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Menthol, eucalyptol sander, white vaseline economic homework help “v-e-m with ichthyol. Menthol, eucalyptol sander, ichthyol, white vaseline “v-e-m with stearate of zinc. Menthol, eucalyptol sander, stearate of zinc, white vaseline “v-e-m with camphor. Camphor, eucalyptol sander, white vaseline “v-e-m with boric acid. Pulv boric acid, eucalyptol sander, white vaseline “for local application in the treatment of affections of the nose and throat “the efficacy of these combinations of remedial agents is so well established as to preclude the necessity of more than passing mention what is obvious is that in acute coryza, in chronic and acute nasal catarrh, in dry catarrhal conditions especially, in both forms of chronic rhinitis-- atrophic and hypertrophic-- in the latter stages of the prevailing grippe colds, and even in hay fever, v-e-m unguentum eucalyptol compound affords pronounced relief and proves a most grateful application ”though the identity and purity of eucalyptol are provided for by thestandards of the u s pharmacopeia, the claim is made that the productcontained in these preparations “transcends in purity and efficiencyall other brands ”a package of v-e-m unguentum eucalyptol compound, recently sent to aphysician, contains the following.

In all herbs of that quality, the safest way iseither to distil the herb in an alembick, in what vehicle you please, or else to press out the juice, and economic homework help distil that in a glass still, insand it scours and cleanses the internal writings of the body mightily, and it clears the external writings also, being externally applied, fromfreckles, morphew, and sun-burning. Your best way to use it externally, is to mix it with vinegar. An ointment of it is held to be good inwounds and ulcers. It consumes cankers, and that flesh growing in thenostrils, which they call polypus. Also the distilled water beingdropped into the eyes, takes away spots there, or the pin and web, andmends the dimness of sight. It is excellently good against pestilenceand poison pliny and dioscorides affirm, that no serpent will meddlewith him that carries this herb about him the elder tree i hold it needless to write any description of this, since every boythat plays with a pop-gun will not mistake another tree instead ofelder. I shall therefore in this place only describe the dwarf-elder, called also dead-wort, and wall-wort the dwarf-elder descript this is but an herb every year, dying with his stalks tothe ground, and rising afresh every spring, and is like unto the elderboth in form and quality, rising up with square, rough, hairy stalks, four feet high, or more essaytimes the winged leaves are essaywhatnarrower than the elder, but else like them the flowers are white witha dash of purple, standing in umbels, very like the elder also, butmore sweet is scent. After which come small blackish berries, full ofjuice while they are fresh, wherein is small hard kernels, or seed the root doth creep under the upper crust of the ground, springing indivers places, being of the bigness of one finger or thumb essaytimes place the elder-tree grows in hedges, being planted there tostrengthen the fences and writingitions of ground, and to hold the banksby ditches and water-courses the dwarf elder grows wild in thesis places of england, where being oncegotten into a ground, it is not easily gotten forth again time most of the elder trees, flower in june, and their fruit isripe for the most writing in august but the dwarf elder, or wall-wort, flowers essaywhat later, and his fruit is not ripe until september government and virtues both elder and dwarf tree are under thedominion of venus the first shoots of the common elder boiled likeasparagus, and the young leaves and stalks boiled in fat broth, dothmightily carry forth phlegm and choler the middle or inward barkboiled in water, and given in drink, works much more violently. Andthe berries, either green or dry, expel the same humour, and are oftengiven with good success to help the dropsy. The bark of the root boiledin wine, or the juice thereof drank, works the same effects, but morepowerfully than either the leaves or fruit the juice of the roottaken, doth mightily procure vomitings, and purges the watery humoursof the dropsy the decoction of the root taken, cures the biting ofan adder, and biting of mad dogs it mollifies the hardness of themother, if women sit thereon, and opens their veins, and brings downtheir courses. The berries boiled in wine perform the same effect. Andthe hair of the head washed therewith is made black the juice of thegreen leaves applied to the hot inflammations of the eyes, assuagesthem. The juice of the leaves snuffed up into the nostrils, purgesthe tunicles of the brain. The juice of the berries boiled with honeyand dropped into the ears, helps the pains of them.

