History

Essay 123 Help


Mostof the iodin was in the form of ordinary iodid, a small amount ofvegetable extractives, essay 123 help and traces of aluminum and potassium if anyprotein was present, it was in amounts too small to be identified, though a small amount of a nitrogenous compound was present the amountof solids in “national iodine solution” was equivalent to 0 72 percent, and the amount of ash, to 0 2 per cent quantitative estimationsyielded the following. Alcohol by volume 7 0 per cent zinc zn 0 096 per cent iodin free and combined 0 029 per cent sulphate so₄--    0 146 per cent protein n × 6 36 0 012 per cent the above findings indicate that each 100 c c contains about 7 c c ofalcohol, 0 5 gram of zinc sulphate u s p znso₄7h₂o , 0 03 gramof iodin, 0 01 gram of protein calculated as such from nitrogen timesthe factor 6 36 and essay hamamelis water expressed in equivalentapothecary terms, each fluidounce contains essentially. Zinc sulphate 2-1/3 grains iodin free and combined 1/8 grain protein 1/25 grain alcohol 34 minimsthis amount of alcohol is equivalent to about 3-1/2 fluidrams of witchhazel water although the label states that each fluidounce containsthree grains of “proteo-albuminoid compound of iodine, ” yet the sum ofthe protein calculated from nitrogen content and iodin components isequivalent to less than 1/5 grain “national iodine solution” appears to be very similar to “gonocol” thenational drug co , philadelphia, pa , which was analyzed by the bureauof chemistry of the u s dewritingment of agriculture the bureau statedthat “it gonocol consisted essentially of an aqueous solution of zincsulphate, hamamelis water, a small amount of alcohol, 0 38 grain ofiodin, and 0 36 grain of protein per fluidounce ”it is evident that “national iodine solution” is not a solution offree elementary iodin as the name suggests. Instead it appears to bea solution of zinc sulphate in witch hazel water containing less than0 03 per cent of combined iodin and not more than a trace of freeiodin “national iodine solution” is one more to be added to thatalready long list of proprietaries which makes capital of the highesteem in which physicians hold iodin the claimsan advertising circular sent to physicians begins. “dear doctor. We beg to suggest a line of treatment while using national iodine solution which our thesis years of experience has proven to us to give the best and quickest results in the treatment of inflammation of the urethral tract ”in it are given directions for the treatment of “acute gonorrhea, male, ” “anterior urethritis, ” “anterior-posterior urethritis, ” “ardorurinæ and chordee, ” etc , by means of national iodine solution andother proprietaries of the national drug company make in fact thesolution is claimed to be “indicated in all conditions of urethraaccompanied by a discharge ” comment and conclusionsthe therapeutic claims made for “national iodine solution” areunwarranted such a solution is not indicated in all conditions of theurethra accompanied by discharge the advice contained in the circularis equivalent to mail-order treatment of gonorrhea it is of interest to note that the claims for an identical or asimilar solution prepared by the national drug company as a treatmentfor gonorrhea and intended for use by the laity, has been adjudgedmisbranded by the federal authorities notice of judgment no 8150, issued jan 25, 1921 in that it misled and deceived the purchaseror purchasers thereof in the statements regarding the therapeuticor curative effects of the article, which falsely and fraudulentlyrepresent it to be indicated in all conditions of the urethraaccompanied with a discharge, “whereas in truth and in fact it was not ”the council would emphasize that if physicians give heed to advertisingsuch as that sent out by the national drug company for this preparationthe medical profession cannot with good grace protest against theroutine treatment of venereal diseases by quacks and “patent medicine”venders -- from the journal a m a , june 4, 1921 mon-arsone not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary mon-arsone is offered by the harmer laboratories company as “a newand non-toxic arsenical for the treatment of syphilis ” in theadvertisements for mon-arsone it has been claimed that with thisdrug “the toxic, corrosive and uncertain reactions attending the useof arsphenamine have been entirely eliminated” and that “it has atherapeutic value equal to arsphenamine, but extensive case reportsfail to record the slightest toxic reaction following its use ”according to the manufacturers, mons-arsone is disodiumethylarsonate, the sodium salt of ethylarsonic acid, derived from arsenic acid byreplacement of one hydroxyl group by the ethyl group-- aso ch₂ch₃ oh₂ mons-arsone is related to sodium cacodylate, which is the sodium saltof dimethyl-arsenic acid-- aso ch₃₂oh-- derived from arsenic acid byreplacement of two hydroxyl groups by two methyl groups ethylarsonicacid and its potassium salt were described by la coste139 more thanthirty-five years ago, and the use of the sodium salt of methylarsonicacid was proposed in france essay years ago the harmer laboratoriescompany claims originality for mons-arsone in that it was the firstto prepare the sodium salt of ethylarsonic acid and to propose itstherapeutic use 139 la coste. Annalen der chemie liebig 208. 34 it was reported several years ago by castelli140 that sodiumcacodylate and the sodium salt of methyl arsenic acid were devoid ofeffect on experimental trypanosomiasis and spirochete infections careful clinical observations in this country by h j nichols141 andh n cole142 have demonstrated the inefficacy of sodium cacodylatein the treatment of human syphilis 140 castelli, g.

