History

Drug Abuse Essay


That they are notfound to contain serum and no line of redness is found at their base the presence after death of vesications containing serum and surroundedby a reddish base is an evidence that the burn was inflicted antemortem he distinctly says. “it is quite impossible to confound a burninflicted during life with one inflicted after death ”woodman and tidy, 717 in an extended series of experiments, concludethat while blisters can be produced post mortem, they are readilydistinguished from those formed ante mortem in containing no serum. Andeven in dropsical subjects, where blisters containing essay fluid wereformed, the presence of but a mere trace of albumin was shown. And, inall, no redness about the base of the blisters was produced, nor anyappearance of redness after removal of the cuticle taylor718 has never observed vesications in post-mortem experimentson infants he cites a case of drowning where the person, “pulselessand apparently dead, ” was imprudently placed in a hot bath blisterscontaining bloody serum were formed over several portions of the body he concludes that hot water on the living and recently dead body, sofar as vesication is concerned, produces similar effects in experiments on the dead body immediately after death the writer hasfailed to produce any blister containing serum or fluid the so-calledblisters are produced by the rapid expansion and evaporation of thefluid beneath the cuticle over the portion to which the heat wasapplied, and differ distinctly from blisters caused during life, in theabsence of serum or any redness of adjacent or subjacent writings plateii chambert719 concludes that in living bodies and in dead bodies withintwenty-four hours after death blisters can be produced, and that lessheat will develop them in the living he specially emphasizes thedifference, in the albuminous character of the contents, of a blisterformed ante mortem and of one formed post mortem jastrowitz720 emphasizes the difference between blisters formedduring life and those occurring in œdematous conditions blisters are to be distinguished from the bullæ arising fromputrefaction there is little danger of confounding such paper inconditions of putrefaction no redness or line of demarcation exists, and the green discoloration and other conditions of the skin willsuffice to establish the diagnosis schjerning721 considers blisters containing highly albuminous serumas diagnostic of burns produced during life in essay conditions ofdepression of nutrition blisters occasionally form, but are not liableto be confounded with those caused by burning a second anatomical feature of much importance, even more so thanvesication, is the condition of the skin to which the heat was applied it assumes a dusky red color and a dry and parchment-like condition case 8 surrounding this is an area of grayish-white skin bounded bya sharply defined and deeply injected red line, which in turn shadesinto the color of the surrounding skin these features are more or lesspronounced according to the degree of heat applied and to the length oftime of contact. Or, in other words, to the depth and severity of theburn plate i means of distinguishing ante-mortem from post-mortem burns differentially, a distinction is to be made between the surroundingredness and the line of redness the redness due to capillarydistention is transient, disappears under pressure during life, and fades after death the line of redness is permanent, changingbut little under pressure, and remains after death it is a vitalreactionary effort, a true line of separation between living anddead tissue, formed in the same manner as the line of demarcation insphacelus or gangrene this line of redness, developed only during lifeand permanent after death, is of great significance in paper witha medico-legal bearing it has been already stated that in personsin a condition of depressed vitality the appearance of redness andvesication is essaytimes very tardy and imperfect, and that death fromshock or pain may occur before their development at all they are vitalprocesses and require time for their appearance in proportion to theactivity of the powers of reaction hence in paper of burning resultingfatally where vesication and redness do not appear, the circumstancesmust be carefully considered before deciding that the burns producedwere post mortem with these qualifications, it may be stated that thepresence of the red line is almost uniform in burns inflicted duringlife and absent in those occurring after death if upon a body bearing evidences of exposure to heat there be foundblisters containing highly albuminous serum, and such blisters, afterthe removal of the cuticle, present a bright red base surrounded bya bright and sharp line of demarcation, with redness of adjacentsurface, we are justified in concluding that the burns were inflictedante mortem or, at farthest, within a few moments of death if, on thecontrary, the red line is absent and the blisters contain a thin wateryfluid, with a yellowish and dry condition of their base after removalof the cuticle, the presumption is that the burning occurred postmortem where a number of burns are found upon a body, the question whetherthey were produced simultaneously may be raised this can be answeredby examination as to their condition if essay show signs of recentinfliction, while others are in conditions of suppuration or otherchanges which only occur after an interval, a difference of time inproduction would be probable but if all present mainly the sameconditions, the probability of their occurring at the same time may beconcluded plates i and ii the condition of the blood - special examination of the blood ofpersons dying from the effect of burns has been made by competentobservers while it is not at present possible to define an exact andconstant condition, specially characteristic, essay features of interesthave been recently recorded the color of the blood has been variously reported.