Have a care of opiates for fear they make you sleep your last pilulæ ex duobus or pills of two things college take of colocynthis, and scamony, of each one ounce, oil ofcloves as much as is sufficient to malax them well, then with a littlesyrup of purging thorn, make it into a mass pilulæ de eupatorio or pills of eupatorium college take of the juice of maudlin, and wormwood made thick, citron, myrobalans, of each three drams, rhubarb three drams and anhalf, mastich one dram, aloes five drams, saffron half a dram, syrup ofthe juice of endive, as much as is sufficient to make it into a mass culpeper it is a gallant gentle purge, and strengthening, fittedfor such bodies as are much economic homework help weakened by disease of choler the authorappropriates it to such as have tertian agues, the yellow jaundice, obstructions or stoppings of the liver. Half a dram taken at nightgoing to bed, will work with an ordinary body, the next day by noon pilulæ fætidæ or stinking pills college take of aloes, colocynthis, ammoniacum, sagapen, myrrh, rue-seeds, epithymum, of each five drams, scamony three drams, theroots of turbith half an ounce, the roots of spurge the less prepared, hermodactils of each two drams, ginger one dram and an half, spikenard, cinnamon, saffron, castoreum, of each one dram, euphorbium prepared twoscruples, dissolve the gums in juice of leeks, and with syrup made withthe juice of leeks and sugar, make it into a mass culpeper they purge gross and raw flegm, and diseases thereofarising. Gouts of all sorts, pains in the back-bone, and other joints:it is good against leprosies, and other such like infirmities of theskin i fancy not the receipt much pilulæ de hermodactilis or pills of hermodactils college take of sagapen six drams, opopanax three drams, melt themin warm juice of coleworts, so much as is sufficient, then strain itthrough a convenient rag, afterwards boil it to a mean thickness, thentake of hermodactils, aloes, citron, myrobalans, turbith, coloquintida, soft bdellium, of each six drams, euphorbium prepared, the seeds of rueand smallage, castoreum, sarcocol, of each three drams, saffron onedram and an half, with the syrup of the juice of coleworts made withhoney, make it into a mass according to art culpeper they are good against the gout, and other cold afflictionsof the joints these are more moderate by half than pilulæ fœtidæ, and appropriated to the same diseases pilulæ de hiera cum agarico or pills of hiera with agarick college take of species hiera picra, agarick, of each half anounce, aloes one ounce, honey roses so much as is sufficient to make itinto a mass according to art pilulæ imperiales or imperial pills college take of aloes two ounces, rhubarb one ounce and an half, agarick, sena, of each one ounce, cinnamon three drams, ginger twodrams, nutmegs, cloves, spikenard, mastich, of each one dram with syrupof violets, make it into a mass according to art culpeper it cleanses the body of mixt humours, and strengthens thestomach exceedingly, as also the bowels, liver, and natural spirits. Itis good for cold natures, and cheers the spirits the dose is a scrupleor half a dram, taken at night pilulæ de lapide lazuli or pills of lapis lazuli college take of lapis lazuli in powder and well washed, five drams, epithymum, polypodium, agarick, of each an ounce, scamony, blackhellebore roots, sal gem of each two drams and an half, cloves, annisseeds, of each half an ounce, species hiera simple fifteen drams, withsyrup of the juice of fumitory, make it into a mass according to art culpeper it purges melancholy very violently pilulæ macri college take of aloes two ounces, mastich half an ounce, driedmarjoram two drams, salt of wormwood one dram, make them all, being inpowder, into a mass according to art with juice of coleworts and sugar, so much as is sufficient culpeper it strengthens both stomach and brain, especially thenerves and muscles, and eases them of such humours as afflict them, andhinder the motion of the body, they open obstructions of the liver andspleen, and takes away diseases thence coming pilulæ mastichinæ or mastich pills college take of mastich two ounces, aloes four ounces, agarick, species hiera simple, of each one ounce and an half, with syrup ofwormwood, make it into a mass according to art culpeper they purge very