History

Essay About Abortion


As also for young children, whose throat isso narrow that they can hardly swallow down their milk trochisci alkekengi or troches of winter-cherries college essay about abortion take of winter cherries three drams, gum arabic, tragacanth, olibanum, dragon-blood, pine-nuts, bitter almonds, whitestyrax, juice of liquorice, bole-ammoniac, white poppy seeds, of eachsix drams, the seeds of melons, cucumbers, citruls, gourds, of eachthree drams and an half, the seeds of smallage and white henbane, amber, earth of lemnos, opium, of each two drams, with juice of freshwinter-cherries, make them into troches according to art culpeper they potently provoke urine, and break the stone mix themwith other medicine of that nature, half a dram at a time, or a dram ifage permit trochisci bechici aloi, vel, rotulæ pectorales or, pectoral rolls college take of white sugar one pound, white sugar candy, penids, of each four ounces, orris florentine one ounce, liquorice six drams, white starch one ounce and an half, with a sufficient quantity ofmussilage of gum tragacanth made in rose water, make them into smalltroches you may add four grains of ambergris, and three grains of muskto them, if occasion serve trochisci bechici nigri college take of juice of liquorice, white sugar, of each one dram, gum tragacanth, sweet almonds blanched, of each six drams, with asufficient quantity of mussilage of quince seeds, made thick with rosewater make them into troches according to art culpeper both this and the former will melt in ones mouth, andin that manner to be used by such as are troubled with coughs, cold, hoarseness, or want of voice the former is most in use, but in myopinion, the latter is most effectual trochisci de barberis or, troches of barberries college take of juice of barberries, and liquorice made thick, spodium, purslain seeds, of each three drams, red roses, six drams, indian spikenard, saffron, white starch, gum tragacanth, of each adram, citrul seeds cleansed three drams and an half, camphire halfa dram. With manna dissolved in juice of barberries, make them intotroches according to art culpeper they wonderfully cool the heat of the liver, reins, andbladder, breast, and stomach, and stop looseness, cools the heat offevers trochisci de camphora or, troches of camphire college take of camphire half a dram, saffron two drams, whitestarch three drams, red roses, gum arabic, and tragacanth, ivory, of each half an ounce, the seeds of cucumbers husked, of purslain, liquorice, of each an ounce, with mussilage of the seeds of fleawort, drawn in rose-water, make them into troches culpeper it is exceeding good in burning fevers, heat of bloodand choler, together with hot distempers of the stomach and liver, and extreme thirst coming thereby, also it is good against the yellowjaundice, phthisics, and hectic fevers trochisci de capparibus or, troches of capers college take of the bark of caper roots, the seeds of agnus castus, of each six drams, ammoniacum half an ounce, the seeds of water cressesand nigella, the leaves of calaminth and rue, the roots of acorus andlong birthwort, the juice of maudlin made thick, bitter almonds, ofeach two drams, hart-tongue, the roots of round cypress, madder, gumlac of each one dram. Being bruised let them be made into trochesaccording to art, with ammoniacum dissolved in vinegar, and boiled tothe thickness of honey culpeper they open stoppings of the liver and spleen, and helpdiseases thereof coming. As rickets, hypochondriac melancholy, &c menmay take a dram, children a scruple in the morning trochisci de carabe or, troches of amber college take of amber an ounce, hart-horn burnt, gum arabicburnt, red coral burnt, tragacanth, acacia, hypocistis, balaustines, mastich, gum lacca washed, black poppy seeds roasted, of each two dramsand two scruples, frankincense, saffron, opium, of each two drams, witha sufficient quantity of mussilage of the seeds of fleawort drawn inplantain water, make them into troches according to art culpeper they were invented to stop fluxes of blood in any writing ofthe body, the menses, the hæmorrhoids or piles.

