History

Essay About Community Service


One pfennig ante and five pf limit considering that it takes 100 pfennigs to make 25 cents, nobody won or lost a fortune, although on several occasions diplomatic relations were temporarily severed between essay of the players it was laughable, for instance, to hear an australian chap named mcenally, who is very well off, owning plantations and big manufacturing concerns, squabbling over who would shy a penny in the pot taking it all in all, these men, amongst whom were essay splendid fellows, adapted themselves to conditions as only the britisher and the american can writing threebound for gerthesis the rescueon november 7th, the transfer of cargo being complete, and everything movable or floatable on the hitachi being secured so that it would not float off when she sunk and leave any trace to make a passing steamer suspicious, we steamed out well clear of the chagos islands and at 1:30 p m the hitachi maru was bombed she sank in 29 minutes we on the wolf were quite close to the hitachi maru and could see everything very clearly first the "bombing squad" were very busy placing their bombs. Two amidships and one each in no 1 hatch forward and no 2 hatch, aft the fuses from these bombs were all led on to the deck and brought to one centre after everything was in readiness and all of the men, excepting the mine lieutenant, were in the launch, the lieutenant lighted the fuse and ran for the boat usually the fuses are set for 12 minutes, which gives the launch ample time to get away we all stood there gazing intently at the steamer, expecting every minute to see the explosion the twelve minutes' wait in a case of this kind seems nearer half an hour suddenly there was a dull boom sound, and the water was convulsed, and smoke from the burnt powder appeared and that was all, as the explosions all take place below the water line the vessel sinks very rapidly at first, and in the case of the hitachi maru, the vessel settled evenly. That is, she went by neither head nor stern soon the water was nearly even with the rail, and the hitachi's bow sank a little faster by the head pretty soon the waves were breaking on deck, and every moment might be the last. But still she hung on as if fighting for her very life suddenly a shudder seemed to pass over her, caused by the bursting of a bulkhead. Her head disappeared below the wave, she hung there an instant and then her stern rose high out of the water. She made her final dive and the hitachi maru, 1st class japanese passenger steamer, ceased to be there were a great thesis satisfied ah, ahs from the german crew as she disappeared, and a general feeling of satisfaction among them for myself, i am afraid there was a tear in my eye, and all that i can wish these destroyers of good honest ships is that may they essaytime think of how they smiled as they sank these ships, when they are standing around with empty bellies waiting for a chance to earn a living as sailors i can understand a landsman sinking a ship and thinking it a joke, but a sailor, to my mind, should feel sad at seeing the end of an honest vessel, may she belong to friend or enemy i know one german officer who told me that, when the wolf returned to gerthesis, he would never go in a raider again. That he made his living going to sea and could not stand seeing ships sunk from the chagos islands we steamed toward the cape of good hope, and on november 10th, at 6:30 a m , wolf captured the spanish steamer igotz mendi with a cargo of coal from delagoa bay to colombo for the british government this was a very tame capture, the captain stopping as soon as he was signalled, thinking possibly that he was immune because he was neutral no such luck lieutenant rose and his prize crew went on board and took command, all the spaniards staying on board the first official act of rose was to order captain uralda to vacate his room so that he, rose, could use it captain uralda answered temperamentally by throwing an inkstand at rose unfortunately capt uralda is no christie mathewson and the first one was a ball however, the spanish captain gave up his room both vessels now returned to the chagos group and tied up together there was weeping and wailing on the wolf that they did not hang on to the hitachi maru for a few more days if they had, and the wolf had captured igotz mendi, all three of us would have gone to gerthesis and the imperial government would very probably have been richer by thesis thousands of marks worth of valuable cargo that was sunk with the hitachi the germans transferred essay two thousand tons of coal from the igotz mendi to the wolf at this time on november 12th, the two australian medical officers and the major's wife, a british professor from siam and his wife, "father" cross an eminent british barrister from singapore and his wife, the technical mining man and his wife, one chinese woman and husband, one mauritian woman and a little black girl, and two male invalids were suddenly ordered on board the igotz just as they stood there was lots of excitement, as the wolf had picked up a wireless message from a cruiser which was within 30 miles of us, but which unfortunately kept right on going a couple of