“most graduates of ‘old barnes’ have joined our society of protest against the iniquities of the a m a why should you also not come essay 123 help in?. it costs only $1 00 to become a member, including the cost of a beautiful certificate of membership ”still another group appeal is based on sex. Thus lanphear. “we want every reputable ‘lady physician’ in this country to join our society of protest against the iniquities of the a m a ”and yet another. “you formerly belonged to the tri-state medical society, of which i was treasurer for 20 years it is now dead i wish you would join our new society which has superseded tri-state in this territory ”with these various letters is enclosed a “preliminary program” of the1918 meeting which is to be held october 8 and 9 in chicago as mightbe expected, thesis of the names on the program are characteristic of theorganization and an interesting “story” might be made from the materialin the journal files on the individuals such names are of men, who, professionally speaking, range from faddists, who ride grotesque andbizarre medical hobbies, to those who with special interests to exploitand unable to use reputable medical organizations for that purpose, take refuge in such hybrid conglomerations as the medical society ofthe united states not that the program contains the names of crudequacks, or obvious medical swindlers it is representative, rather, ofthat twilight zone of professionalism, the penumbra, in whose uncertainlight it is difficult to distinguish between the unbalanced visionary, with a fad, and the more sinister near-quack, with a “scheme ”-- fromthe journal a m a , oct 5, 1918 the national formulary-- a review of the fourth editionthe fourth edition of the national formulary appears simultaneouslywith the u s pharmacopeia ix, and is to become official at the sametime september 1 the principles which determine its scope, asfrankly set forth in the preface, are apparently the same as thoseapplied, though more faint-heartedly, in the compilation of thepharmacopeia a statement in the preface of the new national formularyruns. “the scope of the present national formulary is the same as in previous issues, and is based on medical usage rather than on therapeutic ideals the committee consists entirely of pharmacists, or of men with a pharmaceutical training, and it cannot presume either to judge therapeutic practice or to follow any writingicular school of therapeutic practice the question of the addition or deletion of any formula was judged on the basis of its use by physicians and its pharmaceutical soundness the considerable use by physicians of any preparation was considered sufficient warrant for the inclusion of its formula in the book, and a negligible or diminishing use as justifying its exclusion ”writing i of the volume contains formulas, good, bad and indifferent, including the equivalents of a large number of shotgun proprietaries writing ii contains descriptions of drugs this is a new feature thepurpose is to provide standards for those drugs not described inthe pharmacopeia but used in n f preparations thesis of these drugswere described in the u s pharmacopeia viii, but have not beenincluded in the ninth revision practically all are either worthlessor superfluous writing iii contains descriptions of special tests andreagents among the therapeutically useful formulas are those for aromatic castoroil, emulsion of castor oil, sprays or nebulae, solution of aluminumacetate, solution of aluminum subacetate and wine of antimony the twolast named are also included in “useful drugs ” several formulas fornew classes of preparations which may or may not be found superiorto old forms are paste pencils for the application of medicaments tolimited areas of the skin, mulls, which are ointments spread likeplasters, and fluidglycerates, which are fluidextracts in whichglycerin takes the place of alcohol it should be noted also that, as aresult of criticism, the alcohol content of essay preparations has beenreduced as a whole, the present edition of the national formulary, like itspredecessors, is “pharmaceutically useful but not a therapeuticnecessity ” to say that it is not a therapeutic necessity is tostate the matter mildly, since most of the formulas and almost allof the drugs described have been discarded long since by rationaltherapeutists so long as there are physicians who prescribetherapeutic monstrosities, however, the druggist should have theaid that is furnished by this book in compounding them from thepharmacist point of view, therefore, the book is a valuable one physicians who have a scientific training in the pharmacology of drugswill not want it. Others will be better off without the temptationsoffered by its thesis irrational formulas -- book review in the journala m a , sept 2, 1916 nonspecific protein therapythe treatment by nonspecific methods in a series of paper of influenzalpneumonia has been the subject of two recent papers 295 these methodsare a development of the work of ichikawa, kraus, lüdke, jobling andpetersen, and others on the treatment of typhoid fever and of millerand lusk work on arthritis in the original work in this field itwas recognized that there were certain inherent dangers in the methodand that wide application would be permissible only with the greatestcaution and under careful control 295 roberts, dudley, and cary, e g. Bacterial protein injectionsin influenzal pneumonia, j a m a 72:922 march 29 1919 cowie, d m , and beaven, p w. Nonspecific protein therapy in influenzalpneumonia, j a m a 72:1117 april 19 1919 when vaccines and other toxic protein substances are injectedintravenously a train of reactions takes place that includes. aa primary leukopenia, followed by a leukocytosis. b a primarylessening of the coagulability of the blood, followed after essayinterval by a reduction of the coagulation time. c a pronouncedlymphagogue effect, the flow of lymph from the thoracic duct beingincreased threefold. d a hyperperistalsis of the intestinal tract, and e a marked splanchnic engorgement with a resulting lowering ofthe systemic blood pressure the alteration of the coagulability of theblood, together with the vascular engorgement of the splanchnic areaand the coincident increase in motility of the intestinal tract thatfollow the therapeutic injection, all tend to increase the possibilityof intestinal hemorrhage protein therapy is therefore not a safeprocedure in this writingicular disease that we are able to terminate acertain number of paper of typhoid fever by crisis by means of suchinjections is of very great interest from a theoretical point of view in the treatment of arthritis, the results seem much more satisfactory the work of miller and lusk296 has been confirmed by a number ofobservers, among them culver, cecil, snyder, cowie and calhoun. Andthere seems little doubt that we may be able to give prompt relief andeven permanent freedom from symptoms in a considerable percentage ofpaper of acute and subacute arthritis, especially those classed as ofrheumatic origin-- and this with practically no risk to the patient 296 miller, j l , and lusk, f b. The treatment of arthritis by theintravenous injection of foreign protein, j a m a 66. 1756 june 31916.

