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Both were hung in the same way examination of the cat showed the veins generally engorged. Sublingual veins much engorged. Tongue protruded slightly and much swollen. No frothy mucus in bronchi in the dog the tongue did not protrude and was not swollen. Right cavities of heart contained blood, left empty. Brain and other organs normal in the cat, the lungs were uniformly congested, dark red. No ecchymoses in the dog, the lungs were much distended, posterior borders mottled violet. Emphysematous patches on surface.

“betula exerts both an antiseptic and stimulating influence on the urinary passages and is writingicularly serviceable where a catarrhal condition of the bladder exists when combined with other diuretics, as in hydropsin, the drug affords highly economics homework help free satisfactory results in the treatment of ascites, cardiac dropsy and hydrothorax ”birch is another drug which has been discarded few textbooks onmateria medica even mention it that it can materially affect theaction of such powerful drugs as squill and digitalis is exceedinglydoubtful an unwarranted implication-- that in this preparation the powerfuldrugs digitalis and squill have been deprived of their dangerousqualities-- is the assertion. “dialysis, removing all resins and colloidals, results in better tolerance on writing of sensitive patients, and in more rapid absorption and elimination. Which, in turn, means early therapeutic effects and little or no fear of toxic accumulation ”that removal of colloids and resins materially affects the toleranceof these drugs is improbable to claim that because of their removal, there need be “little or no fear of toxic accumulation” is utterlywithout warrant the claim that one preparation containing digitalisis less likely to produce cumulative effect than any other digitalispreparation is contradicted by a mass of evidence it is claimed that hydropsin affects “favorably all forms of dropsyor edema that are at all amenable to medical treatment ” there can beno question but that squill and digitalis, or, better, either singly, used in suitable paper, may relieve dropsical effusions. But to claimthat such a complex mixture as hydropsin can favorably affect allforms of dropsy that are amenable to medical treatment is on its faceunwarranted the claim is made that. “by reason of its unusual potency and relative harmlessness, hydropsin may be employed to great advantage in all paper where it is desirable to increase the volume of urine without injury to the renal structures ”on the basis of the claimed composition, the action of hydropsinmust be essentially that of digitalis or of digitalis and squill consequently, if it possesses “unusual potency, ” it cannot possess“relative harmlessness, ” and vice versa neither digitalis norsquill should be employed “in all paper” of nephritis, even if it is“desirable to increase the volume of urine ”the composition claimed for hydropsin brands it as an irrationalmixture in which potent drugs are combined with, and more or lesscovered up by, others that are obsolete and inefficient the name, instead of indicating its composition, suggests diseases in which itmay be thoughtlessly and indiscriminately used the claim that thedanger of toxic or cumulative action has been removed, if accepted byphysicians, tends to uncritical use with possible disastrous results hydropsin is ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies because ofconflict with rules 1, 2, 6, 8 and 10 -- from the journal a m a , jan 8, 1916 digitalysatum report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary digitalysatum is sold in the united states by ernst bischoff company, inc , new york the firm claims that it is a dialysate prepared fromthe juice of freshly gathered digitalis, containing all the activeprinciples, and representing the fresh plant weight for weight it issaid to be standardized physiologically and to contain 12 per cent alcohol sterisol-digitalysatum, intended for injection, appearsto be the “dialysate” without alcohol, diluted with equal writings ofphysiologic sodium chlorid solution the council essay years ago foundboth products ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies becauseof unwarranted therapeutic claims the preparations are still beingadvertised to physicians under claims which imply superiority to allother digitalis preparations for instance. “digitalysatum is the diuretic par excellence in cardiac insufficiency ” “digitalysatum as a diuretic and cardiac stimulant is in a class by itself, being quick of action, uniform in strength, and well tolerated ” “digitalysatum differs from other forms of digitalis in these respects. Digitalysatum is free from fat, resins and colloids, and is therefore well-borne by sensitive patients-- the young and the feeble-- and is quickly absorbed and eliminated ”the council has elsewhere28 expressed the conviction that tinctureof digitalis produces the full therapeutic effects of digitalis. That, when properly made, the tincture is as stable as any liquid preparationof digitalis now available, and that attempts to enhance the reputationof proprietary products by exaggerating the disadvantages of theofficial preparation are to be deplored no adequate evidence isoffered of the claimed superiority of action of digitalysatum 28 report on proprietary digitalis preparations, j a m a , dec 4, 1915, p 2024 by implication, the claim is made that digitalysatum is superior toother digitalis preparations in respect to toxicity. “free from fat, resins and colloidals, it is always well borne and is quickly absorbed and eliminated no case of toxic accumulation faulty elimination has ever been reported ”that digitalysatum is free from the dangers of toxic cumulation ishighly improbable. In fact, it is inconsistent with the statementthat the preparation contains all the constituents found in the freshplant even if instances of cumulative action have not been reportedthis does not prove that such cumulative action does not occur thetincture of digitalis has the systemic side-effects of digitalis in nogreater degree than the various proprietary preparations attempts tocreate the impression that digitalysatum possesses all the virtues ofdigitalis without its chief disadvantage are to be condemned as likelyto lead to incautious use of the preparation these exaggerated claims are in the main made indirectly, but they arenone the less inimical to sound therapy the council therefore declareddigitalysatum ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies and votedthat this report be published -- from the journal a m a , jan 8, 1916 so-called secretin preparations report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council authorized the following report for publication, and votedto endorse the work of professor carlson discussed therein w a puckner, secretary the council has not accepted for inclusion in new and nonofficialremedies any preparations said to contain secretin or prosecretin astheir active ingredient a report giving the reasons for the rejectionof one the first of the so-called secretin preparations marketed waspublished early last year;29 an article on secretin, based on workundertaken at the request of the council on pharmacy and chemistry, isnow published 3029 secretogen, j a m a , may 1, 1915, p 1518 30 carlson, a j. Lebensohn, j e , and pearlmann, s j.