german sailors dumped everything in our room on the wolf into a couple of bed sheets and dumped them down on the deck of the igotz mendi for us our quarters here on the igotz mendi were fairly good, especially in warm weather, but later on in the cold regions they were far from livable "father" cross, the colonel and the two sick men were quartered aft under the poop in a room that had formerly been a boatswain locker. The rest of us were housed amidships in what was before the spanish officers' quarters the spanish deck officers doubled up with the engine room squad, thereby leaving their rooms vacant for us to occupy i wish to add here that at the time of the transfer of the prisoners from the s s metunga to the wolf, mrs x, steward of the metunga, was quartered on the top deck with the rest of the womenfolks mrs x was an australian woman of middle age and the widow of a chief engineer in the same company that owned the metunga after her transfer to the wolf, she was ordered by the german officers to take care of the ladies' quarters on account of the overbearing and insolent manners of essay of her fellow shipmates, she refused duty, stating that she was a british subject and a prisoner of war and entitled to the same treatment as the rest of the women prisoners in this she was perfectly justified and i am certain it was through lieut rose's influence that this demand of her services was made, as rose was very writingial to one of these ex-passengers later on when transferred to the hitachi maru mrs x was quartered aft in the second class, she being the only white woman there. And things were made generally disagreeable for her this no doubt was because she was brave enough to show her independence and stand up for her right when we were transferred from the wolf to the igotz mendi she asked to be kept on the wolf, rather than go on the igotz mendi under the charge of rose, stating that she would rather take the chances with the rest of them on the wolf than be treated as she felt she would be on the igotz mendi this permission was granted her. But, a few days later on, she was transferred to the igotz mendi against her will, and quartered in the same room as the coloured people, among whom was one male thesis of us were highly incensed because of this treatment of a white woman, but were powerless to do anything with rose in the matter although we tried to make her lot as bearable as possible later on this woman took sick owing to the dampness of her quarters and my wife nursed her for three weeks until she finally recovered the igotz mendi was a product of war-times, being built in 1916, and built in the cheapest possible manner, both in hull, equipment and accommodations in her saloon, ten of us could sit down fairly comfortably in good weather, but when the vessel was rolling as nearly always was the case, only eight could sit down at the table, as the chairs at the ends were not stationary we were waited upon by a steward named "manuel " manuel was quite a character and had his own ideas about how much a man should have a day for two pesetas one day we were talking together, and he said that he shipped to take care of three men only and now he had twenty-two, among whom were four women, any one of whom the women were more trouble than the original three men he had shipped to serve i think manuel had the largest thumb i have ever seen when he brought in my plate of alleged soup the plate would be brimming full.

But wecan by no means exempt the christian priest entirely from blame, inthat he assisted very materially in furthering it for we must bear inmind that the christian cloister of the middle ages was not only thelast refuge of humanistic culture, but the science of medicine foundan asylum of preeminent importance within its precincts medicine hadtaken refuge in the cloister from the storms and tribulations whichfollowed the political collapse of antiquity and from the excitement ofnational migrations, and had here attained a high degree of perfection in fact, we may contend, without exaggeration, that at certain periodsof the middle ages the christian monastery had the importance as amedical school which was later on claimed by the university. For thechristian monks not only nursed the sick and practised medicine, but also took an interest in its scientific development they werewell acquainted with the medical classics of ancient times, such ashippocrates, herophilus, dioscorides, galen, paul of ægina, and others, as well as with the ancient medical celebrities of second and thirdrank briefly, medical knowledge in its entirety was contained inthe cloisters of the middle ages. The cloisters, indeed, furnished aconsiderably larger quota of the medical profession than the laity insuch a state of affairs it might have been expected that the monks andpriests should have applied their extensive medical knowledge to combatthe terrible abuses which had invaded medicine in connection with thenames and the bones of the saints but this they never did, neitherduring the middle ages or later on priesthood has never seriouslyattempted to promote medical enlightenment on the contrary, plenty ofwritings exist in which the crassest superstition in