The rest being in fine powder, letthem be put to it and strongly stirred together, that it may be madeinto a lohoch according to art culpeper it cleanses and unites ulcers in the lungs and breast, andis a present remedy in phthisicks lohoch sanum et expertum or a sound and well experienced lohoch college take of dried hyssop and calaminth, of each half an ounce, jujubes, sebestens, the stones being taken out, fifteen raisins of thesun stoned, fat figs, dates, of each two ounces, linseed, fenugreekseed, of each five drams, maiden-hair one handful, annis-seeds, sweetfennel seeds, orris roots cut, liquorice, cinnamon, of each an ounce, boil them according to art in four pounds of clear water till halfbe consumed, and with two pounds of penids boil it into a syrup, afterwards cut and bruise very small pine-nuts five drams, sweetalmonds blanched, liquorice, gum tragacanth and arabick, white starchof each three drams, let these be put into the syrup when it is off thefire, and stir it about swiftly with a wooden pestle till it look white culpeper it succors the breast, lungs, throat, oppressed by cold, it restores the voice lost by reason of cold, and attenuates thick andgross humours in the breast and lungs lohoch scilliticum or lohoch of squils college take three drams of a squil baked in paste, orris roots twodrams, hyssop, hore-hound, of each one dram, saffron, myrrh, of eachhalf a dram, honey two ounces and an half, bruise the squil, after itis baked, in a stone mortar, and after it hath boiled a walm or twowith the honey, put in the rest of the things in powder, diligentlystirring it, and make it into a lohoch according to art eclegma of squils mesue college take of the juice of squils and honey, both of themclarified, of each two pounds, boil them together according to art tothe consistence of honey culpeper for the virtues of it see vinegar of squils, and oximelof squils, only this is more mild, and not so harsh to the throat, because it hath no vinegar in it, and therefore is far more fitting forasthmaes, and such as are troubled with difficulty of breathing, itcuts and carries away humours from the breast, be they thick or thin, and wonderfully helps indigestion of victuals, and eases pains in thebreast, and for this, i quote the authority of galen lohoch of coleworts gordonius college take one pound of the juice of coleworts, clarified saffronthree drams, clarified honey, and sugar, of each half a pound, make ofthem a lohoch according to art culpeper it helps hoarseness, and loss of voice, eases surfeits andhead-ache coming of drunkenness, and opens obstructions essay about abortion of the liverand spleen, and therefore is good for that disease in children calledthe rickets preserved roots, stalks, barks, flowers, fruits college take of eringo roots as thesis as you will, cleanse themwithout and within, the pith being taken out, steep them two days inclear water, shifting the water essaytimes, then dry them with a cloth, then take their equal weight in white sugar, and as much rose-wateras will make it into a syrup, which being almost boiled, put in theroots, and let them boil until the moisture be consumed, and let itbe brought to the due body of a syrup not much unlike to this arepreserved the roots of acorus, angelica, borrage, bugloss, succory, elecampane, burnet, satyrion, sicers, comfrey the greater, ginger, zedoary take of the stalks of artichokes, not too ripe, as thesis as youwill, and contrary to the roots take only the pith of these, andpreserve them with their equal weight in sugar, like the former so isprepared the stalks of angelica, burs, lettuce, &c before they be tooripe take of fresh orange pills as thesis as you will, take away theexterior yellowness, and steep them in spring water three days at theleast, often renewing the water, then preserve them like the former in like manner are lemon and citron pills preserved preserve theflowers of citrons, oranges, borrage, primroses, with sugar, accordingto art take of apricots as thesis as you will, take away the outer skinand the stones, and mix them with their like weight in sugar, afterfour hours take them out, and boil the sugar without any other liquor, then put them in again, and boil them a little other fruits may bepreserved in the same manner, or at least not much unlike to it, aswhole barberries, cherries, cornels, citrons, quinces, peaches, commonapples, the five sorts of myrobalans, hazel nuts, walnuts, nutmegs, raisins of the sun, pepper brought green from india, plums, gardenand wild pears, grapes pulps are also preserved, as barberries, cassia