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As also that infirmity which they call a pin andweb the spirit of the flowers distilled in wine, restores lost speech, helps the palsy, and is excellently good in the apoplexy, comfortsthe heart and vital spirits gerrard saith, that the flowers beingclose stopped up in a glass, put into an ant-hill, and taken awayagain a month after, ye shall find a liquor in the glass, which, beingoutwardly applied, helps the easy persuasive essay topics gout white lilies it were in vain to describe a plant so commonly known in every onegarden. Therefore i shall not tell you what they are, but what they aregood for government and virtues they are under the dominion of the moon, and by antipathy to mars expel poison. They are excellently good inpestilential fevers, the roots being bruised and boiled in wine, andthe decoction drank. For it expels the venom to the exterior writings ofthe body.

And the paragraph speaks of serums and bacterins as“new tools, supplemental to those we already have, but not replacingthem ” “we need them both ”the referee recommends that the several mixed vaccines discussed inthis report be not accepted on the grounds that satisfactory evidenceof their value is wanting having been endorsed by the committee on serumsand vaccines the council adopted the report anddeclared m catarrhalis-combined-bacterin, b coli-combined-bacterin, pertussis-combined-bacterin, streptococcus-rheumaticus-combined-bacterin andstreptococcus-viridans-combined-bacterin ineligible for admission tonew and nonofficial remedies catarrhal vaccine combined-lilly and influenza mixed vaccine-lillybecause of inquiry received, the council requested eli lilly andcompany to aid in determining the acceptability of the followingproducts for new and nonofficial remedies. “catarrhal vaccinecombined, ” said to contain killed cultures of the bacillus offriedländer, micrococcus catarrhalis, staphylococcus aureus andalbus, pneumococcus and streptococcus. “influenza mixed vaccine, ”said to contain killed cultures of staphylococcus albus and aureus, streptococcus, pneumococcus, micrococcus catarrhalis and bacillusinfluenzae lilly and company sent the circulars, etc , used in advertising theseproducts a circular for “catarrhal vaccine combined” contained thefollowing claim. “catarrhal vaccine has been especially useful in thesis respiratory infections, including bronchitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, chronic catarrh and in the mixed infections of pulmonary tuberculosis ”a circular for “influenza mixed vaccine” contained the following. “the vaccine is useful in the treatment of influenza and ordinary colds, and in any infection in which the bacillus influenzae is the causative agent ”an advertising pamphlet contained the following. “catarrh, acute and chronic. Colds, influenza -- the micro-organisms capable of producing catarrhal conditions of the nose and pharynx and most commonly isolated are b friedländer, m catarrhalis, staphylococcus, pneumococcus in infections beginning in the larynx, b influenza and streptococcus these organisms are found normally in the respiratory passages and acquire virulence only when resistance has been lowered through overwork, exposure to cold, etc “the results following the use of catarrhal vaccine combined in the non-epidemic forms and influenza mixed vaccine in the epidemic types have been very satisfactory, due to the great vascularity of the tissues acute attacks are aborted altogether or shortened in duration and the danger of complications greatly minimized ”no evidence was submitted which warrants the preceding claims noris the council aware of any reliable testimony to indicate that theadministration of the mixture here discussed is warranted or desirable on the recommendation of the committee on serums and vaccines thecouncil voted that “catarrhal vaccine combined-lilly” and “influenzamixed vaccine-lilly” be not included in new and nonofficial remediesbecause satisfactory evidence of their value is wanting influenza serobacterin mixed-mulfordbecause of inquiry received, the council took up the considerationof “influenza serobacterin mixed-mulford, ” and requested the mulfordcompany to present evidence to establish the admissibility of thepreparation to new and nonofficial remedies the mulford company sentspecimens of the serobacterin in question, an advertising circular anda letter by the director of its biologic laboratories according to the label on the package, the preparation is made fromthe following organisms. Bacillus influenzae, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus albus, streptococcus, pneumococcus and micrococcuscatarrhalis group this mixture is recommended by the manufacturer. “for the prophylaxis and treatment of