Fatty tissue seen beneath no blood effused. Small vessels could be seen stretching across the fissures case 15 brain congested, etc caspar, “forensic med , ” p 316, vol i - boy, æt 1-1/2 years, set fire to his clothing death in 1½ days post-mortem examination showed congestion of the brain, inflammation of the trachea, engorgement of the lungs with hepatization of the lower writing of the right lung case 16 burn of lower writing of body death same reference - woman, æt 81. Burn of lower writing of body, including the gluteal region, the perineum and genital organs external death after several days post-mortem examination showed the upper lobe of left lung in a stage of red hepatization, etc case 17 tardy appearance of redness and vesication tidy, “legal med , ” vol ii , p 124, case 15 - woman, insensible from cold, had hot water applied in tins to her sides and feet the flannel coverings became displaced and the hot tins came in contact with the body no redness or vesication could be detected two hours afterward the next day, when consciousness had returned and recovery from insensibility had taken place, the writings had become reddened and vesicated case 18 were the burns ante mortem or post mortem?. caspar, “forensic med , ” vol i , p 317 - woman intoxicated. Clothing caught fire. Death due to asphyxia essay burns apparently caused during life and essay after death the case was decided upon the character of the vesications and their contents lungs and other organs normal right side of heart engorged with dark blood case 19 murder body burned dr duncan, med gazette, lond , vol viii , p 170 - man charged with the murder of his wife and attempting to burn the body afterward the body was so extensively burned as to remove all means of deciding the cause of death the man claimed that her clothing took fire when she was intoxicated persons in the same house had heard sounds of a struggle before smelling smoke and fire furniture was not burned, nor the house the prisoner was found guilty of murder case 20 blisters was the scalding ante mortem?. taylor, “med jurisprudence, ” 8th am ed , p 411 - the body of an infant found in a saucepan, boiled the prisoner admitted that the child had breathed the boiling water had destroyed the means of positively deciding whether the child had breathed blisters found upon it contained yellow serum was the child living when put in the water?. the prisoner was acquitted case 21 scald of a lunatic in a bath taylor, “med jurisprudence, ” 8th am ed , p 411 - insane patient placed in a hot bath temperature 123° f death in collapse next day 1879 case 22 criminal burning, strangling report of profs liebig and bischoff, of giessen, march, 1850 - the man stauff was tried at darmstadt for the murder of the countess of goerlitz, whom he had attacked and murdered in her chamber, and then fired the furniture in order to conceal the crime it was uncertain whether she had died from injury to the head or from strangulation the tongue protruded and was swollen, as in paper of strangling, and maintained this condition he was convicted chiefly on circumstantial evidence after conviction he confessed that he had strangled her and then set fire to the furniture, which he had piled up about her case 23 murder body burned identified “report of the trial of prof webster, ” etc , boston, 1850 - prof webster killed dr parkman and then burned the body, in portions, in a furnace in his laboratory search among the cinders of the furnace disclosed pieces of human bones and a set of false teeth which the dentist who made them recognized as made by him for dr parkman, etc case 24 murder body entirely burned identified the “druse case, ” trans new york state med soc , 1887, p 417 - mrs druse, with the compulsory aid of her children, killed her husband with an axe the body was burned in a wood stove, with pine shingles the ashes were thrown into a swamp near by they were found and carefully sifted pieces of bone of various sizes, identified as human, were found, as also a few porcelain buttons, etc a few hairs found, with stains, completed the identity experiments in this case showed that the body could have been consumed within ten hours the prisoner was convicted of murder the medico-legal relations of electricity by william n bullard, m d medico-legal relations of electricity as the frequency of accidents caused by electricity is rapidlyincreasing, we have of late years been enabled to generalize ina manner never before possible in regard to their results, andalthough our present conclusions must be recognized as provisionaland perhaps temporary to be changed or modified in accordance withfuture knowledge yet we have obtained a basis of fact on which wecan securely rely the general laws of injury and accident throughelectricity have been fairly well determined, although thesis of thedetails are not yet thoroughly worked out or understood the advancesof knowledge in this direction are so rapid that an article on thissubject, if it deals too closely with details, is liable to become outof date almost before it has left the press like all large subjectswhen first made objects of general interest and investigation, and inregard to which we are on the threshold only of knowledge, the factsdiscoverable may lead us at any time in unexpected directions and openout new fields of thought and inquiry we shall try to limit ourselveshere, as far as possible, to proved facts, and leave questions doubtfulor in dispute to be settled later. Contenting ourselves merely withpointing them out and, perhaps, in essay paper giving the facts oneither side electrical accidents and injuries may be divided into those whichare caused by the atmospheric electricity lightning proper, globesof fire, st elmo fire and those produced through the agency ofmechanical or artificial electricity electrical machines, batteries, dynamos, etc the effects caused by these different agents probablyvary only in degree. The atmospheric electricity in the form oflightning, etc , being so much more powerful than the charges usuallyproduced artificially as to cause essay difference in the results results of accidents and injuries from electrical machines andconductors medical electricity - in the ordinary use of the mild forms ofelectricity employed for medical purposes, certain phenomena may attimes occur, which, although not of any serious import or of longduration, may yet cause considerable inconvenience, pain, or discomfortto the patient or others, and may even be of essay importance from amedico-legal point of view we shall not enter here into the discussionof the proper methods of application of medical electricity, nor domore than point out that if these be not followed with care the patientmay be not only not benefited, but made worse, and may even sufferconsiderable injury the increase of pain caused by the improperapplication of certain currents is usually temporary and of minorconsequence but serious and lasting inflammations may be caused bythe careless, ignorant, or injudicious use of the stronger currentsinternally, and metritis and peri-uterine inflammations have been notinfrequently reported from the unskilled practice of the methods ofapostoli these subjects, however, scarcely come under the scope ofthis article in addition, however, to these troubles we may have external injuriesproduced even in paper where the current amounts to not more than afew milliamperes burns may be caused by the ordinary electrodes of thegalvanic battery the faradic current when medically used does not, asa rule, produce any external injuries such might be caused by a sparkfrom a static machine, but it would be due to gross carelessness, andis very unusual burns, however, from the use of the galvanic currentare not very uncommon they usually occur under the electrode after ithas been for a few moments stationary in contact with the skin theyoccur in certain patients with extraordinary readiness, especially inthose with organic spinal lesions, and where the sensation is essaywhatdiminished, and where also essay trophic lesion might be supposed toexist they are not confined, however, to this class of paper, butmay occur in any one if the electrode be retained too long in any oneplace, and