History

Easy Compare And Contrast Essay Topics


Not perceptible afterward died from strangulation easy compare and contrast essay topics. Neck not dislocated the heart beat once in the nineteenth minute. From the ninth to the nineteenth, only two or three times no priapism in judicial executions, however, the right auricle is found in actionwhen the subject is taken down at the end of the usual period ofsuspension see case 89 tardieu mentions a case where the heartwas beating 80 to the minute one and one-half hours after supposeddeath it is probable that in these paper the deprivation of air andcompression of the vessels has not been complete in such paper lifemay essaytimes be restored paper are reported where restoration hasbeen possible within a period of a half-hour of suspension. Althoughthe fatal period is usually five to eight minutes at most if, however, the tissues and especially the spinal cord are injured, or the ligaturehas compressed below the larynx, the chance of recovery is very small, even if the body is cut down at once according to faure, animalsexperimented upon die in twelve to twenty minutes thesis paper of “incomplete” hanging have been reported.

The viscera could be seen, etc case 14 fissures, vessels crossing, etc taylor, “med jurisprudence, ” vol i , p 696 - boy, æt 2 easy compare and contrast essay topics. Death in three-quarters of an hour on legs were fissures and lacerations near each knee on right thigh a laceration 2¾ inches long, 1/6 inch deep and 1/4 inch wide. Fatty tissue seen beneath no blood effused. Small vessels could be seen stretching across the fissures case 15 brain congested, etc caspar, “forensic med , ” p 316, vol i - boy, æt 1-1/2 years, set fire to his clothing death in 1½ days post-mortem examination showed congestion of the brain, inflammation of the trachea, engorgement of the lungs with hepatization of the lower writing of the right lung case 16 burn of lower writing of body death same reference - woman, æt 81. Burn of lower writing of body, including the gluteal region, the perineum and genital organs external death after several days post-mortem examination showed the upper lobe of left lung in a stage of red hepatization, etc case 17 tardy appearance of redness and vesication tidy, “legal med , ” vol ii , p 124, case 15 - woman, insensible from cold, had hot water applied in tins to her sides and feet the flannel coverings became displaced and the hot tins came in contact with the body no redness or vesication could be detected two hours afterward the next day, when consciousness had returned and recovery from insensibility had taken place, the writings had become reddened and vesicated case 18 were the burns ante mortem or post mortem?. caspar, “forensic med , ” vol i , p 317 - woman intoxicated. Clothing caught fire. Death due to asphyxia essay burns apparently caused during life and essay after death the case was decided upon the character of the vesications and their contents lungs and other organs normal right side of heart engorged with dark blood case 19 murder body burned dr duncan, med gazette, lond , vol viii , p 170 - man charged with the murder of his wife and attempting to burn the body afterward the body was so extensively burned as to remove all means of deciding the cause of death the man claimed that her clothing took fire when she was intoxicated persons in the same house had heard sounds of a struggle before smelling smoke and fire furniture was not burned, nor the house the prisoner was found guilty of murder case 20 blisters was the scalding ante mortem?. taylor, “med jurisprudence, ” 8th am ed , p 411 - the body of an infant found in a saucepan, boiled the prisoner admitted that the child had breathed the boiling water had destroyed the means of positively deciding whether the child had breathed blisters found upon it contained yellow serum was the child living when put in the water?. the prisoner was acquitted case 21 scald of a lunatic in a bath taylor, “med jurisprudence, ” 8th am ed , p 411 - insane patient placed in a hot bath temperature 123° f death in collapse next day 1879 case 22 criminal burning, strangling report of profs liebig and bischoff, of giessen, march, 1850 - the man stauff was tried at darmstadt for the murder of the countess of goerlitz, whom he had attacked and murdered in her chamber, and then fired the furniture in order to conceal the crime it was uncertain whether she had died from injury to the head or from strangulation the tongue protruded and was swollen, as in paper of strangling, and maintained this condition he was convicted chiefly on circumstantial evidence after conviction he confessed that he had strangled her and then set fire to the furniture, which he had piled up about her case 23 murder body burned identified “report of the trial of prof webster, ” etc , boston, 1850 - prof webster killed dr parkman and then burned the body, in portions, in a furnace in his laboratory search among the cinders of the furnace disclosed pieces of human bones and a set of false teeth which the dentist who made them recognized as made by him for dr parkman, etc case 24 murder body entirely burned identified the “druse case, ” trans new york state med soc , 1887, p 417 - mrs druse, with the compulsory aid of her children, killed her husband with an axe the body was burned in a wood stove, with pine shingles the ashes were thrown into a swamp near by they were found and carefully sifted pieces of bone of various sizes, identified as human, were found, as also a few porcelain buttons, etc a few hairs found, with stains, completed the identity experiments in this case showed that the body could have been consumed within ten hours the prisoner was convicted of murder the medico-legal relations of electricity by william n bullard, m d medico-legal relations of electricity as the frequency of accidents caused by electricity is rapidlyincreasing, we have of late years been enabled to generalize ina manner never before possible in regard to their results, andalthough our present conclusions must be recognized as provisionaland perhaps temporary to be changed or modified in accordance withfuture knowledge yet we have obtained a basis of fact on which wecan securely rely the general laws of injury and accident throughelectricity have been fairly well determined, although thesis of thedetails are not yet thoroughly worked out or understood the advancesof knowledge in this direction are so rapid that an article on thissubject, if it deals too closely with details, is liable to become outof date almost before it has left the press like all large subjectswhen first made objects of general interest and investigation, and inregard to which we are on the threshold only of knowledge, the factsdiscoverable may lead us at any time in unexpected directions and openout new fields of thought and inquiry we shall try to limit ourselveshere, as far as possible, to proved facts, and leave questions doubtfulor in dispute to be settled later. Contenting ourselves merely withpointing them out and, perhaps, in essay paper giving the facts oneither side electrical accidents and injuries may be