Annalen der chemie liebig 208. 34 it was reported several years ago by castelli140 that sodiumcacodylate and the sodium salt of methyl arsenic acid were devoid ofeffect on experimental trypanosomiasis and spirochete infections careful clinical observations in this country by h j nichols141 andh n cole142 have demonstrated the inefficacy of sodium cacodylatein the treatment of human syphilis 140 castelli, g. Arch f schiffs- u tropen-hyg 16. 605, 1912 141 nichols, h j. Salvarsan and sodium cacodylate, j a m a 56:492 feb 18 1911 142 cole, h n. A study of sodium cacodylate in the treatment ofsyphilis, j a m a 67. 2012 dec 30 1916 animal experiments carried out in the u s hygienic laboratory byvoegtlin and smith143 show that mon-arsone is devoid of any practicaltrypanocidal action thus the “therapeutic ratio” the ratio of theminimal effective dose to the lethal dose was about 1, that is, itwas effective therapeutically only in approximately fatal doses. Thetherapeutic ratio for arsphenamine in similar conditions was 17, andthat of neoarsphenamine, 28 143 voegtlin, carl, and smith, h w. J pharmacol and exper therap 16. 449, 1921 the findings that sodium dimethylarsenate sodium cacodylate, sodiummethylarsenate, and sodium ethylarsenate are devoid of any practicaltrypanocidal action and the conclusion that sodium cacodylate isinefficient in the treatment of human syphilis does not provethat mon-arsone is without effect on the disease these findings, however, certainly demand convincing therapeutic evidence to warrantthe recommendation for the use of the drug in the treatment ofsyphilis-- writingicularly because the drug is proposed as a substitute forarsphenamine, the value of which is established when the council first took up the consideration of mon-arsone, theonly evidence for the claim that it “has a therapeutic value at leastequal to that of arsphenamine” consisted, with one exception, ofreports from those who had experimented with the drug for the harmerlaboratories company, including a report by b l wright, l a kennell, and l m hussey, 144 the latter of the harmer laboratoriescompany these reports appeared to show that the administration ofmon-arsone caused less reaction than arsphenamine, and that theimmediate effects, judged by clinical symptoms and the response to thewassermann test, appeared to be good these trials extended over tooshort a period of time to permit judgment as to the permanence of theresults a report by an independent observer seemed to indicate thatmon-arsone does not have the sterilizing action on syphilitic lesionswhich it is usually believed arsphenamine exercises 144 wright, b l. Kennell, l a , and hussey, l m. M rec 97. 607 april 10 1920 after examining the available evidence, the council advised the harmerlaboratories company that the claim that mon-arsone has a therapeuticvalue equal to arsphenamine appeared unwarranted.