especially if it be allowed to become dry these burns arepeculiar in appearance and can usually be recognized at once they arecircular, as if punched out, about the size of a common pencil or alittle smaller, comparatively deep, gray with perhaps a dark ring atthe circumference, and frequently surrounded by a reddened area theedges are sharp their peculiarity consists 1 in their painlessnessand 2 in their size, regular form, their depth in comparison to theirextent, and the sharp limitation of the area of tissue destroyed one or more may occur under a broad electrode, and they are probablyproduced at those points where the contact is imperfect or theconduction in essay other way impeded they heal without much difficultyand leave no serious results other unpleasant symptoms produced by currents in medical use may bementioned for the sake of completeness, and also as an introductionto the more serious symptoms caused by stronger currents dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, nausea, vomiting, and syncope are readily causedby even slight currents the sensation of light in the eyes and themetallic taste in the mouth are the results of medical currents ofordinary strength when applied to the head or in its neighborhood, andstronger currents applied at greater distances cause these sensations all the above symptoms may be readily caused by even slight currents, whether galvanic or faradic, passed through the head the syncope thusproduced is to be carefully differentiated from the syncope causedpsychically by excitement or fear of the application of electricity hysterical women, and even persons who show no special signs ofnervous instability, may faint at the suggestion of the applicationof electricity i have seen a large, strong, well-built italian man, perfectly sound physically, so far as could be detected, except essayslight local neuralgia, faint from pure fright when the electricity wasto be applied but even the application of moderately severe shocksfrom the ordinary medical battery are not likely to produce seriousresults these shocks are ordinarily caused by the opening or closingof the galvanic current, and are most severe when the current passesthrough essay portion of the head a still more powerful shock may begiven by reversing the current in a galvanic battery by means of thecommutator currents of high tension strong artificial currents passing on now to the consideration of the stronger currents, wecome to those used for mechanical purposes, for electric lighting, electric railways, and other analogous objects these currents startfrom dynamos or from storage batteries, and accidents are caused bythem whenever they are diverted from their proper course and arecaused to come in contact with or to pass through any portion of thehuman body in any considerable strength accidents not infrequentlyoccur from direct contact with the batteries or dynamos, but stillmore frequently they are produced in their circuit along the wires ortransmitters they may also be caused, as essay of the most fatal havebeen, by contact with metallic or other readily conducting objectswhich have themselves accidentally come in contact with essay portionof an electric circuit usually wires and have diverted the whole, ormore usually a portion, of the current to themselves thus was killeda young man in new york, the clerk in a store, who while lifting themetal-edged cover of a show-case brought it in contact with the chargedwires of an electric light and received an immediately fatal shock asa rule, those meeting with accidents from dynamos or electric machinesdirectly are employees of electric companies, who are presumed tohave more or less knowledge of the risk of carelessness, or they maybe workers in institutions or factories in which such machines are inuse thesis of the accidents due to wires also occur to linemen and otheremployees of electric, telephone, or telegraph companies or of electricrailway companies in charge of wires or electric outfit so long as thecurrent transmitters and terminals wires, etc are properly insulatedand in their proper position in relation to other conductors, it isunusual for accidents to occur, except in paper of gross ignorance orcarelessness unfortunately, however, proper insulation is not alwaysaccomplished, and frequently wires and other transmitters are removedfrom their proper positions by accidents and otherwise so long as andwherever the system of overhead wires exists, if there be among thesewires any which are the transmitters of strong electric currents, there is always a risk, and often a very serious one, that at essay timeor other one of these current-bearing wires will come into contactwith essay other non-current-bearing and ordinarily harmless wire insuch a manner that the current of the first should be diverted, inwhole or in writing, on to the ordinarily innocuous wire, which therebybecomes at once charged and dangerous such an accident may be due tothe displacement of either wire or to any other cause which bringsthe two in contact, either direct or indirect, at a point where thecurrent-bearing wire is not sufficiently insulated the current havingonce passed out of its proper circuit will, of course, follow thepaths of best conduction, and may hence suddenly appear in unexpectedquarters and produce the most dangerous and even fatal effects itis accidents of this character which most frequently occur among thepeople who are neither employees of electric companies nor engaged infactories or buildings where electrical machines are employed insulation of wires and other electrical transmitters - we cannotmention here the various methods employed to insulate wires, as thegeneral principles of insulation are well known electric wires evenwith very strong currents can be insulated and can be kept insulatedif sufficient pains be taken and sufficient money be expended butthis is very expensive and in thesis paper is not done only writingialinsulation is attempted, and even this is not always carried tothe degree intended or stipulated hence so long as overhead wiresof various kinds exist, accidents from the transmission of strongelectric currents along ordinarily harmless wires are liable at anytime to occur, as practically little or no attempt at keeping thecurrent-bearing wires covered with a thoroughly insulating materialis in most paper made it is usually deemed sufficient that glass orother insulators should be so placed that under ordinary conditions thewire will not come into contact with any conductor which may cause anyessential writing of its current to diverge in most paper a so-calledinsulating material is placed over the wire itself, but this usually isinsufficient at the outset or becomes so before very long and is thennot renewed it must not be supposed, however, that underground electric wiresor transmitters cannot produce accidents on the contrary, thecurrent may be diverted from them to the gas or water pipes or to anyother conductors which come into contact with them or can attractto themselves a portion of their current severe shocks have beenexperienced by persons attempting to draw water at their faucet fromcauses of this character at the same time, so far as mere safety isconcerned and freedom from electrical accidents, it would seem thatunderground wires are preferable to overhead wires electrical wires have not infrequently come in contact with telegraphand telephone wires causing unpleasant results telephone boxes havebeen set on fire, and also telegraph boards and tables, and in certainpaper what might have been serious conflagrations have been startedin this manner by means of proper arrangements on the telegraph andtelephone circuits these dangers can be at least writingially avoided, but there is always the risk that the automatic alarms and othercontrivances do not act, and the still greater one that persons orthings may come into contact with these charged wires and receivedangerous or serious injuries electric cars - the danger from the overhead wires in the trolleysystem of electric cars would not be great were these wires properlysupported, properly insulated, and properly protected each of theseterms must be explained wires which fall for any cause whatever