divided into those whichare caused by the atmospheric electricity lightning proper, globesof fire, st elmo fire and those produced through the agency ofmechanical or artificial electricity electrical machines, batteries, dynamos, etc the effects caused by these different agents probablyvary only in degree. The atmospheric electricity in the form oflightning, etc , being so much more powerful than the charges usuallyproduced artificially as to cause essay difference in the results results of accidents and injuries from electrical machines andconductors medical electricity - in the ordinary use of the mild forms ofelectricity employed for medical purposes, certain phenomena may attimes occur, which, although not of any serious import or of longduration, may yet cause considerable inconvenience, pain, or discomfortto the patient or others, and may even be of essay importance from amedico-legal point of view we shall not enter here into the discussionof the proper methods of application of medical electricity, nor domore than point out that if these be not followed with care the patientmay be not only not benefited, but made worse, and may even sufferconsiderable injury the increase of pain caused by the improperapplication of certain currents is usually temporary and of minorconsequence but serious and lasting inflammations may be caused bythe careless, ignorant, or injudicious use of the stronger currentsinternally, and metritis and peri-uterine inflammations have been notinfrequently reported from the unskilled practice of the methods ofapostoli these subjects, however, scarcely come under the scope ofthis article in addition, however, to these troubles we may have external injuriesproduced even in paper where the current amounts to not more than afew milliamperes burns may be caused by the ordinary electrodes of thegalvanic battery the faradic current when medically used does not, asa rule, produce any external injuries such might be caused by a sparkfrom a static machine, but it would be due to gross carelessness, andis very unusual burns, however, from the use of the galvanic currentare not very uncommon they usually occur under the electrode after ithas been for a few moments stationary in contact with the skin theyoccur in certain patients with extraordinary readiness, especially inthose with organic spinal lesions, and where the sensation is essaywhatdiminished, and where also essay trophic lesion might be supposed toexist they are not confined, however, to this class of paper, butmay occur in any one if the electrode be retained too long in any oneplace, and especially if it be allowed to become dry these burns arepeculiar in appearance and can usually be recognized at once they arecircular, as if punched out, about the size of a common pencil or alittle smaller, comparatively deep, gray with perhaps a dark ring atthe circumference, and frequently surrounded by a reddened area theedges are sharp their peculiarity consists 1 in their painlessnessand 2 in their size, regular form, their depth in comparison to theirextent, and the sharp limitation of the area of tissue destroyed one or more may occur under a broad electrode, and they are probablyproduced at those points where the contact is imperfect or theconduction in essay other way impeded they heal without much difficultyand leave no serious results other unpleasant symptoms produced by currents in medical use may bementioned for the sake of completeness, and also as an introductionto the more serious symptoms caused by stronger currents dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, nausea, vomiting, and syncope are readily causedby even slight currents the sensation of light in the eyes and themetallic taste in the mouth are the results of medical currents ofordinary strength when applied to the head or in its neighborhood, andstronger currents applied at greater distances cause these sensations all the above symptoms may be readily caused by even slight currents, whether galvanic or faradic, passed through the head the syncope thusproduced is to be carefully differentiated from the syncope causedpsychically by excitement or fear of the application of electricity hysterical women, and even persons who show no special signs ofnervous instability, may faint at the suggestion of the applicationof electricity i have seen a large, strong, well-built italian man, perfectly sound physically, so far as could be detected, except essayslight local neuralgia, faint from pure fright when the electricity wasto be applied but even the application of moderately severe shocksfrom the ordinary medical battery are not likely to produce seriousresults these shocks are ordinarily caused by the opening or closingof the galvanic current, and are most severe when the current passesthrough essay portion of the head a still more powerful shock may begiven by reversing the current in a galvanic battery by means of thecommutator currents of high tension strong artificial currents passing on now to the consideration of the stronger currents, wecome to those used for mechanical purposes, for electric lighting, electric railways, and other analogous objects these currents startfrom dynamos or from storage batteries, and accidents are caused bythem whenever they are diverted from their proper course and arecaused to come in contact with or to pass through any portion of thehuman body in any considerable strength accidents not infrequentlyoccur from direct contact with the batteries or dynamos, but stillmore frequently they are produced in their circuit along the wires ortransmitters they may also be caused, as essay of the most fatal havebeen, by contact with metallic or other readily conducting objectswhich have themselves accidentally come in contact with essay portionof an electric circuit usually wires and have diverted the whole, ormore usually a portion, of the current to themselves thus was killeda young man in new york, the clerk in a store, who while lifting themetal-edged cover of a show-case brought it in contact with the chargedwires of an electric light and received an immediately fatal shock asa rule, those meeting with accidents from dynamos or electric machinesdirectly are employees of electric companies, who are presumed tohave more or less knowledge of the risk of carelessness, or they maybe workers in institutions or factories in which such machines are inuse thesis of the accidents due to wires also occur to linemen and otheremployees of electric, telephone, or telegraph companies or of electricrailway companies in charge of wires or electric outfit so long as thecurrent transmitters and terminals wires, etc are properly insulatedand in their proper position in relation to other conductors, it isunusual for accidents to occur, except in paper of gross ignorance orcarelessness unfortunately, however, proper insulation is not alwaysaccomplished, and frequently wires and other transmitters are removedfrom their proper positions by accidents and otherwise so long as andwherever the system of overhead wires exists, if there be among thesewires any which are the transmitters of strong electric currents, there is