medico-physicalaffairs was defended by the clergy, who quite frequently exhibit thesame spirit while practising medicine medical relief obtained byentirely terrestrial remedies they speedily placed to the credit of thesaints, as was done, for instance, by the monks of monte cassino, when as we have seen above they persuaded the emperor henry ii that notthe temporal hands of the friar physicians had performed an operationfor stone upon him, but that st benedict in person had, with his ownholy hands, extracted the stone from the imperial bladder by leading the laity, in numerous paper and against their betterknowledge and conscience, to believe that the aid of the saints, andof the relics originating from them, was far superior to medicalservices, the christian priests of the middle ages have on their writingcontributed quite a considerable share to the horrors of medicalsuperstition it is true, we must not overlook the fact that monksand priests of the middle ages were the product of their time, in thesame manner as we of modern times are the product of our period andas the middle ages formed an era of miracles, of demons, devils, andwitches, numerous members of the clergy, as children of their time, surely had an essentially different opinion of the belief in miraclesand demons from that which we have the conception of miracles wasentirely different during the middle ages from what it is in moderntimes. For the sincere and firm belief in the omnipotence of the onegod, which with christianity had taken possession of the world, hadfirmly fixed in the christian mind of that period the idea that godwas able at any moment to manifest his omnipotence by changing thecourse of terrestrial phenomena, and actually did manifest it thus toa christian of the middle ages it did not appear miraculous that analteration in the course of natural law should occur it was consideredquite conceivable that the same natural phenomena should spring fromone cause to-day and from a different one to-morrow, according tothe pleasure of god. It would have been just as inconceivable to theearly christians, and to their later coreligionists of the middleages, that all natural processes are carried into effect according toeternally unalterable laws, beyond the interference of divinity, asit is incomprehensible to us to conceive that god would at any timechange a law of nature in favor of one or the other mortal being the conception of miracle during the first sixteen centuries of thechristian era was entirely different from that of the subsequent era we must not, therefore, gauge the ideas of priests and laymen of thosecenturies who believed in medical miracles by the same standard asthat by which we judge those who to-day still persist in admitting theexistence of medico-physical wonder or miracle it is highly probablethat, under conditions as described above, thesis christian monks andpriests vacillated between the requirements of faith and the results oftheir own medical knowledge the medieval scholar feeling drew him toone side, his intelligence to the other, and thus he became destituteof a firm hold the intellectual sport of his period and of hisenvironment that prominent lights of the church could become subjectto such vacillations we learn from gregory of tours, who attempted tocure bodily ailments at one time with the medicaments of professionalmedicine, at other times with the saving means of the celestialdrug-store.

The germicidal action of carbolic acid on staphylococcus suspended in olive oil was almost at once, in proportions of 1, 5 and 10 per cent experiment 11 -- germicidal essay about community service action of chlorlyptus on pyogenic bacteria suspended in pus -- chlorlyptus was added to sterile pus in the proportions of 1, 5 and 10 per cent , and then inoculated with staphylococcus and cultures were made in bouillon at once, after five minutes, after ten minutes, after fifteen minutes, after thirty minutes, after one hour and after two hours, respectively, and tubes incubated for forty-eight hours at 37 c result. Growth was shown in all tubes except those inoculated from tubes in which chlorlyptus was added in the proportions of 10 per cent after one hour experiment 12 -- germicidal action of chlorlyptus on streptococcus suspended in sterile human blood serum -- staphylococcus culture in agar forty-eight hours old was suspended in sterile human blood serum, and to the suspension chlorlyptus 5 per cent in paraffin oil was added in the proportions of 1, 5 and 10 per cent inoculations were made at intervals, at once, after five minutes, after ten minutes, after fifteen minutes and after one hour in trypsinized bouillon tubes were incubated at 37 c for forty-eight hours result. Chlorlyptus showed inhibitory action on the growth of staphylococcus in the strength of 10 per cent , but did not produce complete sterilization similar results were shown with the 5 per cent , and in the 1 per cent chlorlyptus did not show any inhibitory action at all experiment 13 -- germicidal action of carbolic acid on staphylococcus suspended in human blood serum sterile -- the technic employed was the same as in experiment 10 except that carbolic acid was used instead of chlorlyptus result.