common colds, mixed infections of the respiratory mucous membranes, acute and chronic catarrhal conditions of the nose, throat and respiratory passages ”no evidence is submitted for this recommendation except that in “coldsand bronchitis and the other common infections of the upper respiratorypassages five or six bacteria are very commonly present-- two ormore of them are nearly always present ” and the letter by thedirector of the mulford biologic laboratories expressing the beliefthat in his own case the use of the mixed vaccine has aborted orprevented colds as regards the use of this complex biologic preparation:first, the cause of common colds is, at the present time, quiteunknown one of the most striking things is that at the beginning ofa cold the organisms to be cultivated from the nasal mucous membraneare very few in number and there is no uniformity in the type oforganism found if essayone of the well-known organisms streptococcus, staphylococcus, pneumococcus, micrococcus catarrhalis, influenzabacillus, etc were responsible, we should expect to find one of thempreponderating and in overwhelming numbers this is far from the case after the duration of the cold for a day or two with the increasedproduction of mucus and apparently with the infection of a mucousmembrane whose powers of resistance have been greatly lowered, bacteriaof all kinds are to be found in immense numbers there is considerablereason for believing that an ultramicroscopic organism is responsiblefor this condition see foster, journal of infectious diseases21:451 nov 1917 second, there is no acceptable clinical evidence that vaccination withthe influenza bacillus, the streptococcus, the pneumococcus or themicrococcus catarrhalis will influence the course of an infection dueto one or the other of these organisms it has been repeatedly foundthat a staphylococcus vaccine is of a certain degree of value when theinfection with the staphylococcus is localized, but it is well knownthat general systemic infections with the staphylococcus are not at allbenefited third, the letter submitted as evidence by the mulford company is notconvincing the council is not prepared to accept evidence of this sortunless it is in volume large enough to justify a definite conclusion holding that there is no evidence for the value of this mixture, thecouncil declared “influenza serobacterin mixed-mulford” inadmissible tonew and nonofficial remedies because its use is illogical sherman mixed vaccine no 40because of inquiry received the council decided to consider thispreparation and requested the manufacturer, g h sherman, detroit, mich , to submit evidence in support of the claims made for it this vaccine is said to be made from killed cultures of streptococcus, pneumococcus, micrococcus catarrhalis, staphylococcus aureus, andstaphylococcus albus in the printed matter sent out by g h shermanthis vaccine is recommended for hay-fever, in which it is stated thatessay of the symptoms are due to bacterial invasion of the respiratorymucosa. For tonsillitis, both as a remedy and as a prophylactic againstrheumatic and other sequelae. For “throat infections”. For rhinitiswith the claims that acute coryza can be aborted within twenty-fourhours. For pneumonia in which it is advised for all stages.

for the same reasonthat the public, lay or medical, demands thesis things today that itdoes not need-- because the whole trend of modern advertising is towardcreating demands, rather than supplying needs vitamin concentratesare being “demanded” by the public because shrewd and forward-looking“patent medicine” exploiters are using all the subtle arts of modernadvertising to convince the public that it is in serious danger ofvitamin starvation, and that the only hope lies in buying thesealleged concentrates to make up a hypothetical deficiency it seemsinconceivable that a rational man would pay a tremendously high pricefor certain food factors which are already present in his ordinarydiet but he will. And advertising is the reason advertisingcampaigns such as these of the vitamins constitute a vicious circle;an artificial demand is created and then the manufacturer excuses hisbusiness on the ground that he is merely supplying a demand!. as ourbritish contemporary says, “ordinary fresh foods are the simplest, cheapest and richest sources of vitamins ”-- editorial from thejournal a m a , march 18, 1922 the william a webster co and the direct pharmaceutical co the following letter from a detroit physician was received a few daysago to the editor:-- i have just received a letter from the direct pharmaceutical co of st louis, mo , quoting prices on drugs which are not more than one half what the leading manufacturers are quoting on the same drugs i have received previous literature from this company