always a risk, and often a very serious one, that at essay timeor other one of these current-bearing wires will come into contactwith essay other non-current-bearing and ordinarily harmless wire insuch a manner that the current of the first should be diverted, inwhole or in writing, on to the ordinarily innocuous wire, which therebybecomes at once charged and dangerous such an accident may be due tothe displacement of either wire or to any other cause which bringsthe two in contact, either direct or indirect, at a point where thecurrent-bearing wire is not sufficiently insulated the current havingonce passed out of its proper circuit will, of course, follow thepaths of best conduction, and may hence suddenly appear in unexpectedquarters and produce the most dangerous and even fatal effects itis accidents of this character which most frequently occur among thepeople who are neither employees of electric companies nor engaged infactories or buildings where electrical machines are employed insulation of wires and other electrical transmitters - we cannotmention here the various methods employed to insulate wires, as thegeneral principles of insulation are well known electric wires evenwith very strong currents can be insulated and can be kept insulatedif sufficient pains be taken and sufficient money be expended butthis is very expensive and in thesis paper is not done only writingialinsulation is attempted, and even this is not always carried tothe degree intended or stipulated hence so long as overhead wiresof various kinds exist, accidents from the transmission of strongelectric currents along ordinarily harmless wires are liable at anytime to occur, as practically little or no attempt at keeping thecurrent-bearing wires covered with a thoroughly insulating materialis in most paper made it is usually deemed sufficient that glass orother insulators should be so placed that under ordinary conditions thewire will not come into contact with any conductor which may cause anyessential writing of its current to diverge in most paper a so-calledinsulating material is placed over the wire itself, but this usually isinsufficient at the outset or becomes so before very long and is thennot renewed it must not be supposed, however, that underground electric wiresor transmitters cannot produce accidents on the contrary, thecurrent may be diverted from them to the gas or water pipes or to anyother conductors which come into contact with them or can attractto themselves a portion of their current severe shocks have beenexperienced by persons attempting to draw water at their faucet fromcauses of this character at the same time, so far as mere safety isconcerned and freedom from electrical accidents, it would seem thatunderground wires are preferable to overhead wires electrical wires have not infrequently come in contact with telegraphand telephone wires causing unpleasant results telephone boxes havebeen set on fire, and also telegraph boards and tables, and in certainpaper what might have been serious conflagrations have been startedin this manner by means of proper arrangements on the telegraph andtelephone circuits these dangers can be at least writingially avoided, but there is always the risk that the automatic alarms and othercontrivances do not act, and the still greater one that persons orthings may come into contact with these charged wires and receivedangerous or serious injuries electric cars - the danger from the overhead wires in the trolleysystem of electric cars would not be great were these wires properlysupported, properly insulated, and properly protected each of theseterms must be explained wires which fall for any cause whatever shortof being intentionally removed cannot be deemed properly supported inthe sense in which we use the term any one of these electric wireswhich falls is liable to produce serious injury to persons or animals thesis horses have been killed by them, or to set fire to objects withwhich it comes into immediate or indirect contact, the amount of injurybeing in writing dependent upon the nature and the condition wet or dryof the object and its position in relation to other conductors wiresas dangerous as these car wires should be so supported that no ordinaryaccident, no condition of the weather, strong winds, or heavy falls ofsnow should be capable of wrenching them from their supports, and theyshould be placed in such positions and with such protection as not toreceive blows from passing or falling objects secondly, these wires should be properly insulated this is to beunderstood to mean that all the wires which carry the electric current, or are liable to carry it, should be attached to their poles or othersupport in such a manner that no appreciable quantity of electricity isunder any circumstances liable to be diverted to the poles or supports, and in this way cause destruction or injury in addition to this theside wires should be so covered that if any accident occurs, it willbe difficult or impossible for the current to pass away from them toother objects the middle wire on which the trolley runs cannot bethus covered, but must be left bare, and hence, if knocked down orbrought into contact with properly conducting objects, must be the mostdangerous. But on the other hand from its position it is less liable toaccidents when we say that these wires should be properly protected we mean thatsuch arrangements and contrivances should be used as will prevent themwhile in their usual position from coming into contact with dangerousobjects, writingicularly with other wires this may be accomplished byguard wires or in other ways it is plainly of great importance thatthis should be specially cared for, and writingicularly in a city wherethere are thesis overhead wires, and perhaps a considerable number ofdead or non-used wires if the electricity comes into contact with oneof these no one can tell where it may be transmitted or what harm itmay do the principles which apply to these overhead wires of course applyceteris paribus to all other electric overhead wires, and in likemanner the statements made in regard to the diffusion or spreadingof currents in underground wires are applicable to all methods oftransmitting electricity mechanically through the ground so far as theconditions are similar an electric current will always follow the pathof best conduction, and where several paths are opened it will followthem proportionally according to the excellence of their conduction orinversely to the amount of their electric resistance we shall not enter here into any questions in regard to the diffusionof electricity, its transmission through fluids, water, air or othergases, nor shall we discuss the relations of good or bad conductors toelectricity except so far as this relates to certain portions of thehuman body an elementary knowledge of physics and electricity must bepresupposed we can now enter more directly upon the immediate subject of thisarticle, that is, the effect upon the human body of severe ormoderately strong currents of electricity derived from artificialsources the accidents produced by these currents may be divided intotwo classes, the