shepherd was found dead in the midst of the barren moors landes in southern france more accidents appear to occur directly to persons out-of-doors thanto those in houses or other buildings when inside buildings, personsstruck are usually near an open door or window through which thelightning enters, and they are more exposed to danger from this sourceif there be essay metal object or good conductor in the vicinity persons carrying or wearing metallic objects render themselves therebymore liable to be injured in this way not only does the liability to injury from lightning vary essaywhataccording to the exposure or position of the person, both in relationto the free access of the atmospheric air and to the contact with orneighborhood of metallic objects or other good conductors, but alsothe severity of the injuries may be largely dependent upon what theyare wearing or carrying and the condition of their clothing at thetime if the clothing be wet it will act as a good conductor, as willalso any metallic object about the person we have already referred tothe action of metallic objects upon the passage of the electricity toand from the body and to the condition of the skin in relation thereto the laws of conduction and resistance are precisely the same for theelectricity of lightning as for the other forms hence the greater theresistance to the electricity at the points where it enters or leavesthe body, the deeper will be the burn thus we find not infrequentlythat the lightning, in its course from the head to the feet, meets witha chain or a truss, and almost invariably at least a portion of thecurrent follows this, causing a deep burn where it again passes intothe skin all the external burns of the lightning, except the initialone, are determined by the position and conditions of the body, theclothing, and the conductors near all electricity obeys the same lawand, roughly speaking, follows the path or paths of least resistance the clothing worn by a person when struck by lightning may be actedupon in the most various ways essaytimes it is wholly stripped off theunfortunate sufferer, who, as in a case reported by cook and boulting, may have to be protected with sacks or other hastily improvisedcoverings in a case reported by nason, a girl of thirteen was struckwhile in the street and most of her clothes stripped off and torn toshreds, and the top of her hat, which contained steel wires, was tornfrom the brim in the case of wilks the body was stripped entirelynaked and absolutely nothing left on except a portion of the left armof the man flannel shirt the clothing is essaytimes torn to thefinest shreds, like those of a mouse nest, as described by van horn, and in another case claes, where the patient was struck while onboard ship, his woollen jacket was torn into fine bits, which stuckto the ropes, and the deck was covered with fibres of wool as fine asthose of cotton-wool in this case the woof of the trousers was said tohave been wholly destroyed, while the web was untouched the clothing is also often burnt not only are holes burnt in it as isusually the case at the point where the lightning strikes and at thepoint where it leaves the body, but it may be set on fire it may befound smoking or in flames of all portions of the clothing injured, perhaps the coverings of thefeet are the most frequently so, as the electricity is very apt toleave the body through the feet, and the resistance opposed is great hence the boot or shoe is frequently injured essaytimes it is piercedas by a bullet, or a large hole is torn in it, or it may be torn topieces or reduced almost to lint, while the foot remains uninjured itmay be torn, shrivelled, and burnt in one case the soles of the shoeshad disappeared. In another the leg of the boot was clearly dividedfrom the sole and both straps were torn out. While again in another theshoe was carried wholly off the amount of injury to the clothing does not necessarily correspond tothe amount done to the body a person may be killed by lightning whilethe clothing is uninjured on the other hand, the clothing may be tornto pieces, carried away, or even writingially burnt, while the portion ofthe body underneath remains unhurt symptomatology - the symptoms of stroke by lightning resemble, in ageneral way, those due to high-tension currents of electricity as inthe case of the latter, they can be divided into the direct, producedimmediately by the lightning itself, and the indirect, or secondary, produced through the medium of other factors in the milder paper the person struck feels dazed and benumbed andmay or may not lose consciousness for a short time at the momentstruck they may have the sensation of a blow, and they often see ablinding flash on recovery of their faculties there may be a temporaryanæsthesia or weakness of one or more extremities, which rarely lastsmore than twenty-four hours there is a general shock to the system, essaytimes slight loss of memory for a time, and occasionally nauseaand vomiting there are often discolorations of the skin of mediumextent, and frequently burns and blisters these persons have usuallyreceived the stroke on one extremity or have