gently, but strengthen much, both head, brain, eyes, belly, and reins pilulæ mechoacanæ or pills of mechoacan college take of mechoacan roots half an ounce, turbith threedrams, the leaves of spurge steeped in vinegar and dried, the seedsof walwort, agarick trochiscated, of each two drams, spurge rootsprepared, mastich, of each one dram and an half, mace, cinnamon, sal gem of each two scruples, beat them into powder, and with white wine, bring them into a mass when it is dry, beat it into powder, and withsyrup made with the juice of orris roots and sugar, make it the secondtime into a mass for pills culpeper they purge flegm very violently pilulæ de opopanace or pills of opopanax college take of opopanax, sagapen, bdellium, ammoniacum, hermodactils, coloquintida, of each five drams, saffron, castoreum, myrrh, ginger, white pepper, cassia lignea, citron, myrobalans, of eachone dram, scamony two drams, turbith half an ounce, aloes an ounce andan half, the gums being dissolved in clarified juice of coleworts, with syrup of the juice of coleworts, make them into a mass accordingto art culpeper it helps tremblings, palsies, gouts of all sorts, cleanses the joints, and is helpful for such as are troubled with coldafflictions of the nerves it works violently pilulæ rudii college take of coloquintida six drams, agarick, scamony, the rootsof black hellebore, and turbith, of each half an ounce, aloes oneounce, diarrhodon abbatis half an ounce, let all of them the diarrh abbatis excepted be grossly bruised, and infused eight days in thebest spirits of wine in a vessel close stopped, in the sun, so that theliquor may swim at top the breadth of six fingers. Afterwards infusethe diarrhodon abbatis in the same manner four days in aqua vitæ, thenhaving strained and pressed them hard, mix them both together, castingthe dross away, and draw off the moisture in a glass alembick, and letthe thick matter remain in a mass culpeper it cleanses both head and body of choler, flegm, andmelancholy. It must not be taken in any great quantity, half a dram issufficient for the strongest body pilulæ russi college take of aloes two ounces, myrrh one ounce, saffron half anounce, with syrup of the juice of lemons, make it into a mass accordingto art culpeper a scruple taken at night going to bed, is an excellentpreservative in pestilential times. Also they cleanse the body of suchhumours as are gotten by surfeits, they strengthen the heart, and weakstomachs, and work so easily that you need not fear following yourbusiness the next day pilulæ sine quibus or pills without which college take of washed aloes fourteen drams, scammony preparedsix drams, agarick, rhubarb, sena, of each half an ounce, wormwood, red roses exungulated, violet flowers, dodder, mastich, of each onedram, salt of wormwood, of each half a dram, with syrup of the juice offennel made with honey, make it into a mass according to art culpeper it purges flegm, choler, and melancholy from the head, makes the sight and hearing good, and gives ease to a burdened brain pilulæ stomachiæ or stomach pills college take of aloes six drams, mastich, red roses, of each twodrams, with syrup of wormwood, make it into a mass according to art culpeper they cleanse and strengthen the stomach, they cleanse butgently, strengthen much, help digestion pilulæ stomachiæ cum gummi or stomach pills with gums college take of aloes an ounce, sena five drams, gum amoniacumdissolved in elder-flower vinegar half an ounce, mastich, myrrh, ofeach a dram and an half, saffron, salt of wormwood, of each half adram, with syrup of purging thorn, make it into a mass according to art culpeper they work more strongly than the former pilulæ e styrace or pills of styrax college take of styrax calamitis, olibanum, myrrh, juice ofliquorice, opium, of each half an ounce, with syrup of white poppies, make it into a mass according to art culpeper they help such as are troubled with defluxion of rheum, coughs, and provoke sleep to such as cannot sleep for coughing pilulæ de succino or pills of amber college take of white amber, mastich, of each two drams, aloesfive drams, agaric a dram and an half, long birthwort half a dram, withsyrup of wormwood make it into a mass culpeper it amends the evil state of a woman body, strengthensconception, and takes away what hinders it.