direct and the indirect under the direct we placeall those conditions which are apparently produced by the actionof the electricity itself, such as the general shock, the loss ofconsciousness, the burns, etc on the other hand, all those accidentsare to be considered indirect which are not primarily due to the actionof the electric current, but are only secondary results thereof theseare largely determined by the immediate surroundings and conditions atthe time such, for example, are the surgical injuries due to fallscaused by the loss of consciousness produced by the electric shock indirect accidents these will be considered first, as they do not demand so detailed adescription as the direct they are traumatic in character and are theresult either of loss of consciousness, momentary or lasting, or ofthe involuntary muscular contraction which may be occasioned by theelectric shock they are among the most frequent effects of severeelectric shocks these accidents consist in contusions, fractures, dislocations, wounds, and any other injuries which may be produced fromsudden loss of consciousness while in a dangerous position death mayreadily occur either immediately or as the more or less delayed resultof such injuries if the person shocked falls into the water he may bedrowned, or if into the fire he will be burnt the varieties of suchaccidents dependent on the sudden loss of consciousness produced bythe electricity are, of course, innumerable, and their occurrence mustlargely depend upon the position of the victim at the moment of theshock we see, perhaps, most of these accidents in linemen on the topsof poles or houses or in other exposed places, but persons who receiveshocks when simply standing on the ground or when sitting are notexempt from severe surgical injuries other than burns they are oftencast to the ground with great violence, and not infrequently are thrownto a distance of several feet this is caused by the violent muscularcontraction produced by the electric shock, and it may occasion, likeany violent push or fall, severe injuries from contact with thevarious objects against which they may be forced although much rarer, it is also possible that the violence of these muscular contractionsmay be such as of themselves to cause injury, as rupture of a muscle ortendon as practically all these indirect accidents are traumatic andsurgical in character, they do not differ from other accidents similarin kind, but otherwise caused, and are to be treated on the samegeneral principles as these direct accidents quite different from the indirect are the direct accidents. Thoseproduced by the immediate direct action of the electricity theseare of various kinds, which we shall consider separately they may bedivided into immediate and late symptoms, and they vary much accordingto the severity of the shock and the constitution of the patient, and the writing of the body through which the electricity passes thecharacter of the current which gives the shock, whether constant orinterrupted, also naturally has an influence on the effect general principles - a shock may be given in three ways with anordinary galvanic battery if the current be sufficiently strong, adistinct shock will be produced when the circuit is closed and againwhen the circuit is opened, while with a current of the usual strengthfor medical purposes, the sensation while the current is passingthrough the body steadily is much less and is often limited to asensation of burning at the seat of the electrode a shock may also thirdly be produced by a reversal of the current, and the shock thuscaused is stronger for the same current than that produced in either ofthe other ways the strength of these shocks is shown both by the sensation producedand by the amount of muscular contraction caused when now a shockis caused by a continuous or constant current which starts froman ordinary dynamo or other electric generator or storer, it ispractically always caused by the opening or closing of the circuit, or, what is essentially the same, the diversion of a writing or the wholeof the current from its proper path to and through essay portion of thehuman body causes a shock at the time of the entrance of the body intothe circuit and another at the time of its exit therefrom shocksfrom reversal of current when such current arises from a constantmachine might occur, but only through essay peculiar accident hencethe shocks distinguished from any other effects of electricity whichare received by the person coming into contact with a constant currentare felt only at the moment of entering the circuit closure and ofleaving it opening if a person introduces himself between the twowires of an electric circuit in which a constant current is used, insuch a manner as to cause the current to pass through his body, hewill feel the shock only at the moment when he touches the second wireand completes the circuit, and at the moment when he lets go one ofthe wires and opens the circuit unless the current be so strong orbe so placed that he can divert to himself sufficient electricity tocause a shock, or, in other words, close a secondary circuit in essayother way while the current is passing through the body, although itmay burn and cause tingling and other unpleasant symptoms, there isno proper shock in other words, an electric shock is caused only bya change in the amount of electricity passing through the body or aportion thereof if we now consider the effects of alternating currents, we findthat we have another factor to deal with the general principles areexactly the same, but inasmuch as the reversal shock is stronger thanthe closure or opening shocks, other things being equal, we are likelyto receive a stronger shock from a current of the same force, and inaddition to this, as in alternating machines the reversals occur withconsiderable rapidity, the person who becomes connected with thiscircuit receives a number of strong shocks within a short space oftime this is a much more serious matter than to permit a current ofequal strength to flow through the body without change the effect of this form of electricity on the human body is firststimulating and then tetanizing to the muscles it consists in a veryrapidly interrupted current, the shocks being at times so frequent thatthey are not singly perceptible there is probably also a distinctdifference in the action of this current from that of the galvaniccurrent aside from its rapid interruption this is not, however, of sodefined a character as to enable us at the present time to distinguishin man the results of severe injuries and deaths caused by this formfrom those caused by other strong currents practically this form ofcurrent is but little used, except in medical batteries and for thepurposes of experimentation in laboratories static electricity has, so far as we know, rarely or never causedserious injuries or death the sparks produced in this way haveessaytimes caused burns, and it is conceivable that a strong electriccurrent produced in this way might be dangerous the symptoms could notbe distinguished from those caused by other forms of electricity summary - the greatest source of danger from electric currents is theshock produced by them in ordinary constant or continuous currentsthis is produced only at the moment of the opening and the closure ofthe circuit in alternating currents a shock is also produced at eachreversal of the machine faradic and static currents are rarely ornever used mechanically or in the arts resistance - the resistance of the human body to electric currentshas been very variously estimated the reasons for these variations are. 1 that the different tissuespresent different resistances. 