shortof being intentionally removed cannot be deemed properly supported inthe sense in which we use the term any one of these electric wireswhich falls is liable to produce serious injury to persons or animals thesis horses have been killed by them, or to set fire to objects withwhich it comes into immediate or indirect contact, the amount of injurybeing in writing dependent upon the nature and the condition wet or dryof the object and its position in relation to other conductors wiresas dangerous as these car wires should be so supported that no ordinaryaccident, no condition of the weather, strong winds, or heavy falls ofsnow should be capable of wrenching them from their supports, and theyshould be placed in such positions and with such protection as not toreceive blows from passing or falling objects secondly, these wires should be properly insulated this is to beunderstood to mean that all the wires which carry the electric current, or are liable to carry it, should be attached to their poles or othersupport in such a manner that no appreciable quantity of electricity isunder any circumstances liable to be diverted to the poles or supports, and in this way cause destruction or injury in addition to this theside wires should be so covered that if any accident occurs, it willbe difficult or impossible for the current to pass away from them toother objects the middle wire on which the trolley runs cannot bethus covered, but must be left bare, and hence, if knocked down orbrought into contact with properly conducting objects, must be the mostdangerous. But on the other hand from its position it is less liable toaccidents when we say that these wires should be properly protected we mean thatsuch arrangements and contrivances should be used as will prevent themwhile in their usual position from coming into contact with dangerousobjects, writingicularly with other wires this may be accomplished byguard wires or in other ways it is plainly of great importance thatthis should be specially cared for, and writingicularly in a city wherethere are thesis overhead wires, and perhaps a considerable number ofdead or non-used wires if the electricity comes into contact with oneof these no one can tell where it may be transmitted or what harm itmay do the principles which apply to these overhead wires of course applyceteris paribus to all other electric overhead wires, and in likemanner the statements made in regard to the diffusion or spreadingof currents in underground wires are applicable to all methods oftransmitting electricity mechanically through the ground so far as theconditions are similar an electric current will always follow the pathof best conduction, and where several paths are opened it will followthem proportionally according to the excellence of their conduction orinversely to the amount of their electric resistance we shall not enter here into any questions in regard to the diffusionof electricity, its transmission through fluids, water, air or othergases, nor shall we discuss the relations of good or bad conductors toelectricity except so far as this relates to certain portions of thehuman body an elementary knowledge of physics and electricity must bepresupposed we can now enter more directly upon the immediate subject of thisarticle, that is, the effect upon the human body of severe ormoderately strong currents of electricity derived from artificialsources the accidents produced by these currents may be divided intotwo classes, the direct and the indirect under the direct we placeall those conditions which are apparently produced by the actionof the electricity itself, such as the general shock, the loss ofconsciousness, the burns, etc on the other hand, all those accidentsare to be considered indirect which are not primarily due to the actionof the electric current, but are only secondary results thereof theseare largely determined by the immediate surroundings and conditions atthe time such, for example, are the surgical injuries due to fallscaused by the loss of consciousness produced by the electric shock indirect accidents these will be considered first, as they do not demand so detailed adescription as the direct they are traumatic in character and are theresult either of loss of consciousness, momentary or lasting, or ofthe involuntary muscular contraction which may be occasioned by theelectric shock they are among the most frequent effects of severeelectric shocks these accidents consist in contusions, fractures, dislocations, wounds, and any other injuries which may be produced fromsudden loss of consciousness while in a dangerous position death mayreadily occur either immediately or as the more or less delayed resultof such injuries if the person shocked falls into the water he may bedrowned, or if into the fire he will be burnt the varieties of suchaccidents dependent on the sudden loss of consciousness produced bythe electricity are, of course, innumerable, and their occurrence mustlargely depend upon the position of the victim at the moment of theshock we see, perhaps, most of these accidents in linemen on the topsof poles or houses or in other exposed places, but persons who receiveshocks when simply standing on the ground or when sitting are notexempt from severe surgical injuries other than burns they are oftencast to the ground with great violence, and not infrequently are thrownto a distance of several feet this is caused by the violent muscularcontraction produced by the electric shock, and it may occasion, likeany violent push or fall, severe injuries from contact with thevarious objects against which they may be forced although much rarer, it is also possible that the violence of these muscular contractionsmay be such as of themselves to cause injury, as rupture of a muscle ortendon as practically all these indirect accidents are traumatic andsurgical in character, they do not differ from other accidents similarin kind, but otherwise caused, and are to be treated on the samegeneral principles as these direct accidents quite different from the indirect are the direct accidents. Thoseproduced by the immediate direct action of the electricity theseare of various kinds, which we shall consider separately they may bedivided into immediate and late symptoms, and they vary much accordingto the severity of the shock and the constitution of the patient, and the writing of the body through which the electricity passes thecharacter of the current which gives the shock, whether constant orinterrupted, also naturally has an influence on the effect general principles - a shock may be given in three ways with anordinary galvanic battery if the current be sufficiently strong, adistinct shock will be produced when the circuit is closed and againwhen the circuit is opened, while with a current of the usual strengthfor medical purposes, the sensation while the current is passingthrough the body steadily is much less and is often limited to asensation of burning at the seat of the electrode a shock may also thirdly be produced by a reversal of the current, and the shock thuscaused is stronger for the same current than that produced in either ofthe other ways the strength of these shocks is shown both by the sensation producedand by the amount of muscular contraction caused when now a shockis caused by a continuous or constant current which starts froman ordinary dynamo or other electric generator or storer, it ispractically always caused by the opening or closing of the circuit, or, what is essentially the same, the diversion of a writing or the wholeof the current from its proper path to and through essay portion of thehuman body causes a shock at the time of the entrance of the body intothe circuit and another at the time of its exit therefrom shocksfrom reversal of current when such current arises from a constantmachine might occur, but only through essay peculiar accident hencethe shocks distinguished from any other effects of electricity whichare received by the person coming into contact with a constant currentare felt only at the moment of entering the circuit closure and ofleaving it opening if a person introduces himself between the twowires of an electric circuit in which a constant current is used, insuch