fistula, citrons, cinosbatus, quinces, and sloes, &c take ofbarberries as thesis as you will, boil them in spring water till theyare tender, then having pulped them through a sieve, that they arefree from the stones, boil it again in an earthen vessel over a gentlefire, often stirring them for fear of burning, till the watery humourbe consumed, then mix ten pounds of sugar with six pounds of this pulp, boil it to its due thickness broom buds are also preserved, but withbrine and vinegar, and so are olives and capers lastly, amongst thebarks, cinnamon, amongst the flowers, roses, and marigolds, amongst thefruits, almonds, cloves, pine-nuts, and fistick-nuts, are said to bepreserved but with this difference, they are encrusted with dry sugar, and are more called confects than preserves conserves and sugars college conserves of the herbs of wormwood, sorrel, wood-sorrel, the flowers of oranges, borrage, bugloss, bettony, marigolds, the topsof carduus, the flowers of centaury the less, clove-gilliflowers, germander, succory, the leaves of scurvy-grass, the flowers of comfreythe greater citratiæ, cinosbati, the roots of spurge, herbs andflowers of eye-bright, the tops of fumitory, goat-rue, the flowersof broom not quite open, hyssop, lavender, white lilies, lilies of thevalley, marjoram, mallows, the tops of bawm, the leaves of mints, theflowers of water lilies, red poppies, peony, peaches, primroses, roses, the leaves of rue, the flowers of sage, elder scabious, the leaves ofscordium, the flowers of limetree, coltsfoot, violets, with all theseare conserves made with their treble proportion of white sugar. Yetnote, that all of them must not be mixed alike, essay of them must becut, beaten, and gently boiled, essay neither cut, beaten nor boiled, and essay admit but one of them, which every artist in his trade mayfind out by this premonition and avoid error sugars diacodium solidum, sive tabulatum college take of white poppy heads, meanly ripe, and newly gathered, twenty, steep them in three pounds of warm spring water, and the nextday boil them until the virtue is out, then strain out the liquor, andwith a sufficient quantity of good sugar, boil it according to art, that you may make it up into lozenges culpeper the virtues are the same with the common diacodium, viz to provoke sleep, and help thin rheums in the head, coughs, androughness of the throat, and may easily be carried about in onepocket saccharum tabulatum simplex, et perlatum or lozenges of sugar both simple and pearled college the first is made by pouring the sugar upon a marble, aftera sufficient boiling in half its weight in damask rose water. And thelatter by adding to every pound of the former towards the latter end ofthe decoction, pearls, prepared and bruised, half an ounce, with eightor ten leaves of gold culpeper it is naturally cooling, appropriated to the heart, it restores lost strength, takes away burning fevers, and falseimaginations, i mean that with pearls, for that without pearls isridiculous it hath the same virtues pearls have saccharum tabulatum compositum or lozenges of sugar compound college take of choice rhubarb four scruples, agarick trochiscated, corallins, burnt hart-horn, dittany of crete, wormseed and sorrelseed, of each a scruple, cinnamon, zedoary, cloves, saffron, of eachhalf a scruple, white sugar a pound, dissolved in four ounces ofwormwood water, wormwood wine, an ounce, cinnamon water a spoonful, with the forenamed powders make it into lozenges according to art culpeper the title shews you the virtues of it saccharum penidium, or sugar penidscollege are prepared of sugar dissolved in spring water by a gentlefire, and the whites of eggs diligently beaten, and clarified once, andagain whilst it is boiling, then strain it and boil it gently again, till it rise up in great bubbles, and being chewed it stick not to yourteeth, then pour it upon a marble, anointed with oil of almonds, letthe bubbles first sink, after it is removed from the fire bring backthe outsides of it to the middle till it look like larch rosin, then, your hands being rubbed with white starch, you may draw it into threadseither short or long, thick or thin, and let it cool in what form youplease culpeper i remember country people were wont to take them forcoughs, and they are essaytimes used in other compositions confectio de thure or confection of frankincense college take coriander seeds prepared half an ounce, nutmegs, whitefrankincense, of each three drams, liquorice, mastich, of each twodrams, cubebs, hart-horn prepared, of each one dram, conserve of redroses an