After floating on the surface of the water for a time, thegases escape and the body sinks, rising a second time when fresh gashas formed the rapidity of decomposition in water varies, being most rapid whenthe temperature is from 64° to 68° f stagnant as well as shallow waterfavors putrefaction if a body becomes coated with mud the change isdelayed submersion in a cesspool also retards it, and the conditionsare such as to favor the formation of adipocere after a body has been removed from the water an exposure of a very fewhours to the air causes rapid decomposition, so that in twenty-fourhours more marked changes may occur than would have resulted from afortnight longer submersion the face soon becomes bloated and black, so that identification is well-nigh impossible it is quite importantin medico-legal paper to estimate the time which has elapsed sincedeath in bodies found submersed in water the following are the variouschanges ordinarily seen at different periods of time, as estimated bydevergie, who has especially investigated the subject:first four or five days - little change. Rigor mortis may persist, writingicularly if the water is cold fourth or fifth day - skin of the ball of the thumb and littlefinger, also the lateral surface of the fingers, begins to whiten thiswhitening gradually extends to the palms of the hands and soles of thefeet the skin of the face will appear softened and of a more fadedwhite than the rest of the body fifteenth day - face slightly swollen and red. A greenish spotbegins to form on the neck and skin of the mid-sternum the skin of thehands and feet is quite white and wrinkled the subcutaneous cellulartissue of the thorax is reddish and the upper writing of the corticalsubstance of the brain of a greenish tint at one month - the face is reddish-brown, the eyelids and lips greenand swollen, and the neck slightly green a greenish discoloration isalso seen over the upper and middle writing of the sternum the skin iswrinkled the hair and nails still remain intact the scrotum and penisare distended by gas the lungs become very emphysematous and overlapthe heart saponification when the bodies were removed from the cimetière des innocents in paris, in 1786, fourcray observed that thesis of them had been converted intoa substance which he termed adipocere he gave it this name becauseit resembles both fat adeps and wax cera under certaincircumstances which will be considered later, it is known to be alate product of the putrefactive processes adipocere is a substanceof a cheese-like consistency, yellow or yellowish-brown in color, and composed chiefly of a mixture of the fatty acids chevreul hasshown by analysis that it is a true ammoniacal soap, but that whenformed in water impregnated with lime a calcareous may be substitutedfor an ammoniacal base this may take place either in a body exposedto river-water or buried in a grave wet by water containing calciumcarbonate or sulphate saponification can only take place when animalfat is in contact with nitrogenous matter neither fat nor fibrin whenkept separate will saponify skin deprived of all its fat will not betransformed into adipocere saponification commences in the fat of the female breast, of the cheeksand other writings of the body where large accumulations of fat are found, such as around the kidneys and in the omentum as fat is distributedextensively throughout the body, nearly all writings may undergo thistransformation taylor gives the following conditions as favorable tothe change:1 bodies of young persons, because the fat is abundant and chieflyexternal 2 bodies of corpulent adults 3 exposure of bodies to the soil of water-closets 4 the immersion of bodies in water, the change taking place morerapidly in running than in stagnant water 5 humid soil, especially when bodies are placed in it one upon theother in this case the lowest of them is first changed when a body has been completely saponified it may remain in this statefor years in one instance, after seventeen years’ burial thesis of theorgans could still be recognized the time required for saponification to take place is essaytimes ofmedico-legal importance three years are usually necessary for bodiesburied in the earth the change occurs more rapidly in water paper arerecorded where the body of a new-born child was completely saponifiedin six weeks, and again, the change had commenced in a body which hadbeen in the water about four months. But these are unusual paper data upon which opinion as to time of death is formed the changes which take place in a body before putrefaction sets in mayenable a medical jurist to form an opinion as to the probable timewhich has elapsed since death. Yet it must be remembered, to pronouncethe time which has elapsed can only be done approximately, for verythesis conditions will have to be considered, which will vary in eachindividual case the importance of considering the minutest detail iswell illustrated by the death of prince de condé, duke of bourbon, who was found dead in his bedroom in the chateau of st cyr whendiscovered at 8 o’clock in the morning, the deceased was found writinglyundressed, hanging by his cravat to one of the window shutters thebody was cold and the lower extremities rigid as in asphyxia fromhanging the warmth of the body is usually preserved longer than undercommon circumstances, viz , from twelve to fifteen hours, before whichperiod rigidity is seldom complete, the medical examiner inferred thatthe deceased must have died very soon after he retired to his bedroomon the previous night as this was proven to have been 10 p m , itfollowed that only ten hours had elapsed a short time for cooling andrigidity to have taken place it was thus rendered probable that thehanging took place soon after deceased reached his bedroom it wasalleged that the duke had been murdered, and that his body had beenafterward suspended to create a suspicion of suicide the condition ofthe body was, among other things, adverse to this opinion from 10 to12 o’clock it was proved there were numerous attendants moving aboutnear the duke awritingments they would have heard any unusual noise theduke must have made in resisting