a manner as to cause the current to pass through his body, hewill feel the shock only at the moment when he touches the second wireand completes the circuit, and at the moment when he lets go one ofthe wires and opens the circuit unless the current be so strong orbe so placed that he can divert to himself sufficient electricity tocause a shock, or, in other words, close a secondary circuit in essayother way while the current is passing through the body, although itmay burn and cause tingling and other unpleasant symptoms, there isno proper shock in other words, an electric shock is caused only bya change in the amount of electricity passing through the body or aportion thereof if we now consider the effects of alternating currents, we findthat we have another factor to deal with the general principles areexactly the same, but inasmuch as the reversal shock is stronger thanthe closure or opening shocks, other things being equal, we are likelyto receive a stronger shock from a current of the same force, and inaddition to this, as in alternating machines the reversals occur withconsiderable rapidity, the person who becomes connected with thiscircuit receives a number of strong shocks within a short space oftime this is a much more serious matter than to permit a current ofequal strength to flow through the body without change the effect of this form of electricity on the human body is firststimulating and then tetanizing to the muscles it consists in a veryrapidly interrupted current, the shocks being at times so frequent thatthey are not singly perceptible there is probably also a distinctdifference in the action of this current from that of the galvaniccurrent aside from its rapid interruption this is not, however, of sodefined a character as to enable us at the present time to distinguishin man the results of severe injuries and deaths caused by this formfrom those caused by other strong currents practically this form ofcurrent is but little used, except in medical batteries and for thepurposes of experimentation in laboratories static electricity has, so far as we know, rarely or never causedserious injuries or death the sparks produced in this way haveessaytimes caused burns, and it is conceivable that a strong electriccurrent produced in this way might be dangerous the symptoms could notbe distinguished from those caused by other forms of electricity summary - the greatest source of danger from electric currents is theshock produced by them in ordinary constant or continuous currentsthis is produced only at the moment of the opening and the closure ofthe circuit in alternating currents a shock is also produced at eachreversal of the machine faradic and static currents are rarely ornever used mechanically or in the arts resistance - the resistance of the human body to electric currentshas been very variously estimated the reasons for these variations are. 1 that the different tissuespresent different resistances. 2 that the resistance in the sametissue varies greatly under different circumstances the tissue which offers the greatest resistance and also practicallythe greatest variation is the skin, or, more properly speaking, theepidermis the resistance of this is thesis times as great as that of therest of the body, and when perfectly dry it is impervious to currentsof great strength witz states that in using a ruhmkorf coil with anestimated force of 250, 000 volts in guinea-pigs and rabbits, it isadvisable to cut through the skin in order to apply the electrodesdirectly to the flesh, or, at least, to wet the skin thoroughly, otherwise the shock caused by the full strength of the battery sixjars charged from the coil would not cause death various animalsoffer rates of resistance which vary essaywhat apparently according tothe nature of the animal, but are probably largely dependent on theconducting power of its tissues, that is, of its skin the variationsbetween the resistance of similar animals, according to the conditionof the skin at the time of the experiment, are much greater than thosewhich are found between animals of different species under similarconditions, or which are referable to specific susceptibility mr harold p brown testified in the kemmler case court of appeals, stateof new york state of new york ex rel william kemmler againstcharles f durston, agent and warden that he had in the course of hisexperiments seen a horse weighing 1, 320 pounds, with a resistance of11, 000 ohms, killed by an alternating current at 700 volts the resistance of the different cutaneous surfaces of the human bodyas measured by jolly in siemens’ units was from 400, 000 down to 15, 000in the male and to 8, 000 in the female siemens’ unit is to the ohm as1 06 to 1 00 tschirfew and watteville made the resistance from 80, 000 to 3, 000 ohms experiments made at the edison phonograph factory and edison laboratoryin july, 1889, on 259 males between the ages of eleven and fifty-one, showed a resistance, measured between the hands immersed to the wristsin a solution of caustic potash independent of polarization, averaging986 ohms and varying from 1, 970 to 550 ohms the resistance of 236 men employed at messrs bergmann & co electrical works in new york appears to have averaged 1, 184 ohms andto have varied from 1, 870 to 610 ohms these measurements were alsotaken between the hands, which were washed with soap and water and thendipped in jars containing a solution of caustic potash the batteryconsisted of four chromic-acid cells each having an e m f of 2 volts as shown in all the experiments on animals and more especially in thepaper of electrocution, the continuance or duration of the current hasmuch effect on the resistance as the current continues the resistancediminishes thus in the case of mcelvaine the resistance between theimmersed hands was at the beginning 800 ohms and at the end of thecontact of fifty seconds had decreased to 516 ohms in this case, whenthe current of 1, 500 volts was applied from the forehead to the leg, the resistance was practically steady at only 214 ohms of course thesmall resistance in these paper electrocutions depends largely on theperfect contact secured according to the amount of resistance offered do the effects of severeshocks of electricity differ this is shown especially well in theaction of lightning, but is also true of powerful currents producedmechanically if the resistance of the skin be slight at the moment ofentering the circuit of a strong current, the current will pass throughit with comparative ease and without causing much injury. But if on theother hand the resistance is great, the current will be, as it were, momentarily retarded or stored, heat will be developed, and there willensue a burning and charring of the tissue of a special kind theseburns occur principally at the places where the current is speciallyresisted, that is, at the point of entrance of the current to the bodyand at its point of exit this is the cause of the frequent burns inthe heel or sole of the foot in the case of those struck by lightningwhile standing, as the electricity passes away from the body into theground and finds a strong resistance at the point of leaving the body this is also the cause of the burns where the current leaves the bodyfrom any other cause, as from the contact or proximity of a metallicobject the greater the resistance so long as the current passes, otherthings being equal, the more severe is the burn it is for this reasonthat in medical electricity we usually use wet sponges on the skin orelectrodes moistened with salt and water or with other fluids whichwill assist in rendering the passage of the electricity through theskin more easy solutions of chlorid of sodium and of certain othersalts do this the mechanical effects of currents vary thus according to theresistance encountered they also vary according to the intensity orconcentration of the current if a current of moderate force be appliedthrough a small metallic point, it will burn, pain, and produce activeirritative symptoms, while if the same amount be applied over a largesurface simultaneously, it may have little or no irritating effect wehave, therefore, three factors in determining the mechanical effect ofany electric current on the body.