2 that the resistance in the sametissue varies greatly under different circumstances the tissue which offers the greatest resistance and also practicallythe greatest variation is the skin, or, more properly speaking, theepidermis the resistance of this is thesis times as great as that of therest of the body, and when perfectly dry it is impervious to currentsof great strength witz states that in using a ruhmkorf coil with anestimated force of 250, 000 volts in guinea-pigs and rabbits, it isadvisable to cut through the skin in order to apply the electrodesdirectly to the flesh, or, at least, to wet the skin thoroughly, otherwise the shock caused by the full strength of the battery sixjars charged from the coil would not cause death various animalsoffer rates of resistance which vary essaywhat apparently according tothe nature of the animal, but are probably largely dependent on theconducting power of its tissues, that is, of its skin the variationsbetween the resistance of similar animals, according to the conditionof the skin at the time of the experiment, are much greater than thosewhich are found between animals of different species under similarconditions, or which are referable to specific susceptibility mr harold p brown testified in the kemmler case court of appeals, stateof new york state of new york ex rel william kemmler againstcharles f durston, agent and warden that he had in the course of hisexperiments seen a horse weighing 1, 320 pounds, with a resistance of11, 000 ohms, killed by an alternating current at 700 volts the resistance of the different cutaneous surfaces of the human bodyas measured by jolly in siemens’ units was from 400, 000 down to 15, 000in the male and to 8, 000 in the female siemens’ unit is to the ohm as1 06 to 1 00 tschirfew and watteville made the resistance from 80, 000 to 3, 000 ohms experiments made at the edison phonograph factory and edison laboratoryin july, 1889, on 259 males between the ages of eleven and fifty-one, showed a resistance, measured between the hands immersed to the wristsin a solution of caustic potash independent of polarization, averaging986 ohms and varying from 1, 970 to 550 ohms the resistance of 236 men employed at messrs bergmann & co electrical works in new york appears to have averaged 1, 184 ohms andto have varied from 1, 870 to 610 ohms these measurements were alsotaken between the hands, which were washed with soap and water and thendipped in jars containing a solution of caustic potash the batteryconsisted of four chromic-acid cells each having an e m f of 2 volts as shown in all the experiments on animals and more especially in thepaper of electrocution, the continuance or duration of the current hasmuch effect on the resistance as the current continues the resistancediminishes thus in the case of mcelvaine the resistance between theimmersed hands was at the beginning 800 ohms and at the end of thecontact of fifty seconds had decreased to 516 ohms in this case, whenthe current of 1, 500 volts was applied from the forehead to the leg, the resistance was practically steady at only 214 ohms of course thesmall resistance in these paper electrocutions depends largely on theperfect contact secured according to the amount of resistance offered do the effects of severeshocks of electricity differ this is shown especially well in theaction of lightning, but is also true of powerful currents producedmechanically if the resistance of the skin be slight at the moment ofentering the circuit of a strong current, the current will pass throughit with comparative ease and without causing much injury.

How and by whom it may be exhumed or removed. Autopsies, by whom ordered. The rights of relatives and accused persons including an appendix containing a synopsis of the statutes of the different united states and territories concerning same by tracy c becker, a b , ll b , etc , counsellor at law, etc. Professor of civil law and medical jurisprudence, law dewritingment, university of buffalo legal status of the dead body disposal and obligations to dispose of the same - there is no rightof property, in the ordinary sense of the word, in a dead human body;but for the health and protection of society it is a rule of the commonlaw, and which has been confirmed by statutes in civilized statesand countries, that public duties are imposed upon public officers, and private duties upon the husband or wife and the next of kin ofthe deceased, to protect the body from violation and see that it isproperly interred, and to protect it after it is interred a parent isbound to provide christian burial for a deceased child, if he has themeans, but if he has not the means, though the body remains unburiedso long as to become a nuisance, he is not indictable for the nuisancealthough he could obtain money for the burial expenses by borrowing itof the poor-law authorities of the parish, for he is not bound to incura debt reg v vann, 2 div c c , 325. 15 jur , 1, 090 on theother hand it has been held in england, that every householder in whosehouse a dead body lies is bound by the common law, if he has the meansto do so, to inter the body decently, and this principle applies wherea person dies in the house of a parish or a union reg v stewart, 12 a & d , 1, 272 and the expense may be paid out of the effects ofthe deceased tugwell v hayman, 3 camp , 298, and note in pierce v the proprietors swan point cemetery, 10 r i , 227, s c , 14 am rep , 667, the court said. “that there is no rightof property in a dead body, using this word in its ordinary sense, may be well admitted, yet the burial of the dead is a subject whichinterests the feelings of mankind to a much greater degree than thesismatters of actual property there is a duty imposed by the universalfeelings of mankind to be discharged by essay one toward the dead. Aduty, and we may also say a right, to protect from violation. It may, therefore, be considered as a sort of quasi property, and it wouldbe discreditable to any system of law not to provide a remedy in sucha case. but the person having charge of it cannot be considered asthe owner of it in any sense whatever, he holds it only as a sacredtrust for the benefit of all who may from family or friendship havean interest in it ” see also wyncoop v wyncoop, 42 pa st , 293. 4albany law jour , 56. Snyder v snyder, 60 how prac , 368. Weld v walker, 130 mass , 422. Guthrie v weaver, 1 mo apps , 136. Johnsonv marinus, 18 abb n c , 72, and note 493the law casts the duty of burial of the wife upon the husband, andof the husband upon the wife in secord v secord cited in note 1above, the court said.