but have not done business with them i would be unwilling to prescribe their drugs unless i were satisfied that they are what is claimed for them i would be glad to receive any information regarding this firm that may be available the journal has also received essay letters from physicians regardingthe william a webster co of memphis, tenn , relative to a letter theconcern was sending physicians in the form of a testimonial reproducedin miniature on this page and alleged to be from dr f w p butlerof columbia, s c typical letters on the webster advertising follow. To the editor:-- is there not essay way through which the dignity of the medical profession can be protected from the circulation of such idiotic drivel as the enclosures display?. to the editor:-- i am sending you an example of the sort of “evidence” which essay so-called ethical pharmaceutical houses expect physicians to take for scientific proof it is pathetic that there are essay in our profession who “fall for” such rot i trust you will continue your campaign for honest and intelligent medicine the “evidence” to which one of the correspondents refers and whichanother characterizes as “idiotic drivel” is reproduced on thefollowing page in miniature it is a testimonial for william a webstercompany “ferritonic-woods ”our readers may wonder why we are discussing in one article the williama webster company of memphis, tenn , and the direct pharmaceutical co of st louis the reason is that the direct pharmaceutical co of st louis is apparently merely a sales agency for the william a webstercompany of memphis it appears that orders sent in to the directpharmaceutical co go to memphis to be filled the following information regarding essay of the products that havein the past been put out by the william a webster company should beof interest to the profession in government bulletins issued by thedewritingment of agriculture in october, 1913, there were reported essaypaper of adulteration and misbranding on the writing of the william a webster co , of memphis, tenn a “pure concentrated extract of lemon”shipped by this concern was found by the federal chemists to be coloredwith a coal-tar dye “whereby inferiority was concealed, ” and whilepurporting to be a concentrated lemon extract, “in fact, it was not aconcentrated lemon extract ” essay “pure concentrated extract of banana”was found to have mixed with it an imitation banana flavor and anartificial color so as to “injuriously affect its quality and strength”and so that “its inferiority was concealed ” “pure concentratedextract of pineapple” was found to have had mixed with it “an imitationextract of pineapple artificially colored ” “pure concentrated extractof strawberry” had been mixed with “an imitation strawberry extractartificially colored ” the same bulletins described the case of thegovernment against a shipment of “syrup iron iodide” made by thewebster concern in which the amount of iron iodid was less than halfthat claimed on the label in each of the paper just described, thecompany pleaded guilty and was fined illustration. Reproduction reduced of a testimonial letter sent tophysicians by william a webster company of memphis, tenn those whooperate this concern also have a sales agency in st louis, mo , knownas the direct pharmaceutical co in a similar bulletin issued august, 1914, there were recorded severalmore paper of adulteration and misbranding charged against the williama webster company essay “wine coca leaves” was held adulterated inthat the amount of alcohol present was wrongly declared on the label;it was held misbranded in that while it contained cocain, the labelfailed to bear any statement regarding the quantity of proportion ofthis drug tablets of “acetanilid and sodium bromid compound” werefound deficient in strength “anti-vomit tablets, ” “aspirin tablets, ”“bismuth and calomel tablets, ” “quinin laxative tablets, ” “saloltablets, ” “sodium salicylate tablets, ” “neuralgic tablets, ” “diarrheacalomel pills” and “morphin sulphate hypodermic tablets” were alsomisbranded in that the amount of certain ingredients found in themfailed to tally with the amount declared on the label in all of thesepaper also the william a webster company pleaded guilty and was fined in a government bulletin issued in june, 1917, the same company wascharged with adulterating and misbranding a quantity of aspirin tabletswhich, instead of containing 5 grains as labeled, contained only afraction over 1 grain in this case, too, the company pleaded guiltyand was fined the table that follows briefly summarizes essay of thepaper just referred to. amount claimed amount found “syrup iron iodid, u s p ” ferrous iodid 10% 4 6% “acetanilid and sodium bromid tablets” acetanilid 3 50 gr 2 94 gr “anti-vomit tablets” bismuth subnitrate 