Then boil the water you boiled the root ininto a syrup, as we shewed you before essay 123 help. Then keep the root whole in thesyrup till you use them 4 as for barks, we have but few come to our hands to be done, and ofthose the few that i can remember, are, oranges, lemons, citrons, andthe outer bark of walnuts, which grow without-side the shell, for theshells themselves would make but scurvy preserves. These be they i canremember, if there be any more put them into the number the way of preserving these, is not all one in authors, for essay arebitter, essay are hot. Such as are bitter, say authors, must be soakedin warm water, oftentimes changing till their bitter taste be fled. Buti like not this way and my reason is this. Because i doubt when theirbitterness is gone, so is their virtue also. I shall then prescribe onecommon way, namely, the same with the former, viz first, boil themwhole till they be soft, then make a syrup with sugar and the liquoryou boil them in, and keep the barks in the syrup 5 they are kept in glasses or in glaz’d pots 6 the preserved flowers will keep a year, if you can forbear eating ofthem. The roots and barks much longer 7 this art was plainly and first invented for delicacy, yet cameafterwards to be of excellent use in physic. For, 1 hereby medicines are made pleasant for sick and squeamishstomachs, which else would loath them 2 hereby they are preserved from decaying a long time chapter ix of lohocks 1 that which the arabians call lohocks, and the greeks eclegma, thelatins call linctus, and in plain english signifies nothing else but athing to be licked up 2 they are in body thicker than a syrup, and not so thick as anelectuary 3 the manner of taking them is, often to take a little with aliquorice stick, and let it go down at leisure 4 they are easily thus made. Make a decoction of pectoral herbs, andthe treatise will furnish you with enough, and when you have strainedit, with twice its weight of honey or sugar, boil it to a lohock. Ifyou are molested with much phlegm, honey is better than sugar. And ifyou add a little vinegar to it, you will do well. If not, i hold sugarto be better than honey 5 it is kept in pots, and may be kept a year and longer 6 it is excellent for roughness of the wind-pipe, inflammations andulcers of the lungs, difficulty of breathing, asthmas, coughs, anddistillation of humours chapter x of ointments 1 various are the ways of making ointments, which authors have leftto posterity, which i shall omit, and quote one which is easiest tobe made, and therefore most beneficial to people that are ignorant inphysic, for whose sake i write this it is thus done:bruise those herbs, flowers, or roots, you will make an ointment of, and to two handfuls of your bruised herbs add a pound of hog greasedried, or cleansed from the skins, beat them very well together in astone mortar with a wooden pestle, then put it into a stone pot, theherb and grease i mean, not the mortar, cover it with a paper and setit either in the sun, or essay other warm place. Three, four, or fivedays, that it may melt. Then take it out and boil it a little. Thenwhilst it is hot, strain it out, pressing it out very hard in a press:to this grease add as thesis more herbs bruised as before. Let them standin like manner as long, then boil them as you did the former. If youthink your ointment is not strong enough, you may do it the third andfourth time.

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Then warm it a littleagain and wash it with fresh rose-water, adding to each pound twelvedrops of oil of lignum rhodium culpeper its general use is, to soften and supple the roughness ofthe skin, and take away the chops of the lips, hands, face, or otherwritings unguentum potabile college take of butter without salt, a pound and an half, spermaceti, madder, tormentil roots, castoreum, of each half an ounce:boil them as you ought in a sufficient quantity of wine, till the winebe consumed, and become an ointment culpeper i know not what to make of it unguentum resinum college take of pine rozin, or rozin of the pine-tree, of thepurest turpentine, yellow wax washed, pure oil, of each equal writings:melt them into an ointment according to art culpeper it is as pretty a cerecloth for a new sprain as most is, and cheap unguentum rosatum or, ointment of roses college take of fresh hog grease cleansed a pound, fresh redroses half a pound, juice of the same three ounces, make it into anointment according to art culpeper it is of a fine cooling nature, exceeding useful in allgallings of the skin, and frettings, accompanied with choleric humours, angry pushes, tetters, ringworms, it mitigates diseases in the headcoming of heat, as also the intemperate heat of the stomach and liver desiccativum rubrum or, a drying red ointment college take of the oil of roses omphacine a pound, white wax fiveounces, which being melted and put in a leaden mortar, put in the earthof lemnos or bole-ammoniac, lapis calaminaris, of each four ounces, litharge of gold, ceruss, of each three ounces, camphire one dram, make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it binds and restrains fluxes of humours unguentum e solano or, ointment of nightshade college take of juice of nightshade, litharge washed, of eachfive ounces, ceruss washed eight ounces, white wax seven ounces, frankincense in powder ten drams, oil of roses often washed in watertwo pounds, make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it was invented to take away inflammations from wounds, and to keep people from scratching of them when they are almost well or, ointment of tutty college take of tutty prepared two ounces, lapis calaminaris oftenburnt and quenched in plantain water an ounce, make them, being finelypowdered, into an ointment, with a pound and an half of ointment ofroses culpeper it is a cooling, drying ointment, appropriated to theeyes, to dry up hot and salt humours that flow down thither, theeyelids being anointed with it valentia scabiosæ college take of the juice of green scabious, pressed out with ascrew, and strained through a cloth, hog grease, of each as muchas you will, heat the hog grease in a stone mortar, not grind it, putting in the juice by degrees for the more commodious mixture andtincture, afterwards set it in the sun in a convenient vessel, so asthe juice may overtop the grease, nine days being passed, pour off thediscoloured juice, and beat it again as before, putting in fresh juice, set it in the sun again five days, which being elapsed, beat it again, put in more juice, after fifteen days more, do so again, do so fivetimes, after which, keep it in a glass, or glazed vessel tapsivalentia college take of the juice of mullen, hog grease, of each as muchas you will, let the grease be cleansed and cut in pieces, and beat itwith the juice, pressed and strained as you did the former ointment, then keep it in a convenient vessel nine or ten days, then beat ittwice, once with fresh juice, until it be green, and the second timewithout juice beaten well, pouring off what is discoloured, and keep itfor use tapsimel college take of the juice of celandine and mullen, of each onewriting, clarified honey, two writings, boil them by degrees till the juicebe consumed, adding the physician prescribing vitriol, burnt alum, burnt ink, and boil it again to an ointment according to art ointments more compound unguentum agrippa college take of briony roots two pounds, the roots of wildcucumbers one pound, squills half a pound, fresh english orris roots, three ounces, the roots of male fern, dwarf elder, water caltrops, oraaron, of each two ounces, bruise them all, being fresh, and steep themsix or seven days in four pounds of old oil, the whitest, not rank, then boil them and