“catarrhal vaccinecombined, ” said to contain killed cultures of the bacillus offriedländer, micrococcus catarrhalis, staphylococcus aureus andalbus, pneumococcus and streptococcus. “influenza mixed vaccine, ”said to contain killed cultures of staphylococcus albus and aureus, streptococcus, pneumococcus, micrococcus catarrhalis and bacillusinfluenzae lilly and company sent the circulars, etc , used in advertising theseproducts a circular for “catarrhal vaccine combined” contained thefollowing claim. “catarrhal vaccine has been especially useful in thesis respiratory infections, including bronchitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, chronic catarrh and in the mixed infections of pulmonary tuberculosis ”a circular for “influenza mixed vaccine” contained the following. “the vaccine is useful in the treatment of influenza and ordinary colds, and in any infection in which the bacillus influenzae is the causative agent ”an advertising pamphlet contained the following. “catarrh, acute and chronic. Colds, influenza -- the micro-organisms capable of producing catarrhal conditions of the nose and pharynx and most commonly isolated are b friedländer, m catarrhalis, staphylococcus, pneumococcus in infections beginning in the larynx, b influenza and streptococcus these organisms are found normally in the respiratory passages and acquire virulence only when resistance has been lowered through overwork, exposure to cold, etc “the results following the use of catarrhal vaccine combined in the non-epidemic forms and influenza mixed vaccine in the epidemic types have been very satisfactory, due to the great vascularity of the tissues acute attacks are aborted altogether or shortened in duration and the danger of complications greatly minimized ”no evidence was submitted which warrants the preceding claims noris the council aware of any reliable testimony to indicate that theadministration of the mixture here discussed is warranted or desirable on the recommendation of the committee on serums and vaccines thecouncil voted that “catarrhal vaccine combined-lilly” and “influenzamixed vaccine-lilly” be not included in new and nonofficial remediesbecause satisfactory evidence of their value is wanting influenza serobacterin mixed-mulfordbecause of inquiry received, the council took up the considerationof “influenza serobacterin mixed-mulford, ” and requested the mulfordcompany to present evidence to establish the admissibility of thepreparation to new and nonofficial remedies the mulford company sentspecimens of the serobacterin in question, an advertising circular anda letter by the director of its biologic laboratories according to the label on the package, the preparation is made fromthe following organisms. Bacillus influenzae, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus albus, streptococcus, pneumococcus and micrococcuscatarrhalis group this mixture is recommended by the manufacturer. “for the prophylaxis and treatment of common colds, mixed infections of the respiratory mucous membranes, acute and chronic catarrhal conditions of the nose, throat and respiratory passages ”no evidence is submitted for this recommendation except that in “coldsand bronchitis and the other common infections of the upper respiratorypassages five or six bacteria are very commonly present-- two ormore of them are nearly always present ” and the letter by thedirector of the mulford biologic laboratories expressing the beliefthat in his own case the use of the mixed vaccine has aborted orprevented colds as regards the use of this complex biologic preparation:first, the cause of common colds is, at the present time, quiteunknown one of the most striking things is that at the beginning ofa cold the organisms to be cultivated from the nasal mucous membraneare very few in number and there is no uniformity in the type oforganism found if essayone of the well-known organisms streptococcus, staphylococcus, pneumococcus, micrococcus catarrhalis, influenzabacillus, etc were responsible, we should expect to find one of thempreponderating and in overwhelming numbers this is far from the case after the duration of the cold for a day or two with the increasedproduction of mucus and apparently with the infection of a mucousmembrane whose powers of resistance have been greatly lowered, bacteriaof all kinds are to be found in immense numbers there is considerablereason for believing that an ultramicroscopic organism is responsiblefor this condition see foster, journal of infectious diseases21:451 nov 1917 second, there is no acceptable clinical evidence that vaccination withthe influenza bacillus, the streptococcus, the pneumococcus or themicrococcus catarrhalis will influence the course of an infection dueto one or the other of these organisms it has been repeatedly foundthat a staphylococcus vaccine is of a certain degree of value when theinfection with the staphylococcus is localized, but it is well knownthat general systemic infections with the staphylococcus are not at allbenefited third, the letter submitted as evidence by the mulford company is notconvincing the council is not prepared to accept evidence of this sortunless it is in volume large enough to justify a definite conclusion holding that there is no evidence