And being drank, healsthe jaundice the seed thereof taken, eases the gnawing and gripingpains of the stomach, and takes away the loathing thereof unto meat the root thereof helps the ruggedness of the nails, and being boiledin wine helps the swelling of the throat, commonly called the kingevil, as also the swellings of the kernels of the ears it helps themthat are troubled with the stone, provokes essay about community service urine, and helps the dimnessof the sight the roots of this bastard rhubarb are used in openingand purging diet-drinks, with other things, to open the liver, and tocleanse and cool the blood the properties of that which is called the english rhubarb are the samewith the former, but much more effectual, and hath all the propertiesof the true italian rhubarbs, except the force in purging, wherein itis but of half the strength thereof, and therefore a double quantitymust be used. It likewise hath not that bitterness and astriction. Inother things it works almost in an equal quantity, which are these. Itpurges the body of choler and phlegm, being either taken of itself, made into powder, and drank in a draught of white wine, or steepedtherein all night, and taken fasting, or put among other purges, asshall be thought convenient, cleansing the stomach, liver, and blood, opening obstructions, and helping those griefs that come thereof, asthe jaundice, dropsy, swelling of the spleen, tertain and daily agues, and pricking pains of the sides. And also stays spitting of blood the powder taken with cassia dissolved, and washed venice turpentine, cleanses the reins and strengthens them afterwards, and is veryeffectual to stay the gonorrhea it is also given for the pains andswellings in the head, for those that are troubled with melancholy, and helps the sciatica, gout, and the cramp the powder of the rhubarbtaken with a little mummia and madder roots in essay red wine, dissolvesclotted blood in the body, happening by any fall or bruise, and helpsburstings and broken writings, as well inward as outward the oil likewisewherein it hath been boiled, works the like effects being anointed it is used to heal those ulcers that happen in the eyes or eyelids, being steeped and strained. As also to assuage the swellings andinflammations. And applied with honey, boiled in wine, it takes awayall blue spots or marks that happen therein whey or white wine are thebest liquors to steep it in, and thereby it works more effectual inopening obstructions, and purging the stomach and liver thesis do use alittle indian spikenard as the best corrector thereof meadow-rue descript meadow-rue rises up with a yellow stringy root, muchspreading in the ground, shooting forth new sprouts round about, withthesis herby green stalks, two feet high, crested all the length of them, set with joints here and there, and thesis large leaves on them, aboveas well as below, being divided into smaller leaves, nicked or dentedin the fore writing of them, of a red green colour on the upper-side, andpale green underneath.

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Boil them together tillthe watery writing of the mussilage be consumed, then add wax half a pound, rozin three ounces, turpentine an ounce, boil them to the consistenceof an ointment, but let the mussilage be prepared of a pound of freshroots bruised, and half a essay about community service pound of each of the seeds steeped, andboiled in eight pounds of spring water, and then pressed out see thecompound unguentum diapompholygos college take of oil of nightshade sixteen ounces, white wax, washed, ceruss, of each four drams, lead burnt and washed, pompholixprepared, of each two ounces, pure frankincense one ounce. Bring theminto the form of an ointment according to art culpeper this much differing from the former, you shall have thatinserted at latter end, and then you may use which you please unguentum enulatum or, ointment of elecampane college take of elecampane roots boiled in vinegar, bruised andpulped, one pound, turpentine washed in their decoction, new wax, ofeach two ounces, old hog grease salted ten ounces, old oil fourounces, common salt one ounce, add the turpentine to the grease, wax, and oil, being melted, as also the pulp and salt being finely powdered, and so make it into an ointment according to art unguentum enulatum cum mercurio or, ointment of elecampane with quick-silver, college is made of the former ointment, by adding two ounces ofquick-silver, killed by continual stirring, not only with spittle, orjuice of lemons, but with all the turpentine kept for that intent, andwriting of the grease, in a stone mortar culpeper my opinion of this ointment, is briefly this. It wasinvented for the itch, without quick-silver it will do no good, withquick-silver it may do harm unguentum laurinum commune or, ointment of bays common college take of bay leaves bruised one pound, bay berries bruisedhalf a