escaped the full force in the more severe paper the patient loses consciousness immediatelyand may continue unconscious for essay hours he passes into a conditionof collapse with rapid, feeble pulse and cold extremities, and thepupils are dilated on recovery of his senses the same symptoms as inthe less severe paper, only more pronounced, are found the loss ofmemory may be marked and the intellect temporarily weakened, while theweakness and anæsthesia of the extremities persist longer the externalinjuries, burns, and wounds are liable to be more severe in the fatal paper where death is directly due to the electricity it isusually instantaneous or at least without recovery of consciousness itmay be caused by shock or by apoplexy, i e , intracranial hemorrhageor by the direct effect of the electricity on the brain of coursedeath is often due to burns or to indirect traumatic injuries the indirect traumatic injuries caused by lightning are due either tothe loss of consciousness of the patient, which causes him to fall andthus sustain injury, or to the direct action of the electricity uponhim, knocking him down or throwing him to essay distance, essaytimeswith great violence, or lastly, and perhaps the most frequent cause, to the impact or pressure of objects which are torn or cast down bythe electricity and by striking or falling on a person produce greatinjury thus persons have been killed by the fall of buildings, sheds, or trees which were struck by the lightning, or their branches ofcourse all kinds of traumata may be produced thus the direct external injuries caused by lightning are burns, subcutaneous hemorrhages, discolorations and markings of the skineither dendritic or metallic, lacerations or wounds burns occur in nearly all, perhaps all, severe paper of lightningstroke they may be of any or all degrees, and may extend over verysmall points or over the whole or nearly the whole body they mayconsist in a simple singeing of the hair, or they may be very deep andextend to the bone as before stated, the deep burns are found at thepoints of resistance to the current, at its points of entrance and exitfrom the body, and, to a lesser degree, at all points where its courseis impeded this occurs wherever the clothes are fastened tightly orpressed against the body, hence especially at the neck, waist, knees, and essaytimes at the ankles the position of the burns is determined, therefore, by the point at which the lightning strikes the person, theposition at the moment, and by the arrangement of the dress and thepresence of metallic substances in the large majority of paper theupper portion of the body is the writing first touched by the lightning, and thence it descends along the body to the ground we are apt, therefore, to find a severe burn about the upper portion of the body, the head, neck, or shoulders. Then a scorching, singeing, or burning, more or less severe, in the form of a stripe or stripes more or lessbroad down the body. The burns being deeper where the clothes aretighter or where metallic objects come into contact with or are nearthe body. And finally a deep burn at the nearest point of contact withthe ground, usually the heel or essay portion of the foot the burns, however, vary greatly the eyes may be burnt and severelyinjured or destroyed the lightning has been known to enter the mouthand burn the mucous membrane within the deeper burns not infrequentlyassume the form of holes in heusner paper about twenty whitish-grayspots, varying from the size of a lentil to that of a pea, were foundon the soles of the feet the hair is usually singed and may be burntoff in large areas, or wholly as in a case reported by bernard wounds - these may be direct or indirect we shall speak here onlyof the first like burns they occur usually at the points of greatestresistance, that is, the places of entrance and exit, but they maybe found in any writing of the body they may be clean-cut, as if madeby a sharp knife, or they may be lacerated and ragged with the edgescontused or burnt they may consist of holes which look as if they hadbeen punched out contusions or ecchymoses these may also be produced directly by thelightning, and like burns and wounds are most apt to occur where theresistance is greatest they may be of considerable importance in amedico-legal sense, as in fredet case, where there were ecchymoseson the neck similar to those produced by the fingers of a hand appliedfor strangulation in the case related by cook and boulting the rightside of the body appeared like an exaggerated example of post-mortemstaining there are essaytimes found also dark-brown spots, small orlarge, which may be soft and, when cut, containing fluid blood, or theymay be hard and like parchment, dry, and bloodless on section closely connected with these are the so-called dendroid or dendriticmarks, which are dark-colored reddish bands or stripes, often more orless dichotomously branched, not disappearing under pressure, found onthe bodies of those struck by lightning though usually of the formmentioned, they may assume other shapes, as that of an irregular starwith zig-zag rays balfour has figured an excellent example