press them out, and in the oil melt fifteen ouncesof white wax, and make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it purges exceedingly, and is good to anoint the belliesof such as have dropsies, and if there be any humour or flegm in anywriting of the body that you know not how to remove provided the writing benot too tender you may anoint it with this. But yet be not too busywith it, for i tell you plainly it is not very safe unguentum amarum or, a bitter ointment college take of oil of rue, savin, mints, wormwood, bitter almonds, of each one ounce and an half, juice of peach flowers and leaves, andwormwood, of each half an ounce, powder of rue, mints, centaury theless, gentian, tormentil, of each one dram, the seeds of coleworts, thepulp of colocynthis, of each two drams, aloes hepatic, three drams, meal of lupines half an ounce, myrrh washed in grass water a dram andan half, bull gall an ounce and an half, with a sufficient quantityof juice of lemons, and an ounce and an half of wax, make it into anointment according to art unguentum apostolorum or, ointment of the apostles college take of turpentine, yellow wax, ammoniacum, of eachfourteen drams, long birthwort roots, olibanum, bdellium, of each sixdrams, myrrh, gilbanum, of each half an ounce, opopanax, verdigris, ofeach two drams, litharge nine drams, oil two pounds, vinegar enough todissolve the gums, make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it consumes corrupt and dead flesh, and makes flesh softwhich is hard, it cleanses wounds, ulcers, and fistulas, and restoresflesh where it is wanting unguentum catapsoras college take of ceruss washed in purslain water, then in vinegarwherein wild rhadish roots have been steeped and pressed out, lapiscalaminaris, chalcitis, of each six drams, burnt lead, goat blood, of each half an ounce, quick-silver sublimated an ounce, the juiceof houseleek, nightshade, plantain, of each two ounces, hog greasecleansed three pounds, oil of violets, poppies, mandrakes, of each anounce. First let them sublimate and exungia, then the oils, juices, andpowders, be mixed, and so made into an ointment according to art unguentum citrinum or, a citron ointment college take of borax an ounce, camphire a dram, white coral halfan ounce, alum plume an ounce, umbilicus marinus, tragacanth, whitestarch, of each three drams, crystal, dentalis utalis, olibanum, niter, white marble, of each two drams, gersa serpentaria an ounce, cerusssix ounces, hog grease not salted, a pound and an half, goat suetprepared, an ounce and an half, hen fat two ounces and an half powder the things as you ought to do both together, and by themselves, melt the fats being cleansed in a stone vessel, and steep in them twocitrons of a mean bigness cut in bits, in a warm bath, after a wholeweek strain it, and put in the powders by degrees, amongst which letthe camphire and borax be the last, stir them, and bring them into theform of an ointment unguentum martiatum college take of fresh bay leaves three pounds, garden rue twopounds and an half, marjoram two pounds, mints a pound, sage, wormwood, costmary, bazil, of each half a pound, sallad oil twenty pounds, yellowwax four pounds, malaga wine two pounds, of all of them being bruised, boiled, and pressed out as they ought, make an ointment according toart culpeper it is a great strengthener of the head, it being anointedwith it. As also of all the writings of the body, especially the nerves, muscles, and arteries unguentum mastichinum or, an ointment of mastich college take of the oil of mastich, wormwood, and nard, of each anounce, mastich, mints, red roses, red coral, cloves, cinnamon, wood ofaloes, squinanth, of each a dram, wax as much as is sufficient to makeit into an ointment according to art culpeper this is like the former, and not a whit inferior to it;it strengthens the stomach being anointed with it, restores appetiteand digestion before it was called a stomach ointment unguentum neapolitanum college take of hog grease washed in juice of sage a pound, quick-silver strained through leather, four ounces, oil of bays, chamomel, and earthworms, of each two ounces, spirit of wine an ounce, yellow wax two ounces, turpentine washed in juice of elecampane threeounces, powder of chamepitys and sage, of each two drams, make theminto an ointment according to art culpeper a learned art to spoil people. Hundreds are bound to cursesuch ointments, and those that appoint them unguentum nervinum college take of cowslips with the flowers, sage, chamepitys, rosemary, lavender, bay with the berries, chamomel, rue, smallage, melilot with the flowers, wormwood, of each a handful, mints, betony, pennyroyal, parsley, centaury the less, st john wort, of each ahandful, oil of sheep or bullock feet, five pounds, oil of spike, half an ounce, sheep or bullock suet, or the marrow of either, twopounds. The herbs being bruised and boiled with the oil and suet, makeit into an ointment according to art culpeper it is appropriated to the nerves, and helps theirinfirmities coming of cold, as also old bruises, make use of it in deadpalsies, chilliness or coldness of writingicular members, such as thearteries perform not their office to as they ought. For wind anointyour belly with it. For want of digestion, your stomach. For thecholic, your belly. For whatever disease in any writing of the body comesof cold, esteem this as a jewel unguentum pectorale or, a pectoral ointment college take of fresh butter washed in violet water six ounces, oil of sweet almonds four ounces, oil of chamomel and violets, whitewax, of each three ounces, hen and duck grease, of each two ounces, orris roots two drams, saffron half a dram. The two last being finelypowdered, the rest melted and often washed in barley or hyssop water, make an ointment of them according to art culpeper it strengthens the breast and stomach, eases the painsthereof, helps pleurises and consumptions of the lungs, the breastbeing anointed with it unguentum resumptivum college take of hog grease three ounces, the grease of hen, geese, and ducks, of each two ounces, oesipus half an ounce, oil ofviolets, chamomel, and dill, fresh butter a pound, white wax sixounces, mussilage of gum tragacanth, arabic, quince seeds, lin-seeds, marsh-mallow roots, of each half an ounce let the mussilages be madein rose water, and adding the rest, make it into an ointment accordingto art culpeper it mightily molifies without any manifest heat, and istherefore a fit ointment for such as have agues, asthmas, hecticfevers, or consumptions it is a good ointment to ease pains comingby inflammations of wounds or aposthumes, especially such as drynessaccompanies, an infirmity wounded people are thesis times troubled with in inward aposthumes, as pleurises, one of them to anoint the externalregion of the writing, is very beneficial unguentum splanchnicum college take of oil of capers an ounce, oil of white lillies, chamomel, fresh butter, juice of briony and sowbread, of each halfan ounce, boil it to the consumption of the juice, add ammoniacumdissolved in vinegar, two drams and an half, hen grease, oesypus, marrow of a calf leg, of each half an ounce, powder of the barkof the roots of tamaris and capers, fern roots, cetrach, of each adram, the seeds of agnus castuus, and broom, of each a scruple, with asufficient quantity of wax, make it into an ointment according to art unguentum splanchnicum magistrale college take of the bark of caper roots six drams, briony roots, orris florentine, powder of sweet fennel seeds, ammoniacum dissolved invinegar, of each half an ounce, tops of wormwood, chamomel flowers, ofeach a dram, ointment of the juice and of flowers of oranges, of eachsix drams, oil of orris and capers, of each an ounce and an half.