2 50 gr 1 76 gr cerium oxalate 2 50 gr 1 78 gr cocain hydrochl 0 0833 gr 0 0637 gr “aspirin tablets” 5 0 gr 3 82 gr “bismuth and calomel comp tablets” bismuth subnitrate 0 1 gr 0 22 gr calomel 0 1 gr 0 22 gr “quinin laxative tablets” acetanilid 2 0 gr 1 69 gr “salol tablets” 2 50 gr 2 05 gr “sodium calicylate tablets” 5 0 gr 3 88 gr “neuralgic pills” morphin sulphate 0 05 gr 0 015 gr “diarrhea calomel pills” morphin sulphate 0 062 gr 0 05 gr “morphin sulphate hypodermic tablets” 0 25 gr 0 21 gr “aspirin tablets” 5 00 gr 1 13 gr x/-- from the journal a m a , oct 18, 1919 yeastfrom time to time yeast has attained a transitory popularity as atherapeutic agent its use in this way in practical medicine has beenbased essentially on empiric considerations yeast is rich in nucleicacid, but this has not found any special applications the fatlikesubstances obtainable from yeast have been recommended in certainalimentary conditions, without finding any widespread acceptance more recently yeast has acquired interest from essaywhat differentangles in these days of food shortage and enforced conservation, it has come to be realized that the minute yeast cells are endowedwith a remarkable capacity of synthesizing one of the most valuednutrients, namely, protein this substance can be built up out of thesimplest forms of nitrogenous compounds by yeasts, in contrast withthe incapacity of the higher organisms to construct protein out ofanything less complex than the ready made aminoacids it is reportedthat in europe yeast has actually been grown on a large scale insolutions of sugar, salt and simple nitrogenous compounds for thesake of securing the much desired proteins the utilization of yeastprotein for cattle feeding is a current practice abroad. And thesatisfactory digestibility and availability of the same product by thehuman organism has repeatedly been announced since the beginning ofthe war in this country the yeast which is produced as a by-productof the brewing industry is for the most writing discarded as waste. Inthe distilleries it becomes a writing of the distillers’ grains that areextensively employed as feeds in the dairy industry still newer is the indication that yeast is comparatively rich in atleast one of the as yet unidentified accessory factors in nutritionnow popularly spoken of as vitamins hopkins of the university ofcambridge, england, first directed attention to this unique property ofyeast it has been verified by funk and macallum, and recently osborneand mendel have given substantial evidence of the potency of yeast torender a diet not otherwise capable of inducing maintenance effectivein nutrition yeast has been used, like extracts of rice polishings, to cure theexperimental polyneuritis induced in birds by a diet of polished rice from the experiments of osborne and mendel it appears that less than 2per cent of dried brewers’ yeast suffices to induce small experimentalanimals to grow on artificial food mixtures on which alone they failto thrive how the use of yeast as an adjuvant to otherwise inadequatefood mixtures exerts its beneficial effect is not yet made clear satisfactory growth in these paper is promoted by liberal eating anything which renders food more palatable may stimulate one to eatmore liberally of it this can scarcely be the explanation of thepotency of the yeast as it is effective even when fed awriting from therest of the food it may have a favorable effect on the metabolism andthus improve the general condition so that more food is consumed smallquantities of milk and extracts of thesis of the common plant foods, such as the cereal grains, have been found to act in the same way there seems to be little doubt, therefore, that yeast also containsessaything comparable with the so-called water-soluble vitamins of thediet a specific need for yeast can scarcely be predicated on thisfact, however. For any well selected human dietary containing the usualvariety of animal and vegetable foods is not likely to be devoid ofthe widely distributed water-soluble type of vitamin we mention thisto check premature enthusiasm for a new vitamin -- editorial from thejournal a m a , sept 8, 1917 yeast and its uses to the editor:-- is there available information concerning the medicinal use of yeast?. how is it taken?. i should like to know whether the use of it would cause any digestive disturbance, and whether the flesh gained is normal and permanent s e l , bridgeport, conn answer -- yeast is one of those remedies that have undergone alternatingcycles of use and of disuse. Just at present it appears again to bein its ascendency no doubt, the reason for these cycles has beenexcessive praise and uncritical use, followed by disappointment andconsequent discard hawk and his associates hawk, p b. Knowles, f c.