ounce, white sugar as much as is sufficient to make it intomean bits culpeper i cannot boast much of the rarity nor virtues of thisreceipt saccharum rosatum or sugar of roses college take of red rose leaves, the whites being cut off, andspeedily dried in the sun an ounce, white sugar a pound, melt thesugar in rose-water and juice of roses of each two ounces which beingconsumed by degrees, put in the rose leaves in powder, mix them, put itupon a marble, and make it into lozenges according to art culpeper as for the virtues of this, it strengthens weak stomachs, weak hearts, and weak brains, restores such as are in consumptions, restores lost strength, stays fluxes, eases pains in the head, earsand eyes, helps spitting, vomiting, and urining of blood. It is a finecommodity for a man in a consumption to carry about with him, and eatnow and then a bit species, or powders aromaticum caryophyllatum college take of cloves seven drams, mace, zedoary, galanga theless, yellow sanders, troches, diarrhodon, cinnamon, wood of aloes, indian spikenard, long pepper, cardamoms the less, of each a dram, redroses four ounces, gallia moschata, liquorice, of each two drams, ofindian leaf, cubebs of each two scruples, beat them all diligently intopowder culpeper this powder strengthens the heart and stomach, helpsdigestion, expels wind, stays vomiting, and cleanses the stomach ofputrified humors aromaticum rosatum college take of red roses exungulated fifteen drams, liquoriceseven drams, wood of aloes, yellow sanders, of each three drams, cinnamon five drams, cloves, mace, of each two drams and an half, gumarabic and tragacanth, of each eight scruples, nutmegs, cardamoms theless, galanga of each one dram, indian spikenard two scruples, make itinto a powder to be kept in a glass for use culpeper it strengthens the brain, heart and stomach, and allsuch internal members as help towards decoction, it helps digestion, consumes the watery excrements of the bowels, strengthens such as arepined away by reason of the violence of a disease, and restores such asare in consumption pulvus ex chelus cancrorum compositus or powder of crab claws compound college take of pearls prepared, crab eyes, red coral, whiteamber, hart-horn, oriential bezoar, of each half an ounce, powder ofthe black tops of crab claws, the weight of them all, beat them intopowder, which may be made into balls with jelly, and the skins whichour vipers have cast off, warily dried and kept for use culpeper this is that powder they ordinarily call gascoignspowder, there are divers receipts of it, of which this is none of theworst, four, or five, or six grains is excellently good in a fever tobe taken in any cordial, for it cheers the heart and vital spiritsexceedingly, and makes them impregnable species cordiales temperatæ college take of wood of aloes, spodium of each a dram, cinnamon, cloves, bone of a stag-heart, the roots of angelica, avens, andtormentil, of each a dram and an half, pearls prepared six drams, rawsilk toasted, both sorts of coral of each two drams, jacinth, emerald, samphire, of each half a dram, saffron a scruple, the leaves of goldand silver, of each ten, make them into powder according to art culpeper it is a great cordial, a great strengthener of the heart, and brain diacalaminthe simple college take of mountain calaminth, pennyroyal, origanum, the seedsof macedonian parsley, common parsley, and hartwort, of each two drams, the seeds of smallage, the tops of thyme of each half an ounce, theseeds of lovage, black pepper, of each an ounce, make them into powderaccording to art culpeper it heats and comforts cold bodies, cuts thick and grossflegm, provokes urine and the menses i confess this differs essaythingfrom galen, but is better for our bodies in my opinion than his itexpels wind exceedingly, you may take half a dram of the powder at atime there is nothing surer than that all their powders will keepbetter in electuaries than they will in powders, and into such a body, you may make it with two pound and an half of white sugar dissolved inrose water diacalamintha compound college take of diacalamintha simple, half an ounce, the leavesof horehound, marjoram, bawm, mugwort, savin dried, of each a dram, cypress roots, the seeds of maddir and rue, mace, cinnamon, of each twoscruples, beat them and mix them diligently into a powder according toart culpeper this seems to be more appropriated to the feminine genderthan the former, viz to bring down the terms, to bring away the birth, and after-birth, to purge them after labour, yet it is dangerous forpregnant women dianisum college take