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Economics Essay Topics


“a valuable preparation to the physician in the treatment of dysmenorrhea, colic, cramps, spasm, palpitation incident to pregnancy, and the various pains resulting from diseases of the female sexual organs ”it is further claimed that economics essay topics. “in the dysmenorrhea of young girls due to essay mechanical difficulty, as anteflexion or of a congestive character, of suppressed menses from exposure to cold and other causes of a similar character, hydras will prove efficient and can be administered freely without danger ”the value of hydrastis in the treatment of the diseases and conditionsmentioned is problematical at best, and the small amount present inhydras is wholly useless as for the other constituents, cramp bark viburnum opulus, helonias false unicorn-- chamælirium luteumor helonias dioica and scutellaria skullcap-- scutellarialateriflora are drugs which are practically ignored by most writerson materia medica and therapeutics 99 dogwood cornus florida isa mildly astringent aromatic bitter for the use of which there is noscientific evidence 10099 see reports of the council, j a m a , jan 9, 1915, p 165;jan 23, 1915, p 359. Nov 27, 1919, p 1836. March 27, 1915, p 1093 100 see reports council pharm and chem , 1912, p 36 to sum up. Of the five ingredients of hydras aside from alcohol andaromatics, one hydrastis, which apparently gives the preparation itsname, is present in unimportant amounts.

Nor apply to lawfullycommissioned surgeons and assistant surgeons of the united states armyand those who were commissioned and mustered into the united statesservice in the great rebellion, or physicians or surgeons who havebeen in active practice for ten years and at least three years in theterritory, nor prevent practice and receiving pay in localities fifteenmiles or more from the residence or office of a regular physician620 offence - violation of the act is a misdemeanor 621 fees - to the county recorder, for registration, $5 619 arkansas qualification - it is unlawful for any one to engage in the practice ofmedicine and surgery, or either, as a calling except as provided in thestatute act april 14th, 1893, s 1 a person engaging in the practice of medicine or surgery must be ofgood moral character, twenty-one years of age, and a graduate of essayreputable college of medicine and surgery that requires for graduationnot less than two courses of lectures, each in a different year s 2 before engaging in practice, such person must exhibit his diploma toessay county clerk of the state and have it recorded the clerk mustgive him a certificate of record, which may be attached to the diploma3 in all paper of doubt as to the reputability of a college, it is theduty of the clerk of the county court, when a diploma is offered forrecord, to make inquiry of the secretary of the state where the saidcollege exists as to its reputability and requirements for graduation, and if the said clerk shall find that the said college does not conformto the requirements of this article, he shall not receive the diplomaand the holder shall not be allowed to practise in the state theaggrieved applicant may apply to the state board of medical examiners, whose decision shall govern the clerk in his action 4 if after recording any diploma it shall come to the knowledge of theclerk making the record, or any other judicial or executive officer ofthe state, that the record was obtained by fraud or misrepresentation, it shall be his duty to institute before the said court of recordproceedings to have such record reversed, and the holder of the diplomashall be judged guilty of a misdemeanor 5 exceptions - the act does not affect the standing of any one practisingat the time of its passage by virtue of a license under the thenexisting law, nor any one then legally engaged in the practice ofmedicine and surgery, nor does it prevent midwives from practisingtheir calling or any one else from giving such simple domestic remediesas they are in the habit of using 6 examinations - the constituted state board of medical examiners isauthorized to examine persons having no diploma from a medical college, and if found qualified to practise medicine and surgery issue acertificate entitling the holder to practise in this state s 7 systems, definition - no discrimination of schools of medicine isallowed any person who prescribes or administers medicine except asprovided in sec 6 is deemed a physician 8 penalty - the violation of this act is a misdemeanor punishable with afine of from $25 to $100 each day of practice is a separate offence9 date - the act took effect ninety days after its passage 10 fees - to the county clerk, for recording, $1 50 for certificate of record the county clerk is not allowed to charge afee 3 california qualification - every person practising medicine or surgery in any ofits dewritingments must present his diploma to the board of examiners withaffidavits if the board finds all facts required to be stated in theaffidavit to be true, it issues a certificate conclusive in any writingof the state act 1877-78, c 576. Amending act 1875-76, c 518 the secretary of the board receives applications the board issuescertificates to all who furnish satisfactory proof of having receiveddiplomas or licenses from legally chartered medical institutions ingood standing act 1875-76, c 518, s 3 the medical society of the state, the eclectic medical society of thestate, and the state homœopathic medical society each appoint annuallya board of seven examiners who must be regular graduates act 1877-78, c 576. Amending act 1875-76, c 518 the board examines diplomas as to genuineness the affidavitaccompanying the diploma must state that the applicant is its lawfulpossessor, and the person therein named. That the diploma was procuredin the regular course of medical instruction and without fraud ormisrepresentation of any kind, and that the medical institutiongranting it had, at the time of granting the same, a full corps ofmedical instructors, and was at said time a legally incorporatedinstitution, actually and in good faith engaged in the business ofmedical education, and in good standing as a medical institution, andthat the applicant had complied with all the requirements of saidinstitution the affidavit may be taken before any person authorizedto administer oaths, and must be attested under the hand and officialseal of the officer, if he have a seal the board may hear such furthertestimony as they deem proper to hear as to the verification of thediploma or the identity of the person, or the manner in which thediploma was procured, and if it appears that any fact stated in theaffidavit is untrue, the application is rejected no board entertainsan application rejected by another. A rejected application cannot berenewed for at least one year 4, as amended by act 1877-78, c 918. No certificates are granted except to persons presentingdiplomas or licenses from legally chartered medical institutions ingood standing 5 certificates must be recorded in the county of residence and the recordindorsed thereon a person removing to another county to practise mustprocure an indorsement to that effect on his certificate from thecounty clerk, and must record the certificate in the county to which heremoves 6 the board refuses certificates to individuals guilty of unprofessionalconduct the applicant is given an opportunity to be heard, bycitation. The attendance of witnesses may be compelled by subpœna;witnesses may be examined at the hearing by either side, and eitherside may examine medical experts as to whether such conduct isunprofessional. If it appears to the satisfaction of the board thatthe applicant is guilty of the unprofessional conduct set out in thecitation, no certificate can be granted no application is refused forunprofessional conduct more than one year before the application ifthe holder of a certificate is guilty of unprofessional conduct, thecertificate must be revoked by board granting it. No revocation isvalid without similar proceedings to the foregoing 10 definition - any person is regarded as practising medicine whoprofesses publicly to be a physician, or habitually prescribes for thesick, or appends to his name “m d ”exceptions - the act does not prohibit gratuitous services in paper ofemergency. Nor apply to lawfully commissioned surgeons of the unitedstates army or navy practising their profession 11, asamended 1877-78, c 576 itinerant venders - a license of $100 a month is exacted from itinerantvenders of drugs, nostrums, ointments, or appliances for treatmentof disease, and from persons publicly professing to cure or treatdisease, injury, or deformity by any medicine, drug, or drugs, nostrum, manipulation, or other expedient act 1877-78, c 576, amending act1875-76, c 518, s 12 penalty - the penalty for violation of the act is a fine of from $50 to$500, or imprisonment in the county jail from 30 to 365 days, or both, for each and every offence filing or attempting to file the diploma orcertificate of another, or a forged affidavit of identification, is afelony, punishable the same as forgery 13.