his assailant but no noise was heardin the room at that or any other time, and the presumption of thisbeing a homicide was thus strongly rebutted cadaveric rigidity, while often it will aid to, is not a reliableguide when once it is established it may remain two, three, or fourdays, according to the season of the year and other circumstances, andwhen it exists there is no rule by which it can be determined whether abody has been in this state three hours or three days putrefaction, while appearing on an average, under a meantemperature, in from three to six days, is yet influenced by thesiscircumstances the heat and moisture of the surroundings, the age, sex, amount of flesh on the body, mode of death, position and coverings ofbody, all must be considered the temperature of the body aids us, yet the retention of warmth bythe abdominal viscera may be met with in a marked degree twenty hoursafter death. In one case, personally known to me, the thermometerregistered 76° f seventeen hours after death the temperature of the body, its rigidity, and the evidences ofputrefaction all furnish data from which we can estimate the probabletime which has elapsed since death it must be remembered that no oneof them furnishes any positive proof essay medical jurists have attempted to give a more definite characterto these changes in the recently dead body by dividing the intervalbetween the stopping of the heart action and the beginning ofputrefaction into three periods in the first, the warmth, pliability, and muscular irritability remain in the second, these conditions arelost and the body is cold and rigid in the third, the body is coldand pliant, the muscles are relaxed, and the joints are flexible, thecadaveric rigidity having entirely ceased there can be no doubt about the existence of these stages, but when wecome to define the precise time at which one begins and the other ends, we find it impossible for example, the first stage embraces a periodwhich cannot be more closely defined than by stating that the personmay have been dead from a few minutes to twenty hours a statement toovague to be upheld by a counsel who defends a prisoner the changes which take place in these periods and the average time theylast have been given as follows by devergie:first period, few minutes to twenty hours - characterized by warmthof the body and general or writingial relaxation of the voluntary muscles to what portion of this period the special case belongs must beestimated according to the degree of heat in the trunk and extremitiesand the degree of rigidity in the muscles, the neck and the jawscommonly showing this condition first, the legs last warmth of thebody rarely remains as long as twenty hours. In general it is sensiblycold in from ten to twelve hours during this period the muscles aresusceptible of contraction under the galvanic current, and in the earlystage under the stimulus of blows second period, ten hours to three days - the body is perfectly coldthroughout and rigidity is well marked the muscles no longer respondto stimuli the duration of this period seems long, yet in one instancethe body will be found cold and rigid nine hours after death again, cooling and rigidity may not come on for three or four days third period, three to eight days - the body is perfectly cold thelimbs and trunk pliant and free from cadaveric rigidity the musclesare not capable of contracting in summer this period is much shorter;often it will come on before three days putrefaction commences when a body is kept under the most favorableconditions, in from six to twelve days, as a slight greenishdiscoloration of the abdomen which gradually spreads throughout thebody the time at which putrefaction shows itself and the rapidity withwhich it advances is dependent upon so thesis factors, thesis of whichit is impossible often for the medical examiner to ascertain, thattoo much reliance must not be placed upon it casper estimates thefollowing to be the average changes generally found in the periods oftime given:twenty-four to seventy-two hours after death a slight green color isvisible over the centre of the abdomen the eyeballs are soft and yieldto external pressure three to five days after death the green color of the abdomen becomesintensified and general, spreading if the body be exposed to the air orburied in the ground in the following order. Genitals, breast, face, neck, upper and lastly lower extremities eight to ten days after death the discoloration becomes moreintense, the face and neck presenting a shade of reddish-green theramifications of the superficial veins on the neck, breast, and limbsbecome very apparent finally the patches congregate gases begin to bedeveloped and distend the abdomen and hollow organs and to form underthe skin in the subcutaneous and intermuscular tissue the cornea fallsin and becomes concave the sphincter ani relaxes fourteen to twenty-one days after death the discoloration over thewhole body becomes intensely green, with brownish-red or brownish-blackpatches the body is bloated and appears greatly increased in sizefrom the development of gases within the abdomen, thorax, and scrotum, and also in the cellular tissue of the body generally the swollencondition of the eyelids, lips, nose, and cheeks is usually of suchextent as to obliterate the features and to destroy the identity of thebody the epidermis peels off in patches, while in certain writings, morewritingicularly the feet, it will be raised in blisters filled with red orgreenish liquid, the cuticle underneath frequently appearing blanched the color of the iris is lost the nails easily separate and the hairbecomes loosened fourth to sixth month after death the thorax and abdomen burst and thesutures of the skull give way from the development of gases within thehead the viscera appear pulpy, or perhaps disappear, leaving the bonesexposed the bones of the extremities separate at the joints at anadvanced stage the soft writings gradually disappear in giving an opinion as to how long a time has elapsed since death whena body has undergone marked putrefactive changes, we must considercarefully not only the conditions of the organs, but the mode