of annis seeds two ounces and an half, liquorice, mastich, of each an ounce, the seeds of caraway, fennel, galanga, mace, ginger, cinnamon, of each five drams, the three sorts of pepper, cassialignea, mountain calaminth, pellitory of spain, of each two drams, cardamoms the greater, cloves, cubebs, indian spikenard, saffron, ofeach a dram and an half, make them into powder culpeper it is chiefly appropriated to the stomach, and helps thecold infirmities thereof, raw, flegm, wind, continual coughs, andother such diseases coming of cold you may safely take a dram of theelectuary at a time you may make an electuary of it with its trebleweight of clarified honey pulvis radicum ari compositus or powder of aron roots compound college take of aron roots two ounces, of common water flag, andburnet, of each one ounce, crab eyes, half an ounce, cinnamon threedrams, salt of wormwood, and juniper, of each one dram, make them intopowder culpeper and when you have done tell me what it is good for diaireos simple college take of orris roots half an ounce, sugar-candy, diatragacanthum frigidum, of each two drams, make them into powder culpeper i do not mean the diatragacanthum frigidum, for that isin powder before it comforts the breast, is good in colds, coughs, and hoarseness you may mix it with any pectoral syrups which areappropriated to the same diseases, and so take it with a liquoricestick dialacca college take of gum-lacca, prepared rhubarb, schænanth, of eachthree drams, indian spikenard, mastich, the juice of wormwood andagrimony, made thick, the seeds of smallage, annis, fennel, ammi, savin, bitter almonds, myrrh, costus, or zedoary, the roots of maddir, asarabacca, birthwort long and round, gentian, saffron, cinnamon, driedhyssop, cassia lignea, bdellium, of each a dram and an half, blackpepper, ginger, of each a dram, make them into powder according to art culpeper it strengthens the stomach and liver, opens obstructions, helps dropsies, yellow jaundice, provokes urine, breaks the stone inthe reins and bladder half a dram is a moderate dose, if the patientbe strong they may take a dram in white wine let pregnant womenforbear it pulvis cardiacus magistralis college take of east bezoar, bone of a stag-heart, of each adram and an half, magisterium, of white and red coral, white amber, magisterium of pearl, hart-horn, ivory, bole-amoniac, earth ofgerthesis, samos and lemnos, elk-claw, tormentil roots, of each a dram, wood of aloes, citron peels, the roots of angelica and zedoary, of eachtwo scruples, leaves of gold twenty, ambergris one scruple, musk sixgrains, mix them and make them into powder culpeper it is too dear for a vulgar purse, yet a mighty cordialand great strengthener of the heart and vitals in fevers diamargariton frigidum college take of the four greater cold seeds, the seeds of purslain, white poppies, endive, sorrel, citrons, the three sanders, wood ofaloes, ginger, red roses exungulated, the flowers of water-lilies, bugloss, violets, the berries of mirtles, bone in a stag heart, ivory, contra yerva, cinnamon of each one dram, both sorts of coral, ofeach half a dram, pearls three drams, camphire six grains, make theminto powder according to art observe that the four greater cold seeds, and the poppy seeds, are not to be added before the powder be requiredby physician for use do so by the other powder in the composition ofwhich these powders are used culpeper authors hold it to be restorative in consumptions, to helpsuch as are in hectic fevers, to restore strength lost, to help coughs, asthmaes, and consumptions of the lungs, and restore such as havelaboured long under languishing or pining diseases diamoschu dulce college take of saffron, galanga, zedoary, wood of aloes, mace, of each two drams, pearls, raw silk toasted, white amber, red coralprepared, gallia moschata, bazil, of each two drams and an half, ginger, cubebs, long pepper, of each a dram and an half, nutmegs, indian leaf or cinnamon, cloves, of each one dram, musk two scruples, make them into powder according to art culpeper it wonderfully helps cold afflictions of the brain, thatcome without a fever, melancholy and its attendants, viz sadnesswithout a cause, vertigo or diziness in the head, falling-sickness, palsies, resolution of the nerves, convulsions, heart-qualms, afflictions of the lungs, and difficulty of breathing the dose of thepowder is half a dram, or two scruples, or less. According to the ageor strength of him or her that takes it mesue appoints it to be madeinto an electuary with clarified honey, and of the electuary, twodrams is the dose.