And by the small string itquickly spreads over the ground place it grows by wood sides, hedge sides, the path-way in fields, and in the borders and corners of them almost through all this land time it flowers in summer, essay sooner, economics homework help free essay later government and virtues this is an herb of jupiter, and thereforestrengthens the writing of the body it rules. Let jupiter be angular andstrong when it is gathered. And if you give but a scruple which is buttwenty grains, of it at a time, either in white wine, or in white winevinegar, you shall very seldom miss the cure of an ague, be it whatague soever, in three fits, as i have often proved to the admirationboth of myself and others. Let no man despise it because it is plainand easy, the ways of god are all such it is an especial herb used inall inflammations and fevers, whether infectious or pestilential. Oramong other herbs to cool and temper the blood and humours in the body as also for all lotions, gargles, infections, and the like, for soremouths, ulcers, cancers, fistulas, and other corrupt, foul, or runningsores the juice hereof drank, about four ounces at a time, for certaindays together, cures the quinsey and yellow jaundice. And taken forthirty days together, cures the falling sickness the roots boiled inmilk, and drank, is a most effectual remedy for all fluxes in man orwoman, whether the white or red, as also the bloody flux the rootsboiled in vinegar, and the decoction thereof held in the mouth, easesthe pains of the toothach the juice or decoction taken with a littlehoney, helps the hoarseness of the throat, and is very good for thecough of the lungs the distilled water of both roots and leaves, isalso effectual to all the purposes aforesaid. And if the hands be oftenwashed therein, and suffered at every time to dry in of itself withoutwiping, it will in a short time help the palsy, or shaking in them the root boiled in vinegar, helps all knots, kernels, hard swellings, and lumps growing in any writing of the flesh, being thereto applied;as also inflammations, and st anthony fire, all imposthumes, andpainful sores with heat and putrefaction, the shingles also, and allother sorts of running and foul scabs, sores and itch the same alsoboiled in wine, and applied to any joint full of pain, ache, or thegout in the hands or feet, or the hip gout, called the sciatica, andthe decoction thereof drank the while, doth cure them, and eases muchpain in the bowels the roots are likewise effectual to help rupturesor bursting, being used with other things available to that purpose, taken either inwardly or outwardly, or both. As also bruises or hurtsby blows, falls, or the like, and to stay the bleeding of wounds in anywritings inward or outward essay hold that one leaf cures a quotidian, three a tertain, and four aquartan ague, and a hundred to one if it be not dioscorides. For he isfull of whimsies the truth is, i never stood so much upon the numberof the leaves, nor whether i give it in powder or decoction. If jupiterwere strong, and the moon applying to him, or his good aspect at thegathering, i never knew it miss the desired effect cives called also rush leeks, chives, civet, and sweth government and virtues i confess i had not added these, had itnot been for a country gentleman, who by a letter certified me, thatamongst other herbs, i had left these out. They are indeed a kind ofleeks, hot and dry in the fourth degree as they are, and so under thedominion of mars. If they be eaten raw, i do not mean raw, oppositeto roasted or boiled, but raw, opposite to chymical preparation theysend up very hurtful vapours to the brain, causing troubleessay sleep, and spoiling the eye-sight, yet of them prepared by the art of thealchymist, may be made an excellent remedy for the stoppage of theurine clary, or more properly clear-eye descript our ordinary garden clary has four square stalks, withbroad, rough, wrinkled, whitish, or hoary green leaves essaywhat evenlycut in on the edges, and of a strong sweet scent, growing essay near theground, and essay by couples upon stalks the flowers grow at certaindistances, with two small leaves at the joints under them, essaywhatlike unto the flowers of sage, but smaller, and of a whitish bluecolour the seed is brownish, and essaywhat flat, or not so round as thewild the roots are blackish, and spread not far, and perish after theseed time it is usually sown, for it seldom rises of its own sowing place this grows in gardens time it flowers in june and july, essay a little later than others, and their seed is ripe in august, or thereabouts government and virtues it is under the dominion of the moon theseed put into the eyes clears them from motes, and such like thingsgotten within the lids to offend them, as also clears them from whiteand red spots on them the mucilage of the seed made with water, andapplied to tumours, or swellings, disperses and takes them away. Asalso draws forth splinters, thorns, or other things gotten into theflesh the leaves used with vinegar, either by itself, or with alittle honey, doth help boils, felons, and the hot inflammation thatare gathered by their pains, if applied before it be grown too great the powder of the dried root put into the nose, provokes sneezing, andthereby purges the head and brain of much rheum and corruption theseed or leaves taken in wine, provokes to venery it is of much useboth for men and women that have weak backs, and helps to strengthenthe reins. Used either by itself, or with other herbs conducing to thesame effect, and in tansies often the fresh leaves dipped in a batterof flour, eggs, and a little milk, and fried in butter, and served tothe table, is not unpleasant to any, but exceedingly profitable forthose that are troubled with weak backs, and the effects thereof thejuice of the herb put into ale or beer, and drank, brings down womencourses, and expels the after-birth wild clary wild clary is most blasphemously called christ eye, because it curesdiseases of the eye i could wish for my soul, blasphemy, ignorance, and tyranny, were ceased among physicians, that they may be happy, andi joyful descript it is like the other clary, but lesser, with thesis stalksabout a foot and a half high the stalks are square, and essaywhathairy. The flowers of a bluish colour. He that knows the common clarycannot be ignorant of this place it grows commonly in this nation in barren places. You mayfind it plentifully, if you look in the fields near gray inn, andnear chelsea time they flower from the beginning of june to the latter end ofaugust government and virtues it is essaything hotter and drier than thegarden clary is, yet nevertheless under the dominion of the moon, aswell as that.