of deathand the “surroundings ” by these i mean the quantity of clothing worn, the depth of the grave in which the body has been interred, the seasonof the year, the heat and moisture of the atmosphere the questionessaytimes presents itself to the medical examiner, of two personsfound dead, which died first?. the importance of this point was wellillustrated in the “lizzie borden case ” by a careful consideration ofall the conditions presented by each body in the ways i have indicated, the question will not ordinarily be a difficult one to decide themedico-legal considerationofwounds, includingpunctured and incised wounds, and wounds made by blunt instrumentsother than gunshot wounds bygeorge woolsey, a b , m d , professor of anatomy and clinical surgery in the medical dewritingment ofthe university of the city of new york. Surgeon to bellevue hospital;member medical society of the county of new york, new york academy ofmedicine, new york surgical society, etc , etc wounds general considerations the different kinds of wounds the surgical and medico-legal ideas of wounds are quite different, thelatter including the former as well as other varieties of injuries definitions - surgically a wound means a solution of continuity andrefers to every such lesion produced by external violence or developingspontaneously the medico-legal acceptation of the term is much broaderand includes any injury or lesion caused by mechanical or chemicalmeans vibert601 quotes foderé as defining a wound medico-legally as, “every lesion of the human body by a violent cause of which the resultsare, singly or combined, concussion, contusion, puncture, incision, tear, burn, twist, fracture, luxation, etc. Whether the cause isdirected against the body or the body against the cause ” the sameauthor quotes another definition of a wound as, “every lesion howeverslight, resulting in concerning or affecting the body or health of anindividual ” taylor602 defines a wound in a medico-legal sense as “abreach of continuity in the structures of the body whether external orinternal, suddenly occasioned by mechanical violence ” thus, the termwound in its medico-legal acceptation includes not only surgical woundsbut contusions, fractures, burns, concussion, etc in france at leastthe voluntary inoculation of syphilis has been considered as comingunder the category of wounds 603medico-legally, the severity of a wound is much more important thanthe kind of wound thus we may consider wounds according to theircomparative gravity, as mortal, severe, or slight a mortal wound is one which is directly fatal to life in acomparatively short time, usually from hemorrhage, shock, or the injuryof a vital writing a wound may result fatally without being a mortalwound, as when a slight wound causes death on account of essay woundinfection severe wounds, or “wounds causing grievous bodily harm, ” as they havelong been called, do not put life in imminent danger, though they maybe inconvenient or detrimental to health pollock, c b , says that awound causing grievous bodily harm is “any wound requiring treatment ”a medical opinion or certificate may be required as to the danger of agiven wound, and on this opinion may depend the question of bail forthe prisoner by the danger of a wound in such a case is usually meantimminent danger, as any wound may be remotely dangerous to life slight wounds, as already stated, may result fatally under certainconditions under the french practice a slight wound is one which doesnot incapacitate one from work for more than twenty days looked atin another way, slight or severe wounds may be classified accordingas they are completely curable, leaving no infirmity or disturbanceof function, or not completely curable the latter are such as arenecessarily followed by permanent or temporary infirmity the question as to the severity of any given wound may essaytimes beleft to the jury to decide from the description of the wound, or amedical opinion may be required although the intent of the assailant is often of equal or greaterimportance than the severity or kind of wound, yet this can onlyoccasionally be inferred from the surgical aspects of the wound the classes of wounds to be treated in the following pages are incisedand punctured wounds and wounds with blunt instruments, essay of thecharacteristics of which we will now consider incised wounds are such as are produced by a cutting instrument, andthey are distinguished by the following characteristics. They measuremore in length than in the other dimensions they are usually straightin direction, though not infrequently curved, and they may even bezig-zag, especially where the skin lies in folds the edges of anincised wound are linear, and show no signs of contusion they areeither inverted or everted and the edges and sides of the wound areretracted the eversion of the skin is due to its elasticity, but inessay regions of the body, e g , in the scrotum, etc , the skin isinverted owing to the contraction of the muscle fibres immediatelybeneath the gaping of the wound is due to the retraction of thedivided muscles and fibrous structures it varies according as themuscles are cut directly across or more lengthwise, and in proportionto the distance of the wound from the points of attachment of themuscles the fibrous tissues, fasciæ, and aponeuroses retract less, and so givea essaywhat irregular surface to a large wound ogston604 divides incised wounds into three writings, the commencement, centre, and end, of which the end often has two or more serrationsdiffering from the commencement, which has but a single point thereare often one or more slight, superficial, tentative incisions situatedalmost always, though not invariably, near the commencement 605 thedeepest writing of the wound is more often near the commencement ifthere are angular flaps on the edges their free angles point to thecommencement of the wound coagula and clots of blood are to be found in the wound, more or lessfilling it up if it has not been interfered with on examination theends of the divided vessels are found plugged with clots which mayprotrude essaywhat from their openings if the wound is seen very shortly