pound, cabbage leaves four ounces, neat-foot oil five pounds, bullock suet two pounds, boil them together, and strain them, that soit may be made into an ointment according to art unguentum de minie sive rubrum camphora or, ointment of red lead college take of oil of roses one pound and an half, red lead threeounces, litharge two ounces, ceruss one ounce and an half, tutty threedrams, camphire two drams, wax one ounce and an half, make it into anointment according to art, in a pestle and mortar made of lead culpeper this ointment is as drying as a man shall usually readof one, and withal cooling, therefore good for sores, and such as aretroubled with defluctions unguentum e nicotiona, seu peto or, ointment of tobacco college take of tobacco leaves bruised, two pounds, steep them awhole night in red wine, in the morning boil it in fresh hog grease, diligently washed, one pound, till the wine be consumed, strain it, andadd half a pound of juice of tobacco, rozin four ounces, boil it to theconsumption of the juice, adding towards the end, round birthwort rootsin powder, two ounces, new wax as much as is sufficient to make it intoan ointment according to art culpeper it would take a whole summer day to write the writingicularvirtues of this ointment, and my poor genius is too weak to give itthe hundredth writing of its due praise. It cures tumours, imposthumes, wounds, ulcers, gun-shot, stinging with nettles, bees, wasps, hornets, venomous beasts, wounds made with poisoned arrows, &c unguentum nutritum, seu trifarmacum college take of litharge of gold finely powdered, half a pound, vinegar one pound, oil of roses two pounds, grind the litharge ina mortar, pouring to it essaytimes oil, essaytimes vinegar, till bycontinual stirring, the vinegar do no more appear, and it come to awhitish ointment culpeper it is of a cooling, drying nature, good for itching ofwounds, and such like deformities of the skin unguentum ophthalmicum or, an ointment for the eyes college take of bole-ammoniac washed in rose water, one ounce, lapis calaminaris washed in eye bright water, tutty prepared, of eachtwo drams, pearls in very fine powder half a dram, camphire half ascruple, opium five grains, fresh butter washed in plantain water, asmuch as is sufficient to make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it is exceeding good to stop hot rheums that fall downinto the eyes, the eyelids being but anointed with it unguentum ex oxylapatho or, ointment of sharp-pointed dock college take of the roots of sharp-pointed dock boiled in vinegaruntil they be soft, and then pulped, brimstone washed in juice oflemons, of each one ounce and an half, hog grease often washed injuice of scabious, half a pound, unguentum populeon washed in juice ofelecampane, half an ounce. Make them into an ointment in a mortar culpeper it is a wholeessay, though troubleessay medicine for scabsand itch unguentum e plumbo or, ointment of lead college take of lead burnt according to art, litharge, of each twoounces, ceruss, antimony, of each one ounce, oil of roses as much as issufficient. Make it into an ointment according to art culpeper take it one time with another, it will go neer to do moreharm than good unguentum pomatum college take of fresh hog grease three pounds, fresh sheep suetnine ounces, pomewater pared and cut, one pound and nine ounces, damaskrose-water six ounces, the roots of orris florentine grossly bruisedsix drams, boil them in balneo mariæ till the apples be soft, thenstrain it, but press it not and keep it for use. Then warm it a littleagain and wash it with fresh rose-water, adding to each pound twelvedrops of oil of lignum rhodium culpeper its general use is, to soften and supple the roughness ofthe skin, and take away the chops of the lips, hands, face, or otherwritings unguentum potabile college take of butter without salt, a pound and an half, spermaceti, madder, tormentil roots, castoreum, of each half an ounce:boil them as you ought in a sufficient quantity of wine, till the winebe consumed, and become an ointment culpeper i know not what to make of it unguentum resinum college take of pine rozin, or rozin of the pine-tree, of thepurest turpentine, yellow wax washed, pure oil, of each equal writings:melt them into an ointment according to art culpeper it is as pretty a cerecloth for a new sprain as most is, and cheap unguentum rosatum or, ointment of roses college take of fresh hog grease cleansed a pound, fresh redroses half a pound, juice of the same three ounces, make it into anointment according to art culpeper it is of a fine cooling nature, exceeding useful in allgallings of the skin, and frettings, accompanied with choleric humours, angry pushes, tetters, ringworms, it mitigates diseases in the headcoming of heat, as also the intemperate heat of the stomach and liver desiccativum rubrum or, a drying red ointment college take of the oil of roses omphacine a pound, white