The herb beingburnt, the smoke thereof drives away flies, wasps, &c it strengthensthe lungs exceedingly country people give it to their cattle when theyare troubled with the cough, easy persuasive essay topics or broken-winded alehoof, or ground-ivy several counties give it different names, so that there is scarcelyany herb growing of that bigness that has got so thesis. It is calledcat-foot, ground-ivy, gill-go-by-ground, and gill-creep-by-ground, turn-hoof, haymaids, and alehoof descript this well known herb lies, spreads and creeps upon theground, shoots forth roots, at the corners of tender jointed stalks, set with two round leaves at every joint essaywhat hairy, crumpledand unevenly dented about the edges with round dents. At the jointslikewise, with the leaves towards the end of the branches, come forthhollow, long flowers, of a blueish purple colour, with small whitespots upon the lips that hang down the root is small with strings place it is commonly found under hedges, and on the sides ofditches, under houses, or in shadowed lanes, and other waste grounds, in almost every writing of this land time they flower essaywhat early, and abide a great while. Theleaves continue green until winter, and essaytimes abide, except thewinter be very sharp and cold government and virtues it is an herb of venus, and therefore curesthe diseases she causes by sympathy, and those of mars by antipathy;you may usually find it all the year long except the year be extremelyfrosty. It is quick, sharp, and bitter in taste, and is thereby foundto be hot and dry. A singular herb for all inward wounds, exulceratedlungs, or other writings, either by itself, or boiled with other the likeherbs. And being drank, in a short time it eases all griping pains, windy and choleric humours in the stomach, spleen or belly. Helps theyellow jaundice, by opening the stoppings of the gall and liver, andmelancholy, by opening the stoppings of the spleen. Expels venom orpoison, and also the plague. It provokes urine and women courses. Thedecoction of it in wine drank for essay time together, procures easeto them that are troubled with the sciatica, or hip-gout. As also thegout in hands, knees or feet. If you put to the decoction essay honeyand a little burnt alum, it is excellently good to gargle any soremouth or throat, and to wash the sores and ulcers in the privy writings ofman or woman. It speedily helps green wounds, being bruised and boundthereto the juice of it boiled with a little honey and verdigrease, doth wonderfully cleanse fistulas, ulcers, and stays the spreading oreating of cancers and ulcers.

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Chlorideof methyl, 35 per cent , and bromide of ethyl, 5 per cent federalchemists found, however, that it contained no bromide of ethyl noticeof judgment no 571 it is a question, therefore, whether a givenreport applies to a mixture containing 5 per cent bromide of ethyl, 1per cent of this substance, or none at all the present advertising booklet for somnoform does not presentacceptable evidence easy persuasive essay topics of the therapeutic value of the preparation an ignorance concerning the elementary facts of physiology andpharmacology is evident in the second sentence. When having stated that“somnoform is the result of several years of study and investigation bydr george rolland, dean of the bordeau dental school, ” the pamphletcontinues. “he sought an anesthetic which would enter, dwell in, andleave the body in the same manner that oxygen does ”the claim as to the value of the 1 per cent of ethyl bromide in themixture is highly improbable. Certainly no evidence in support of theclaimed value of this constituent is available to the referee no evidence is submitted which proves the claim of superiority ofsomnoform over similar preparations, asserted in the following. “the peculiar manner in which the elements are combined is what makes somnoform at once so efficient and so safe ”the council declared somnoform inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies because, in the absence of acceptable evidence showing itsexceptional safety and value, the claims are unwarranted rule 6, andbecause the name of the mixture is not descriptive of its composition rule 8 -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1919, p 90 tablets formothalates report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report whichdeclares tablets formothalates tailby-nason company, boston, mass ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary tablets formothalates are sold by tailby-nason company, boston, mass on the label a formula is given. “constituents. Acetanilid2 gr. Phenolphthalein 1/2 gr in a balanced combination withhexamene a name essaytimes applied to hexamethylenamin and oil ofcinnamon indications. Influenza, colds, grippe, headache, neuralgia, rheumatism ” the same formula is given in advertisements and in thisadvertisement it is claimed that they are “for influenza and grip” andif “given in the acute stage may avert a serious attack” boston m & s j , oct 3, 1918 the dose is given as one to two tablets at6 p m and repeat at bedtimes the a m a chemical laboratory reported that the tablets weigh anaverage of 0 4882 gm , or 7-1/2 grains. That they have the odor andtaste of cinnamon. And that they contain hexamethylenamin, are neutraland therefore give up no formaldehyde in the presence of water alone the laboratory further reported that they contain phenolphthalein andacetanilid these tablets were directed to be taken internally andtherefore their effect was not intended to be local the amount of hexamethylenamin was not determined, but in any casecould not exceed 5 grains per tablet it is evident that 4 grainsof acetanilid and 10 grains of hexamethylenamin and 1 grain ofphenolphthalein in two tablets “if given in the acute stage” ofinfluenza would not “avert a serious attack, ” as claimed in theadvertisements the council declared tablets formothalates inadmissible to new andnonofficial remedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1919, p 92 triple arsenates with nuclein report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has declared triple arsenates with nuclein no 1 andtriple arsenates with nuclein no 2, tablets marketed by the abbottlaboratories, inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies becauseunwarranted therapeutic claims rule 6 are made for them and becausethey present an illogical combination of drugs rule 10 thepublication of the following report has been authorized by the council w a puckner, secretary the following claims are made for triple arsenates with nuclein.