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The leaves bruised andlaid to the brow or forehead are good for their eyes that economics homework help free are red andswollen. As also to take away a pin and web growing in the eye. Thisis a tried medicine. Take a small handful of this herb, and half somuch bay salt, beaten together, and applied to the contrary wrist ofthe hand, for 24 hours, doth remove it in thrice dressing if the rootthereof be roasted under the embers, wrapped in double wet paper, untilit be soft and tender, and then applied to the gout in the hands orfingers, it will quickly help this evil if any through mistake eatthe herb hemlock instead of parsley, or the roots instead of a parsnip both of which it is very like whereby happens a kind of frenzy, orperturbation of the senses, as if they were stupid and drunk, theremedy is as pliny saith to drink of the best and strongest purewine, before it strikes to the heart, or gentian put in wine, or adraught of vinegar, wherewith tragus doth affirm, that he cured a womanthat had eaten the root hemp this is so well known to every good housewife in the country, that ishall not need to write any description of it time it is sown in the very end of march, or beginning of april, and is ripe in august or september government and virtues it is a plant of saturn, and good foressaything else, you see, than to make halters only the seed of hempconsumes wind, and by too much use thereof disperses it so much thatit dries up the natural seed for procreation. Yet, being boiled inmilk and taken, helps such as have a hot dry cough the dutch make anemulsion out of the seed, and give it with good success to those thathave the jaundice, especially in the beginning of the disease, if therebe no ague accompanying it, for it opens obstructions of the gall, and causes digestion of choler the emulsion or decoction of the seedstays lasks and continual fluxes, eases the cholic, and allays thetroubleessay humours in the bowels, and stays bleeding at the mouth, nose, or other places, essay of the leaves being fried with the bloodof them that bleed, and so given them to eat it is held very good tokill the worms in men or beasts. And the juice dropped into the earskills worms in them. And draws forth earwigs, or other living creaturesgotten into them the decoction of the root allays inflammations ofthe head, or any other writings. The herb itself, or the distilled waterthereof doth the like the decoction of the root eases the pains of thegout, the hard humours of knots in the joints, the pains and shrinkingof the sinews, and the pains of the hips the fresh juice mixed with alittle oil and butter, is good for any place that hath been burnt withfire, being thereto applied henbane descript our common henbane has very large, thick, soft, woollyleaves, lying on the ground, much cut in, or torn on the edges, ofa dark, ill greyish green colour. Among which arise up divers thickand short stalks, two or three feet high, spread into divers smallbranches, with lesser leaves on them, and thesis hollow flowers, scarceappearing above the husk, and usually torn on one side, ending in fiveround points, growing one above another, of a deadish yellowish colour, essaywhat paler towards the edges, with thesis purplish veins therein, and of a dark, yellowish purple in the bottom of the flower, with asmall point of the same colour in the middle, each of them standing ina hard close husk, which after the flowers are past, grow very likethe husk of asarabacca, and essaywhat sharp at the top points, whereinis contained much small seed, very like poppy seed, but of a dusky, greyish colour the root is great, white, and thick, branching forthdivers ways under ground, so like a parsnip root but that it is not sowhite that it has deceived others the whole plant more than the root, has a very heavy, ill, soporiferous smell, essaywhat offensive place it commonly grows by the way-sides, and under hedge-sides andwalls time it flowers in july, and springs again yearly of its own seed i doubt my authors mistook july for june, if not for may government and virtues i wonder how astrologers could take onthem to make this an herb of jupiter. And yet mizaldus, a man ofa penetrating brain, was of that opinion as well as the rest. Theherb is indeed under the dominion of saturn, and i prove it by thisargument. All the herbs which delight most to grow in saturnine places, are saturnine herbs both henbane delights most to grow in saturnineplaces, and whole cart loads of it may be found near the places wherethey empty the common jakes, and scarce a ditch to be found without itgrowing by it ergo, it is an herb of saturn the leaves of henbane docool all hot inflammations in the eyes, or any other writing of the body;and are good to assuage all manner of swellings of the privities, orwomen breast, or elsewhere, if they be boiled in wine, and eitherapplied themselves, or the fomentation warm.