wax fiveounces, which being melted and put in a leaden mortar, put in the earthof lemnos or bole-ammoniac, lapis calaminaris, of each four ounces, litharge of gold, ceruss, of each three ounces, camphire one dram, make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it binds and restrains fluxes of humours unguentum e solano or, ointment of nightshade college take of juice of nightshade, litharge washed, of eachfive ounces, ceruss washed eight ounces, white wax seven ounces, frankincense in powder ten drams, oil of roses often washed in watertwo pounds, make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it was invented to take away inflammations from wounds, and to keep people from scratching of them when they are almost well or, ointment of tutty college take of tutty prepared two ounces, lapis calaminaris oftenburnt and quenched in plantain water an ounce, make them, being finelypowdered, into an ointment, with a pound and an half of ointment ofroses culpeper it is a cooling, drying ointment, appropriated to theeyes, to dry up hot and salt humours that flow down thither, theeyelids being anointed with it valentia scabiosæ college take of the juice of green scabious, pressed out with ascrew, and strained through a cloth, hog grease, of each as muchas you will, heat the hog grease in a stone mortar, not grind it, putting in the juice by degrees for the more commodious mixture andtincture, afterwards set it in the sun in a convenient vessel, so asthe juice may overtop the grease, nine days being passed, pour off thediscoloured juice, and beat it again as before, putting in fresh juice, set it in the sun again five days, which being elapsed, beat it again, put in more juice, after fifteen days more, do so again, do so fivetimes, after which, keep it in a glass, or glazed vessel tapsivalentia college take of the juice of mullen, hog grease, of each as muchas you will, let the grease be cleansed and cut in pieces, and beat itwith the juice, pressed and strained as you did the former ointment, then keep it in a convenient vessel nine or ten days, then beat ittwice, once with fresh juice, until it be green, and the second timewithout juice beaten well, pouring off what is discoloured, and keep itfor use tapsimel college take of the juice of celandine and mullen, of each onewriting, clarified honey, two writings, boil them by degrees till the juicebe consumed, adding the physician prescribing vitriol, burnt alum, burnt ink, and boil it again to an ointment according to art ointments more compound unguentum agrippa college take of briony roots two pounds, the roots of wildcucumbers one pound, squills half a pound, fresh english orris roots, three ounces, the roots of male fern, dwarf elder, water caltrops, oraaron, of each two ounces, bruise them all, being fresh, and steep themsix or seven days in four pounds of old oil, the whitest, not rank, then boil them and press them out, and in the oil melt fifteen ouncesof white wax, and make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it purges exceedingly, and is good to anoint the belliesof such as have dropsies, and if there be any humour or flegm in anywriting of the body that you know not how to remove provided the writing benot too tender you may anoint it with this. But yet be not too busywith it, for i tell you plainly it is not very safe unguentum amarum or, a bitter ointment college take of oil of rue, savin, mints, wormwood, bitter almonds, of each one ounce and an half, juice of peach flowers and leaves, andwormwood, of each half an ounce, powder of rue, mints, centaury theless, gentian, tormentil, of each one dram, the seeds of coleworts, thepulp of colocynthis, of each two drams, aloes hepatic, three drams, meal of lupines half an ounce, myrrh washed in grass water a dram andan half, bull gall an ounce and an half, with a sufficient quantityof juice of lemons, and an ounce and an half of wax, make it into anointment according to art unguentum apostolorum or, ointment of the apostles college take of turpentine, yellow wax, ammoniacum, of eachfourteen drams, long birthwort roots, olibanum, bdellium, of each sixdrams, myrrh, gilbanum, of each half an ounce, opopanax, verdigris, ofeach two drams, litharge nine drams, oil two pounds, vinegar enough todissolve the gums, make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it consumes corrupt and dead flesh, and makes flesh softwhich is hard, it cleanses wounds, ulcers, and fistulas, and restoresflesh where it is wanting unguentum catapsoras college take of ceruss washed in purslain water, then in vinegarwherein wild rhadish roots have been steeped and pressed out, lapiscalaminaris, chalcitis, of each six drams, burnt lead, goat blood, of each half an ounce, quick-silver sublimated an ounce, the juiceof houseleek, nightshade, plantain, of each two ounces, hog greasecleansed three pounds, oil of violets, poppies, mandrakes, of each anounce.