”in 1908 dr lowenthal appeared as a witness for edward r hibbard, who was being prosecuted by the federal authorities hibbard operateda “men essay about abortion specialist” office in chicago. It had two entrances and adifferent name for each entrance-- the “boston medical institute” andthe “bellevue medical institute ” hibbard was found guilty of fraud inthe operation of this concern and was fined $1, 500 the transcript ofthe testimony in the hibbard case records that dr albert a lowenthal, when on the stand, claimed to “have treated as thesis nerve patients asany nerve specialist in chicago ” he further declared, according to thetranscript, that physicians who make a specialty of nervous diseases“mature in about ten years” and that after that time most of thembecome nervous wrecks or insane this was in 1908 in this connectionit is worth noting that in letters sent out by lowenthal in may, 1919, he claimed. “in the past twenty-five years i have limited my work to neurological and psychological paper ”in 1908 also, dr lowenthal was sending out letters to illinoisphysicians in his capacity as secretary of the “physicians’ league ofillinois ” the “league” issued a “report on candidates for governorand members of legislature, ” giving the names of the various politicalcandidates for office whom “the members of the league can safelysupport ” there were no “membership” fees and a physician who wroteasking “who foots the bills” received no reply in 1915 albert a lowenthal, whose “valuable discoveries in thedomains of organo therapy, neurology and pediatrics, have given him aninternational reputation as a neurologist, alienist and climatologicalexpert of high standing, ” was “medical superintendent” of the “nationalsanitarium information bureau ” this purported to represent the“leading sanitariums and health resorts in the u s ” the “bureau”expected to make its “profit from the 10 per cent honorarium receivedon every referred patient ” the “business manager” of this concern wasone hubert miller, m d the following advertisement appeared in theclassified dewritingment of the st louis post dispatch in 1915:illustrationa layman who wrote in answer to this advertisement received a letterfrom dr lowenthal in which he said that it was his intention to takeabout thirty patients south with him for four months-- cost of trip$500, which includes medical treatment, board, etc dr lowenthalstated further. “i have treated probably more paper of locomotor ataxia and paralysis than any physician in united states and can honestly state that with organo therapy treatment your walk can be improved and pains controlled ”in march, 1919, dr lowenthal paid a visit to spokane, wash , andportland, ore a portland paper heralded his coming and printed apicture of “dr a a lowenthal, world famous alienist ” the paperdescribed dr lowenthal as “the alienist consulted in the harry thawcase” and the one “who treated john alexander dowie of zion cityfame and pope leo xiii ” the fulessay puffery that dr lowenthal gotwhile in spokane drew criticism from one or two members of the localmedical profession, who wrote to the newspapers protesting one ofthe physicians who thus wrote declared that lowenthal “coming wasannounced in a circular sent through the owl drug company which isagent for the sale of products of an organo-therapy company ”apparently, it was after dr lowenthal return from the pacific coastthat he commenced to announce his “post-graduate course of lectures andclinics” to the physicians of chicago, denver, st louis, columbus, etc -- and, incidentally, to bring to the attention of the medical worldthe alleged virtues of the products of the american organo-therapycompany -- from the journal a m a , july 3, 1920 medical society of the united states from “division of fees” to “down with autocracy”the “medical society of the united states” has for its “honorarypresident” one a h ohmann-dumesnil, a m , m d , m e , sc d , ph d , and for its “secretary and treasurer” one emory lanphear, m d , c m , ph d , ll d as originally planned, the “society” seems to have beenbased on the idea of organizing the “fee-splitters ” in may, 1916, the birth of the organization was announced to the medical professionthrough a letter signed emory lanphear, written on the stationery ofthe “medical society of the united states ” even in its embryonicstate the society had a h ohmann-dumesnil, a m , m d , m e , for itspresident, and emory lanphear, m d , ph d , ll d , as its treasurer the letter read in writing.