of these metallic staining of the skin has been known to occur where metalswere in contact with it at the time of the lightning stroke thesestains may be permanent and are due to the introduction of the finelydivided metal richardson has succeeded in producing this artificiallyin animals he found two conditions required, that the metallicconductor should be sufficiently fine to offer resistance to thecurrent and that the current itself should be an electric discharge oflow tension loss of hair is said to have occurred from lightning, though the hairwas not burnt one case has been reported where after a severe strokeall the hair on the body is said to have fallen out symptoms under this heading we shall consider only such symptoms as are, so faras can be ascertained, the direct result of the electricity and notthose secondary to injuries we will consider first those relating to the nervous system loss of consciousness - this occurs to a greater or less extent inall but the very mildest paper it varies throughout all degrees froma slight momentary benumbing of the faculties to the most profoundstupor or coma it may then last hours or even days on recoverythe patient is apt to have essay loss of memory, to be dazed andconfused for essay time, and a certain obtuseness or blunting of theintellectual faculties may persist for a considerable period thisloss of consciousness is often accompanied by flushing of the face anddilatation of the pupils, or on the other hand the patient may presentall the symptoms of collapse loss of memory in regard to the lightning stroke after recovery ofconsciousness is not rare it is frequently complete so far as anyrecollection of the lightning goes, and there may be no remembrance ofthe thunder-storm essaytimes a defective memory persists together withgeneral mental impairment james mental disease - a condition of mental impairment lasting at leastweeks or months may occur mania and the delirium of terror are said tohave occurred various symptoms of the disturbance of the nervous equilibrium are notuncommon among these we may mention tremor, insomnia, and nervousdread of thunder-storms and of electricity there is no doubt that essaypersons who have been exposed to lightning stroke do, at least for atime, become unusually susceptible to the influences of atmosphericelectricity loss of motion paralysis - this is a very frequent result of astroke from lightning hemiplegia is not uncommon in bonnet casethe patient was struck on the head by the lightning, which caused alacerated wound in the left temple, but did not injure the aponeurosis on recovery of consciousness the patient was found to have a lefthemiplegia involving the face and both extremities accompaniedby a diminution of sensation over the left half of the body thesensation became normal in two days, but a writingial hemiplegia remainedpermanently in the case of durand there was a nearly complete righthemiplegia with accompanying hyperæsthesia and essay affection ofspeech deglutition and mastication were difficult, and there waspersistent hiccough there was photophobia and hyperæsthesia thepatient improved in two weeks and finally recovered there is often atemporary hemiplegia nearly all forms of paralyses of the extremities may occur we mayhave paralysis of all the extremities or of both arms or legs, ormonoplegias paraplegia occurs not very rarely it is usually of shortduration it may be accompanied by paralysis of the bladder singlemuscles or muscle groups only may be affected ptosis may occur with paralysis of other branches of the third nerve, causing diplopia facial paralysis occurs also alone. In one case itlasted only twenty-four hours, in another one month difficulty in mastication is essaytimes found, but much more frequentlydifficulty in deglutition is reported retention of urine, dysuria, or incontinentia urinæ may all occur, andthere is essaytimes a paralysis of the rectum, usually temporary, andessaytimes obstinate constipation, which in one case was combined withparalysis of the bladder and monoplegia aphasia in various degrees and various forms of dysphasia or difficultyin speech are not uncommon they are apt to be temporary loss of co-ordination in the lower extremities with writingial paralysisof bladder and rectum is reported convulsions - epilepsy may be brought on by lightning. This wouldbe more likely to occur in a person previously subject to epilepticattacks hysterical convulsions and spasms may also be produced, both immediately and as a more remote result, usually in personspredisposed tetany and catalepsy are said to occur clonic spasms of the whole body and convulsive movements of the limbsare not very infrequent in essay paper a marked sensitiveness remainsfor a time in the limbs struck, so that if touched they are immediatelythrown into clonic spasms disturbances of sensation - pain occurs in nearly all paper it ismost frequently a secondary result of the burns and other injuries not rarely, however, it exists as a direct symptom in the form of aburning or stinging neuralgia in the limb or limbs affected essaytimesthe first sensation on the recovery of consciousness seems to be painall over the body or confined to essay portions only, but the amountand character of the pain, aside from that produced by the injuries, varies much one patient had a burning pain in the back and leg lastingonly half an hour after recovery of consciousness in another casethere were pains all over at the end of the first week on the whole, severe pain in essay or all of the limbs, and less commonly in thehead, without paralysis and lasting essay days is not rare in one casereported by paige the patient had intense pain in the head, neck, arms, and chest.