after its infliction, hemorrhage isin progress, and the divided arteries show their position by theirindividual, intermittent jets of blood the severity of incised woundsdepends upon the amount of hemorrhage, which is greater the deeper andlarger the wound, and the more vascular the tissues in which it occurs, especially if large and important vessels are concerned in the lattercase an incised wound may be very rapidly fatal incised wounds present the least favorable conditions for thespontaneous arrest of hemorrhage of any form of wounds the edges of anincised wound may be quite rough and even dentated or lacerated if theedge of the weapon be rough and irregular the kind and condition of a weapon which has produced a given incisedwound may often be learned by an examination of the characteristics ofthe wound weapons cutting by their weight as well as by the sharpness of theiredges, such as axes, etc , may cause a certain amount of contusionabout a wound. They crush the soft writings to a certain extent, and thebones may be indented or even fractured wounds caused by fragments of bottles, pieces of china, earthenware, or glass, though strictly speaking incised wounds, are often curved, angular, and irregular, and their edges jagged and contused wounds caused by scissors may essaytimes be of the nature of incisedwounds when they present a double wound of triangular shape, with theapex of the triangle blunt, they are more of the nature of puncturedwounds in general a “tail” or long angle in the skin at one end of anincised wound indicates the end of the wound last inflicted, and essaylight may thus be thrown upon the inflicter of the wound incised wounds present very favorable conditions for healing by primaryunion, but often fail in this and heal by secondary union when anincised wound fails to unite by primary union, bleeding continuesfor several hours or even as long as a day, the blood being mixedmore or less with a serous discharge the latter continues until thethird day or so by the fourth or fifth day the surface has begun togranulate, and there may be a more or less profuse purulent dischargefrom the surface the granulating surfaces do not necessarily dischargepus, however for essay days, therefore, after the infliction of anincised wound, or until the surface is covered with granulations, thecharacteristics of the wound permit of a diagnosis as to the nature ofthe wound the diagnosis of an incised wound is generally without difficulty essay wounds by blunt instruments, however, in certain regions of thebody, resemble incised wounds very closely such instances are foundwhere a firm, thin layer of skin and subjacent tissue lies directlyover a bony surface or a sharp ridge of bone these are seen most oftenin the scalp or in wounds of the eyebrow where the sharp supra-orbitalridge cuts through the skin from beneath the diagnosis of an incisedwound can often be made with great probability from the cicatrix thisis especially the case if the wound has healed by primary union and thecicatrix is linear the prognosis in incised wounds is good as to life unless a largevessel has been divided or unless an important viscus has beenpenetrated the prognosis as to function varies with the position andextent of the wound, and the circumstance of the healing of the wound punctured wounds, stabs, etc - these are characterized by narrownessas compared to depth, though the depth is not necessarily great they are more varied in character than incised wounds owing to thegreat variety of form of the weapons by which they may be made fromthe form, etc , of a writingicular wound we may often infer the varietyof weapon by which it was produced according to the weapon used, punctured wounds have been divided into several classes, of which m tourdes distinguishes four. 1st punctured wounds by cylindrical orconical instruments like a needle if the instrument be very fine likea fine needle, it penetrates by separating the anatomical elementsof the skin, etc , without leaving a bloody tract such wounds aregenerally inoffensive, even when penetrating, if the needle is aseptic, and they are difficult to appreciate on the cadaver it is almostimpossible to find the tract of such a wound if the instrument be alittle larger it leaves a bloody tract, but it is difficult to followthis in soft tissues, more easy in more resistant structures, such astendon, aponeurosis, cartilage, or serous membrane if the instrument be of any size this variety of punctured woundspresents a form quite different from that of the weapon instead of around wound it is generally a longitudinal wound with two very acuteangles and two elongated borders of equal length, showing but littleretraction this is the shape of the wound even when the instrumentproducing it is so large that the resulting wound resembles that madeby a knife see fig 2 the direction of the long axis of these woundsvaries in different writings of the body and is uniform in the same writing their shape and direction are explained by the tension of the skin orstill more clearly by the direction of the fibres of the skin, justas with the same round instrument in a piece of wood a longitudinalopening or split would be made parallel to the grain see fig 1 inessay regions, as near the vertebræ, the fibres may run in differentdirections, and the resulting wound is stellate or triangular in shapeas if a thesis-sided instrument had caused it as the direction of thefibres of the various tissue layers, such as aponeuroses, serous andmucous membranes, etc , may be different, a deep wound involvingseveral such layers would have a different direction for each layer inillustration of this, examine the figure of a wound through the wall ofthe stomach see fig 3 illustration. Fig 1 - direction of the long axis of wounds of theback caused by conical instruments after langer the wounds above described when large are smaller than the weapon, as the splitting of the skin has certain limits and also owing to theelasticity of the skin, which is put on the stretch by the weapon andrelaxed on its withdrawal when such wounds are small they are largeras a rule than the instrument causing them illustration.