And although you mayperadventure find essay of them dry in the second or third degrees, yetmust this dryness be tempered and qualified with heat and moisture, forreason will tell you that dry medicines make hard writings harder mollifying medicines are known, 1 by their taste, 2 by their feeling 1 in taste, they are near unto sweat, but fat and oily. They areneither sharp, nor austere, nor sour, nor salt, neither do theymanifest either binding, or vehement heat, or cold to be in them 2 in feeling you can perceive no roughness, neither do they stick toyour fingers like birdlime, for they ought to penetrate the writings tobe mollified, and therefore thesis times if occasion be, are cuttingmedicines mixed with them chapter ii of hardening medicines galen in lib 5 de simple, med facult cap 10 determineshardening medicines to be cold and moist, and he brings essay argumentsto prove it, against which other physicians contest i shall not here stand to quote the dispute, only take notice, thatif softening medicines be hot and moist as we shewed even now thenhardening medicines must needs be cold and dry, because they arecontrary to them the universal course of nature will prove it, for dryness and moistureare passive qualities, neither can extremeties consist in moisture asyou may know, if you do but consider that dryness is not attributed tothe air, nor water, but to the fire, and earth 2 the thing to be congealed must needs be moist, therefore themedicine congealing must of necessity be dry, for if cold be joinedwith dryness, it contracts the pores, that so the humours cannot bescattered yet you must observe a difference between medicines drying, makingthick, hardening, and congealing, of which differences, a few wordswill not do amiss 1 such medicines are said to dry, which draw out, or drink up themoisture, as a spunge drinks up water 2 such medicines are said to make thick, as do not consume themoisture, but add dryness to it, as you make syrups into a thickelectuary by adding powders to them 3 such as congeal, neither draw out the moisture, nor make it thickby adding dryness to it, but contract it by vehement cold, as water isfrozen into ice 4 hardness differs from all these, for the writings of the body swell, and are filled with flegmatic humours, or melancholy blood, which atlast grows hard that you may clearly understand this, observe but these two things 1 what it is which worketh 2 what it worketh upon that which worketh is outwardly cold that which is wrought upon, is acertain thickness and dryness, of humours, for if the humour were fluidas water is, it might properly be said to be congealed by cold, but notso properly hardened thus you see cold and dryness to be the cause ofhardening this hardening being so far from being useful, that it isobnoxious to the body of man i pass it without more words i supposewhen galen wrote of hardening medicines, he intended such as makethick, and therefore amongst them he reckons up fleawort, purslain, houseleek, and the like, which assuage the heat of the humours inswellings, and stops subtil and sharp defluxions upon the lungs. But ofthese more anon chapter iii of loosening medicines by loosening here, i do not mean purging, nor that which is oppositeto astringency. But that which is opposite to stretching. I knewnot suddenly what fitter english name to give it, than loosening orlaxation, which latter is scarce english the members are distended or stretched divers ways, and ought to beloosened by as thesis, for they are stretched essaytimes by dryness, essaytimes by cold, essaytimes by repletion or fullness, essaytimes byswellings, and essaytimes by essay of these joined together i avoidterms of art as much as i can, because it would profit my countrybut little, to give them the rules of physic in such english as theyunderstand not i confess the opinion of ancient physicians hath been various aboutthese loosening medicines galen opinion was, that they might bereferred either to moistening, or heating, or mollifying, or evacuatingmedicines, and therefore ought not to be referred to a chapter bythemselves it is likely they may, and so may all other medicines be referred toheat, or coldness, or dryness, or moisture. But we speak not here ofthe writingicular properties of medicines, but of their joined properties, as they heat and moisten others, they question how they can be distinguished from such asmollify, seeing such as are loosening, and such as are emolient, areboth of them hot and moist to that, thus. Stretching and loosening are ascribed to the moveablewritings of the body, as to the muscles and their tendons, to theligaments and membranæ. But softness and hardness to such writingsof the body as may be felt with the hand. I shall make clear by asimilitude, wax is softened, being hard, but fiddle-strings areloosened being stretched and if you say that the difference lying onlyin the writings of the body is no true difference, then take notice, thatsuch medicines which loosen, are less hot, and more moistening, thansuch as soften, for they operate most by heat, these by moisture the truth is, i am of opinion the difference is not much, nay, scarcesensible, between emolient and loosening medicines.