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For ifone hath got a surfeit by drinking of wine, his speediest cure is todrink a draught of the same wine wherein a handful of ivy leaves, beingfirst bruised, have been boiled juniper bush for to give a description of a bush so commonly known is needless place they grow plentifully in divers woods in kent, warney commonnear brentwood in essex, upon finchley common without highgate. Hardby the newfound wells near dulwich, upon a common between mitcham andcroydon, in the highgate near amersham in buckinghamshire, and thesisother places time the berries are not ripe the first year, but continue greentwo summers and one winter before they are ripe. At which time they areall of a black colour, and therefore you shall always find upon thebush green berries. The berries are ripe about the fall of the leaf government and virtues this admirable solar shrub is scarce to beparalleled for its virtues the berries are hot in the third degree, and dry but in the first, being a most admirable counter-poison, and as great a resister of the pestilence, as any growing. They areexcellent good against the biting of venomous beasts, they provokeurine exceedingly, and therefore are very available to dysuries andstranguaries it is so powerful a remedy against the dropsy, that thevery lye made of the ashes of the herb being drank, cures the disease it provokes the terms, helps the fits of the mother, strengthens thestomach exceedingly, and expels the wind indeed there is scarce abetter remedy for wind in any writing of the body, or the cholic, than thechymical oil drawn from the berries. Such country people as know nothow to draw the chymical oil, may content themselves by eating ten ora dozen of the ripe berries every morning fasting they are admirablygood for a cough, shortness of breath, and consumption, pains in thebelly, ruptures, cramps, and convulsions they give safe and speedydelivery to women with child, they strengthen the brain exceedingly, help the memory, and fortify the sight by strengthening the opticnerves. Are excellently good in all sorts of agues. Help the gout andsciatica, and strengthen the limbs of the body the ashes of the woodis a speedy remedy to such as have the scurvy, to rub their gums with the berries stay all fluxes, help the hæmorrhoids or piles, and killworms in children a lye made of the ashes of the wood, and the bodybathed with it, cures the itch, scabs and leprosy the berries breakthe stone, procure appetite when it is lost, and are excellently goodfor all palsies, and falling-sickness kidneywort, or wall pennyroyal, or wall pennywort descript it has thesis thick, flat, and round leaves growing from theroot, every one having a long footstalk, fastened underneath, about themiddle of it, and a little unevenly weaved essaytimes about the edges, of a pale green colour, and essaywhat yellow on the upper side likea saucer. From among which arise one or more tender, smooth, hollowstalks half a foot high, with two or three small leaves thereon, usually not round as those below, but essaywhat long, and divided atthe edges. The tops are essaywhat divided into long branches, bearinga number of flowers, set round about a long spike one above another, which are hollow and like a little bell of a whitish green colour, after which come small heads, containing very small brownish seed, which falling on the ground, will plentifully spring up before winter, if it have moisture the root is round and most usually smooth, greyishwithout, and white within, having small fibres at the head of the root, and bottom of the stalk place it grows very plentifully in thesis places of this land, butespecially in all the west writings thereof, upon stone and mud walls, upon rocks also, and in stony places upon the ground, at the bottom ofold trees, and essaytimes on the bodies of them that are decayed androtten time it usually flowers in the beginning of may, and the seedripening quickly after, sheds itself. So that about the end of may, usually the stalks and leaves are withered, dry, and gone untilseptember, then the leaves spring up again, and so abide all winter government and virtues venus challenges the herb under libra thejuice or the distilled water being drank, is very effectual for allinflammations and unnatural heats, to cool a fainting hot stomach, ahot liver, or the bowels. The herb, juice, or distilled water thereof, outwardly applied, heals pimples, st anthony fire, and other outwardheats the said juice or water helps to heal sore kidneys, torn orfretted by the stone, or exulcerated within.