for the value of this mixture, thecouncil declared “influenza serobacterin mixed-mulford” inadmissible tonew and nonofficial remedies because its use is illogical sherman mixed vaccine no 40because of inquiry received the council decided to consider thispreparation and requested the manufacturer, g h sherman, detroit, mich , to submit evidence in support of the claims made for it this vaccine is said to be made from killed cultures of streptococcus, pneumococcus, micrococcus catarrhalis, staphylococcus aureus, andstaphylococcus albus in the printed matter sent out by g h shermanthis vaccine is recommended for hay-fever, in which it is stated thatessay of the symptoms are due to bacterial invasion of the respiratorymucosa. For tonsillitis, both as a remedy and as a prophylactic againstrheumatic and other sequelae. For “throat infections”. For rhinitiswith the claims that acute coryza can be aborted within twenty-fourhours. For pneumonia in which it is advised for all stages. Forlaryngitis, for bronchitis, and for asthma no acceptable evidence was submitted as to the value of the product inthe treatment of any of the foregoing conditions in view of what isknown about non-specific reactions, it seems likely that any influencewhich this vaccine may have on the diverse conditions enumerated bythe manufacturer, is due to this, rather than to the combination oforganisms used in its preparation on the recommendation of the committee on serums and vaccines, thecouncil declared “sherman mixed vaccine no 40” ineligible to newand nonofficial remedies because the therapeutic claims made for itare unwarranted rule 6 and because the combination, in view ofits complexity, is irrational and detrimental to sound therapy rule10 -- from the journal a m a , june 23, 1918 ophthalmol-lindemann report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryophthalmol-lindemann was taken up for consideration by the councilbecause of inquiries received the following report, declaringophthalmol inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies, was adopted bythe council and its publication authorized w a puckner, secretary ophthalmol-lindemann innis, speiden and co , new york is advertisedas a treatment for eye diseases by “hyperemia ” the circularadvertising the product is written essaywhat in the style of “patentmedicine” advertisements it contains testimonials of dubious value the principle underlying the use of ophthalmol is that employedto a considerable extent by ophthalmologists, through the use ofethylmorphine “dionin”, etc , viz , the production of conjunctivalirritation in inflammatory eye diseases ophthalmol is, therefore, merely a special agent for the production of such ophthalmic irritation the advertising circular contains no evidence that ophthalmol is in anyrespect superior to the established agents for producing conjunctivalhyperemia on the other hand, there are obvious objections to theuse in the eye of a substance of unknown and apparently indefinitecomposition and uncertain activity ophthalmol is said to be an oilysolution of “glandular extract of the fish cobitis fossilis ” cobitisfossilis is a small fish said to be common in gerthesis according tokochs, who analyzed ophthalmol arb a d pharm inst d univ berl , 4:140, 1907, this fish is popularly believed to predictweather, but medical virtues are not ascribed to it this “fishy”extract is indefinite, to say the least the activity of the preparation is described by the manufacturer thus:“it seems probable that the typical action of ophthalmol is due tocertain organic acids which may have formed during manufacture throughthe decomposition of protein bodies contained in the crude material ”the profession is not told whether this important decomposition is, or, in fact, can be controlled so as to produce a material of uniformactivity kochs concluded from his analysis that ophthalmol had the propertiesof rancid olive oil containing about 6 to 7 per cent mineral oil theoil contained no nitrogen, left no ash on ignition and though traces ofiodin were claimed to be present, no iodin could be found it is recommended that ophthalmol be rejected first, because the usein the eye of an irritant of secret composition and uncertain activityis unscientific and against the interest of public health. Second, because ophthalmol is of secret composition the composition claimedbeing practically meaningless, and, third, because no evidence hasbeen submitted to substantiate its claimed superiority over establishedmethods of treatment the council declared ophthalmol inadmissible tonew and nonofficial remedies -- from the journal a m a , july 6, 1918 silvol ineligible for n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report on silvol parke, davis & company was adopted bythe council and its publication authorized w a puckner, secretary the council took up the consideration of silvol parke, davis &company because of inquiries received the following report wassubmitted by the referee in charge of silver preparations:silvol parke, davis & company is a silver-protein preparation of theargyrol type like argyrol, it is said to contain about 20 per cent of silver the referee finds that, like argyrol, it is nonirritant tothe nasal mucosa in a 10 per cent solution.