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5 15 c c elixirsecretogen tracing b economic homework help. Reading from left to right, the four intravenousinjections are. 1 5 c c secretin made fresh from dog duodenalmucosa. 2 three tablets of duodenin digested in 15 c c 0 4 per cent hydrochloric acid and neutralized. 3 three tablets of duodenin boiledin 15 c c 0 4 per cent hydrochloric acid and neutralized. 4 threetablets of duodenin in 15 c c sodium chlorid 0 9 per cent table 5 -- summary of experimentsdogs with pancreatic fistula, weight 14 kg secretin given by mouth | |rate of secretion| | | of pancreatic | | | juice in | no of | | c c per hour |increase experi-| material fed -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- in ment | | three | three | c c | | hours | hours | | | before | after | | |feeding |feeding | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 3 |secretin slightly acid | 5 | 11 | 6 5 |secretin slightly alkaline | 24 | 30 | 6 4 |secretin passed through berkefeld| 18 | 23 | 5 1 |secretin exposed to sun for 4 hrs| 16 | 29 | 13 2 |extract of colon rabbit | 19 | 29 | 10 3 |extract of gastric mucosa | 14 | 23 | 9 3 |extract of muscle | 8 | 16 | 8 2 |mixture of gelatin, peptone and | 23 | 33 | 10 | salt | | | 1 |1 per cent peptone solution | 6 | 8 | 2 4 |0 2 per cent hydrochloric acid | 13 | 37 | 24 3 |milk and bread | 7 | 20 | 13 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- it is possible by large doses of sodium bicarbonate given shortlybefore the administration of a preparation so to depress the stomachthat it does not respond with the usual production of hydrochloricacid under these conditions the administration of secretin isuniformly negative, but the administration of hydrochloric acid on thecontrary still serves to increase the pancreatic secretion table 6 table 6 -- secretin in experimental “achylia gastrica” | | rate of secretion of pancreatic juice | | in c c per hour | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - exp | material fed |continuous secretion| secretion after no | | before feeding* | feeding | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - | |first |second|third |first |second|third -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - 1 |} {| 8 7 | 7 5 | 6 8 | 3 0 | 1 0 | 4 8 2 |} 150 c c secretin {| 4 5 | 6 5 | 10 0 | 6 0 | 7 5 | 7 6 3 |} {| 15 6 | 8 1 | 16 0 | 3 9 | 4 9 | 2 9 | | | | | | | 1 |} 150 c c 4% hcl {| 9 8 | 7 0 | 6 0 | 65 1 | 28 0 | 7 1 2 |} diluted to 250 c c {| 17 4 | 18 5 | 17 0 | 34 0 | 18 0 | 20 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -* five gm na hco₃ given at beginning of each first two hours commercial preparations of secretinsecretogen and elixir secretogen -- the carnrick company offerssecretogen90 for use in a large number of conditions the followingindications for the use of the preparation purport to be based onclinical tests covering a period of several years. Dyspepsia, andthe indigestions generally, fermentative disorders, gastric catarrh, flatulence, nausea. Pancreatic insufficiency, intestinal indigestion;gastric secretory deficiencies, apepsia. Constipation and hepatictorpor. Intestinal stasis. Diarrhea. Infantile diarrhea, “summercomplaint, ” marasmus, inanition and malnutrition.