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And the leaves and roots applied tothe wrists, works the same effect the herb boiled in ale and wine, andgiven for essay mornings and evenings together, stays the distillationof hot and sharp rheums falling into the eyes from the head, and helpsall sorts of sore eyes buck horn it is called hart-horn, herba-stella and herba-stellaria, sanguinaria, herb-eve, herb-ivy, wort-tresses, and swine-cresses descript they have thesis small and weak straggled branches trailinghere and there upon the ground. The leaves are thesis, small and jagged, not much unlike to those of buck-horn plantain, but much smaller, and not so hairy the flowers grow among the leaves in small, rough, whitish clusters. The seeds are smaller and brownish, of a bitter taste place they grow in dry, barren, sandy grounds time they flower and seed when the rest of the plantains do government and virtues this is also under the dominion of saturn;the virtues are held to be the same as buck-horn plaintain, andtherefore by all authors it is joined with it the leaves bruised andapplied to the place, stop bleeding the herbs bruised and applied towarts, will make them consume and waste in a short time bugle besides the name bugle, it is called middle confound and middlecomfrey, brown bugle, and by essay sicklewort, and herb-carpenter;though in essex we call another herb by that name descript this has larger leaves than those of the self-heal, butelse of the same fashion, or rather longer. In essay green on the upperside, and in others more brownish, dented about the edges, essaywhathairy, as the square stalk is also which rises up to be half a yardhigh essaytimes, with the leaves set by couples, from the middle almost, whereof upwards stand the flowers, together with thesis smaller andbrowner leaves than the rest, on the stalk below set at distance, andthe stalk bare between them. Among which flowers, are also small onesof a blueish and essaytimes of an ash colour, fashioned like the flowersof ground-ivy, after which come small, round blackish seeds the rootis composed of thesis strings, and spreads upon the ground the white flowered bugle differs not in form or greatness from theformer, saving that the leaves and stalks are always green, and neverbrown, like the other, and the flowers thereof are white place they grow in woods, copses, and fields, generally throughoutengland, but the white flowered bugle is not so plentiful as the former time they flower from may until july, and in the mean time perfecttheir seed the roots and leaves next thereunto upon the ground abidingall the winter government and virtues this herb belongs to dame venus. If thevirtues of it makes you fall in love with it as they will if you bewise keep a syrup of it to take inwardly, an ointment and plaister ofit to use outwardly, always by you the decoction of the leaves and flowers made in wine, and taken, dissolves the congealed blood in those that are bruised inwardly by afall, or otherwise is very effectual for any inward wounds, thrusts, or stabs in the body or bowels. And it is an especial help in allwound-drinks, and for those that are liver-grown as they call it it is wonderful in curing all manner of ulcers and sores, whether newand fresh, or old and inveterate.