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Or advertisementsof medical business in which untruthful easy compare and contrast essay topics and improbable statements aremade. Or advertising any medicine or means whereby the monthly periodsof women can be regulated, or the menses re-established if suppressed;or the conviction of any offence involving moral turpitude. Or habitualintemperance 4 in case of a refusal or a revocation of a license, the board isrequired to file a brief and concise statement of the grounds andreasons thereof in the office of its secretary, which, with thedecision of the board in writing, shall remain of record in saidoffice before a license can be revoked for unprofessional ordishonorable conduct, a complaint of essay person under oath must befiled in the office of the secretary of the board, charging the actsof unprofessional or dishonorable conduct and the facts complainedagainst the accused in ordinary and concise language, and at least tendays prior to the hearing the board shall cause to be served upon theaccused a written notice and a copy of such complaint containing astatement of the time and place of the hearing the accused may appearat the hearing and defend in person or by counsel, and may have thesworn testimony of witnesses taken and present other evidence in hisbehalf, and the board may receive arguments of counsel 5 in case of refusal or revocation of a license by the board, there isa right of appeal within thirty days after the filing of the decreein the office of the secretary, to the superior court in and for thecounty in which was held the last general meeting of the board priorto the refusal of the license, in case of refusal. And to the superiorcourt in and for the county in which the hearing was had upon whichsuch license was revoked, in case of revocation the person desiringto appeal must serve or cause to be served on the said secretary awritten notice of appeal containing a statement of its grounds, andmust file in the said secretary office an appeal bond with a goodand sufficient surety to be approved by the secretary of the stateof washington, conditioned for the speedy prosecution of such appealand the payment of such costs as may be adjudicated against him uponsuch appeal said secretary must within ten days after service of saidnotice and filing, and the approval of the said appeal bond, transmitto the clerk of the court to which the appeal is taken a certifiedcopy, under the seal of the board, of the decision and the grounds, incase of refusal, and in addition a certified copy under said seal ofthe complaint, in the case of revocation, with the bond and notice ofappeal the clerk must thereupon docket such appeal causes and theystand for trial in all respects as ordinary civil actions, and likeproceedings are had thereon on appeal the cause is tried de novo either writingy may appeal from a judgment of the superior court to thesupreme court in like manner as in civil actions within sixty daysafter the rendition and entry of such judgment if the judgment be infavor of the writingy appealing from the decision of the board, and theexamining board does not appeal within sixty days, in that case at theend of sixty days the board shall immediately issue to the successfulwritingy the usual license, and in addition reinstate upon its recordsthe name of such successful applicant, in case of revocation in caseof appeal to the supreme court by the board, no such license shall beissued nor re-instatement required until the final determination of thecause in case the final decision of the supreme court be against theboard, then the said court shall make such order as may be necessaryand the board shall act accordingly no appeal bond can be required ofthe board, nor any costs adjudged or taxed against the same s 6 filing authority - the person receiving a license must file it, or acopy, with the county clerk of the county where he resides, and thecounty clerk is required to file said certificate or copy and entera memorandum thereof, giving its date and the name of the person towhom it was issued, and the date of filing, and on notice to him of achange of location or the death of a person licensed or of revocation, the county clerk is required to enter a memorandum of said fact atthe appropriate place in the record in case of removal into anothercounty, the person licensed must procure from the county clerk acertified copy of the said license, and file it with the county clerkof the county to which he shall remove, with like effect as an originallicense 7 penalty, definition - to practise medicine or surgery without a licenseor contrary to this chapter is a misdemeanor punishable with a fine offrom $50 to $100, or imprisonment in a county jail from ten to ninetydays, or both any person is regarded as practising who appends theletters “m d ” or “m b ” to his name, or for a fee prescribes, directs, or recommends for the use of any person any drug or medicine or agencyfor the treatment, care, or relief of any wound, fracture, or bodilyinjury, infirmity, or disease. But the chapter does not apply todentists regulations - the board has authority to prescribe and establish allneedful rules and regulations to carry this chapter into effect s 9 former practitioner - all persons licensed under sec 2, 289 of the lawsof washington territory, 1881, or having complied with its provisions, are to be taken and considered as licensed under this act, and thesecretary of the board is required to enter the names of such personsupon the register kept by him, as licensed physicians and surgeons ontheir written application 10 fee - to the treasurer of the board, for examination, $10 s 3 west virginia qualification - the following persons and no others are permitted topractise medicine:1 graduates of a reputable medical college in the school of medicineto which the person desiring to practise belongs such person mustpresent his diploma to the state board of health, or the two membersthereof in his congressional district, and if it be found to be genuineand was issued by such medical college as hereinafter mentioned, andthe person presenting it be the graduate therein named, the board orsaid two members, as the case may be, must issue and deliver to hima certificate to that effect, and such diploma and certificate shallentitle the person named in the diploma to practise medicine in all itsdewritingments 2 persons not graduates in medicine who had practised medicine in thisstate under a certificate issued by the state board of health prior tothe passage of the act are authorized to practise medicine in all itsdewritingments 3 a person not a graduate of medicine and who has not practisedmedicine in this state under a certificate must be examined by thestate board of health, or the two members thereof in the congressionaldistrict where he resides, or if he resides out of the state by thetwo members in the congressional district nearest to his place ofresidence, who, together with a member of the local board of health whois a physician, if there be such a member of the local board of healthof the county in which the examination is held, shall examine him andif upon a full examination they find him qualified to practise medicinein all its dewritingments, they, or a majority of them, shall grant hima certificate to that effect, and thereafter he shall have the rightto practise medicine in the state to the same extent as if he had thediploma and certificate above mentioned the members of the state boardof health in each congressional district must, by publication in essaynewspaper printed in the county in which their meeting is to be held, or if no such paper is printed therein, in essay newspaper of generalcirculation in such district, give at least twenty-one days’ notice ofthe time and place of their meeting for the examination of applicantsfor permission to practise medicine, published at least once a week forthree consecutive weeks before the day of such meeting this section does not apply to a physician or surgeon called fromanother state to treat a writingicular case or to perform a writingicularsurgical operation in the state, or who does not otherwise practise inthe state code of w va , 1891, c 150, s 9 every person holding a certificate must have it recorded in the officeof the secretary of the state board of health, and the secretary isrequired to indorse on said certificate the fact of such recordationand deliver the same to the person named therein or his order the state board of health may refuse certificates to individuals guiltyof malpractice or dishonorable conduct, and may revoke certificates forlike causes. Such revocation being after due notice and trial by thesaid board, with right of appeal to the circuit court of the county inwhich such individual resides.