“if you do not already use intravenous serums, by all means get an outfit, if for no other reason than to meet the popular demand ”a “special note” in the “confidential guide” advises physicians who“have to deal with hysteria” to “write the author of this guide, whowill explain by personal letter a method of cooperation by which suchconvulsions may be at once and forever stopped there will be $100for you from every case treated ” one physician wrote to the “author ofthis guide”-- eli h dunn, m d -- asking for economics essay topics further information on thistreatment for hysteria he received in reply two letters both signedeli h dunn. One was to be shown to the patient, the other was for thedoctor own information the letter for the patient to see describedthe marvelous effects of “dunn intravenous and restorative treatment”in hysteria and recommended it “with the utmost confidence in everycase able to pay you the fee commensurate with the service you render ”then followed these two paragraphs. “the cost of the treatment when administered by yourself is $300 cash with orders which includes one complete outfit and technique for administering “should you call me personally in consultation an additional fee of $150 per diem covering the time i am away from my kansas city office. Fees to be collected and held until i arrive ”the letter that was intended only for the doctor eye declared. “you are to have $100 of the fee and $50 of the per diem ”it explained that the “complete outfit” referred to in the “patientletter” would “consist in writing of a tube of intravenous medication” anddoses of “restorative capsules” and “eli 606 capsules ”eli h dunn seems to have had a essaywhat varied and spectacular career after being graduated in 1885 he apparently started practice in orion, ill during the nineties he was practicing at elma, iowa, and about1900 he seems to have moved to kansas city, mo during 1906 and 1908, he also had an additional office at denver, col about this time he wasexploiting “dunn uterine evacuant” which was “a strictly legitimate”product which could “be injected within the uterus with perfect safetyand immediate effect ” this stuff was advertised both from the kansascity and the denver offices the “personal column” of a kansas citypaper in 1910 carried the message to “ladies” that “dr dunn” was a“regular physician for women only, ” dunn violation of the postal lawsin 1911 and of the federal food and drugs act in 1912 need not be goneinto at this time the journal would feel like apologizing for devoting space to such apreposterous scheme were it not for the fact that physicians, beinghuman, essaytimes “fall for” preposterous schemes essay, we know, havenibbled at dunn bait. Others may do so the gross commercialism thatpermeates the advertising matter sent out by dunn again emphasizesthe fact that the fad for intravenous medication offers an attractivefield for those who would exploit our profession -- from the journala m a , nov 22, 1919 glover cancer serumscores of letters have reached-- and are reaching-- the journal officesimilar in effect to the following. “i am enclosing ‘literature’ received from the ‘t j glover research laboratory ’ though purporting to come from toronto, where the $25 00 are to be sent, if you please, the envelope bears the 448 new york postmark ”the above is from new jersey while the two following are from michiganand illinois, respectively. “have you any information in regard to this writingy and his treatment for cancer?.

“we have your letter of april 14th, which was acknowledged on the 22nd, economics essay topics in re aspirin for your information. Our rotogravure supplement is printed a number of days in advance of the sunday paper when these copies which have already been printed are used, no further aspirin copy will appear this means a loss of essay four pages ”how thesis of the numerous medical journals that are still carrying the“aspirin bayer” advertising would make such a financial sacrifice formere principle?. -- from the journal a m a , may 25, 1918 “aspirin”-- a common name“aspirin” as a trademark will no longer exist if the recommendationof the examiner of interferences of the united states patent officeis upheld, as it probably would be, should the matter be taken to thecourts the opinion of the patent office was the result of a petitionby the united drug company in the case of that company against thebayer company, or, as it was called at the time the suit was brought, the farbenfabriken of elberfeld company the stand taken by the patentoffice is directly in line with that that has been held in this andother paper by the journal, which has for years insisted that it wasagainst public policy to permit patentees to extend the seventeen-yearmonopoly, which the patent laws grant, to a perpetual monopoly bythe simple device of obtaining a trademark for the name of the thingpatented it is a fundamental principle in law that “no one can have amonopoly in the name of anything ” this, of course, has been recognizedand admitted even by those manufacturers who have attempted to invokethe trademark laws to obtain an unwarranted advantage the manufacturers of aspirin have held that the chemical name“monoaceticacidester of salicylic acid” was the true name of thepatented article, and was the only name which became public propertywhen the patent right expired the patent office points out, however, that for years the only name that the public ever saw on the brandof monoaceticacidester of salicylic acid made by the holders of thepatent on this product was “aspirin ” the examiner of interferencesin his decision points out that, previous to 1915, the bayer companysold no tablets to the retail-purchasing public, but marketed itsproduct as a powder. Further, that it did sell vast quantities of thepowder to tablet-makers, who sold “aspirin tablets, ” and that theconsuming public knew the product only by the name “aspirin ” thisname, then, had a significance to the purchaser, similar to that of theword “quinin” on a package of quinin tablets, or the word “calomel”on a package of calomel tablets as the patent office says. “in otherwords, the prima facie significance of this word ‘aspirin’ to suchpurchasers was that of a name”-- and as a name it is “necessarilyincapable of exclusive use by any one ”the patent office decision also brings out the fact that, until theowners of the aspirin patent commenced making tablets themselves, theaspirin tablets on the market were not uniform, and that this lack ofuniformity was a fraud on the public which the owners of the aspirinpatent should have prevented the concern did prevent it when it beganto make the tablets itself, but maintained in its contention againstthe united drug company that it was unable to control the matterpreviously-- a contention to which the patent office gives short shrift it is further pointed out that the bayer company evidently recognizedthe weakness of its contention by the emphasis it placed through itsadvertising on the “bayer cross ”when the bayer company began manufacturing its own aspirin tablets, it made a pretense of complying with the letter of the law, whileviolating its spirit, by placing on the label under the word “aspirin, ”the statement that “the monoaceticacidester of salicylic acid in thesetablets is the reliable bayer manufacture ” says the patent office:“with regard to the expression ‘monoaceticacidester of salicylicacid, ’ a mere inspection of it is sufficient to apprise any one of itsinherent unsuitability for use as a name by the lay purchasing public ”this attempt on the writing of the company to “beat the devil arounda stump” tended, in the opinion of the patent office decision, “toshow that the respondent was familiar with the methods of essay moderntraders to meet the trend of the law ” and, discussing such methods, the examiner of interferences says. “a very popular one is for a traderto seemingly bend to the necessity of the situation by placing on thelabel a notation which in theory, but not in practice, may be used bythe public to identify the article after the monopoly has expired tothe examiner this practice seems to be merely a manifestation of thatkeen commercial instinct which endeavors to keep just ahead of the law this instinct is fairly common in traders, and is clearly disclosed intrademark infringement paper ”summed up, the decision is to the effect that, as in any case priorto 1915, the public had been driven to look on the word “aspirin”as the name of a thing, and as the bayer company had not used theword as a “trademark” within the meaning of the law, the patentoffice recommends that the registration of “aspirin” as a trademarkbe canceled if no appeal is taken from this decision, or in casean appeal is taken, should the opinion be sustained, the attempt onthe writing of the patentees of aspirin to get a perpetual monopoly ontheir product through the trademark laws will have been definitelydefeated -- editorial from the journal a m a , jan 11, 1919 “aspirin bayer” and the sterling products companya correspondent, who asks that his name be not published, writes:“your editorial on ‘aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid-- an important courtdecision’ is timely too often, i fear, physicians forget ‘what ina name ’ i have been told that the sterling products co , the presentowners of the aspirin-bayer rights, are manufacturers of other ‘patentmedicines ’ are they interested in the winthrop chemical company, whichfirm seems to be using the much vaunted ‘bayer cross’ on the labels ofthe products formerly imported from gerthesis by ‘the bayer company’?. ifyou answer this in the journal, kindly omit my name ”the recent history of bayer & co , is essaywhat as follows. Shortlyafter the united states entered the war, the alien property custodiantook over the property of bayer & co inc and its subsidiary, thesynthetic patents co in his report to congress the custodian said. “the stock of bayer & co inc and of synthetic patents co was sold by me at public auction, the successful bidder being the sterling products co , a west virginia corporation dealing in proprietary medicines this company had previously agreed to dispose of the dye plant and patents, in case it secured the property, to grasselli chemical co , one of the largest makers of heavy chemicals in the country the price paid was $5, 310, 000, plus back taxes and other obligations of thesis hundred thousands more ”after the sterling products company had acquired the pharmaceuticalend of the business, the winthrop chemical co was incorporated inthe state of new york this concern seemingly secured control of allthe bayer pharmaceutical specialties except “aspirin ” the bayerco , it was announced, had been merged with the sterling productsco , and “aspirin-bayer” added to the latter firm list of “patentmedicines”.

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Hot and dry, a great opener, cleanser, healer, ithelps the yellow jaundice, defects in the reins and bladder, pains inthe head. If it be but bruised and hung about the neck, all diseases inthe privities. Made into an ointment it is a sovereign remedy for oldhead-aches, as also frenzies, it clears the skin, and causes a lovelycolour veronica see betonica pauli violaria violet leaves. They are cool, ease pains in the headproceeding of heat and frenzies, either inwardly taken, or outwardlyapplied. Heat of the stomach, or inflammation of the lungs vitis viniseria the manured vine. The leaves are binding and coolwithal. The burnt ashes of the sticks of a vine, scour the teethand make them as white as snow. The leaves stop bleeding, fluxes, heart-burnings, vomitings. As also the longings of pregnant women thecoals of a burnt vine, in powder, mixed with honey, doth make the teethas white as ivory, which are rubbed with it vincitoxicum swallow-wort a pultis made with the leaves helps sorebreasts, and also soreness of the matrix virga pastoris a third name for teazles see dipsatus virga aurea see consolida ulmaria see the root meadsweet umbilicus veneris navil-wort. Cold, dry, and binding, thereforehelps all inflammations.