These two factors were considered sufficient tocure the patient of his delusions, and they actually did so why theyaccomplished a cure has been explained very strikingly by harnack hesays. “it is not the prayer that cures, but the praying person. Not theformula, but the spirit. Not exorcism, but the exorcist only in thosepaper in which the disease, as in numerous paper of the second century, had become epidemic and almost common, did ordinary and conventionalmeans avail the exorcist became a mesmerizer, possibly a deceiveddeceiver but when strong individuality is deceived concerning its ownpersonality by the demon of terror, and the soul is actually shaken bythe power of darkness which possesses it, and from which it purposes toescape, a powerful and holy will alone can interfere from the outsideworld to deliver the shackled will in essay paper we find traces of aphenomenon which in modern times, for want of essay better name, hasbeen called ‘suggestion’. But the prophet suggests in a differentmanner than does the professional exorcist ”besides these official christian exorcists, a great multitude of otherpersons carried on the trade of conjurer of demons the sorcerers andmagicians who plied their nefarious trade for the cure of the possessedand for those suffering from other diseases, worked with various kindsof mystic signs and ceremonies, and they certainly did an excellentbusiness, for he who humors the superstition and the stupidity of manalways prospers modern quackery illustrates this most strikingly but, besides these healers, there existed numerous other conjurers ofdemons and medical wonder-workers who plied their trade not for thesake of contemptible mammon, but solely for ethical reasons these werethe members of the various theosophico-philosophical sects, who wereactive during the first christian centuries and have been exhaustivelydescribed on the previous pages altho christians were eager to exalt their exorcists, who worked onlywith prayer and the invocation of christ, above all practises ofsorcery, they were not able, in the long run, to prevent christiandogmas from being confounded with and corrupted by those of philosophy under the influence of saturninus, basilides, and carpocrates, thevarious philosophical vagaries concerning accessory, intermediary, andinferior gods, and their influences upon the fate of man, corruptedthe pure and simple teachings of christ that error against which paulhad so impressively cautioned the early christian communities in hisepistle to the colossians, chapter ii , verse 8 “beware lest any manspoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition ofmen, after the rudiments of the world, and not after christ”, had, nevertheless, made its appearance at last, and the adulteration ofpure gospel by philosophical speculations and fantastic views began togrow more complete from the third century on this was the foundationof the religio-mystic system which, during the middle ages, and evenbeyond the period of the renaissance, oppressed humanity like asuffocating nightmare, and not only checked progress, but also filledeach branch of human knowledge with the most frightful superstition andthe crassest mysticism this was the case also in medicine. In fact, this branch of science has probably suffered most from the alliance ofchristianity with the fantastic doctrines of philosophical schools the ancient doctrine of demons passed under the influence of christianmysticism through certain changes and transitions, especially in itsrelation to the bodily condition of individuals the variations in thisdoctrine were naturally most plainly evidenced in the medical views ofthe day it was believed that every human being from birth was allotteda good and an evil demon the good spirit held his hand protectinglyover his human charge, whereas the evil demon only waited his chance toinflict injury upon man, forming especially the determining principlein the etiology of disease it is true, the evil spirits apparentlywere no longer allowed to have such full sway over the health ofhumanity as they formerly had god now utilized them principally asexecutors of punishments which he intended for mankind as a retributionfor various forms of delinquency thus the church father, anastasius sprengel, vol ii , page 210, tells us that the reason why so thesislepers and cripples were found among christians was that god, enragedat the luxury of the members of the community, had sent the evil demonof disease among them the wrath of god from that time until late inmodern times has been considered a fully efficacious principle ofpathology. In fact, there are numbers of people even to-day who believethat not natural, but supernatural and unearthly, factors are active inthe bodily ailments of mankind the idea of good and evil demons, however, now assumed a specificallychristian character which, it is true, greatly resembled the ancientbabylonian notion, excepting that the good demons were replaced byangels and saints, whereas the evil spirits were embodied in the devil both, saints as well as devils, were thenceforth destined to play awriting in the domain of medicine it is true, the general recognitionwhich they enjoyed during the middle ages and a considerable periodof modern times has probably now passed away, but there still existnumerous classes of our people in whom the medical rôle of saints aswell as devils is most willingly acknowledged we have referred elsewhere to the therapeutic accomplishments ofthe saints during the middle ages we will here only dwell upon theinfluence which the devil, the christian successor of the ancientevil spirit, has exerted upon the medical views of all classes of thepeople this influence was very great the devil and his subordinateinfernal spirits were considered the “disturbers of peace” in thehealth of humanity disease in its various forms was their work;they resolved to inflict it either from inherent villainy or asincited by various magical arts of evil men it was especially thelatter form of diabolical activity that, during the entire middleages and during a considerable writing of modern times, was acceptedas uncontestedly authentic, and the imagination of mankind at thatperiod was inexhaustible in inventing the greatest variety of infamousactions which the devil was able to perform either of his own accordor as summoned by incantations any one desiring to acquaint himselfthoroughly with these delusive ideas should read the work of the friarcæsarius, who lived about 1225, in the rhenish-cistercian monasteryof heisterbach naturally, we are only interested in the medical actswhich the devil was always ready to perform according to the historyof medical superstition, the devil, who was invoked by various spellsor appeared of his own volition, was able to influence each individualbodily organ in a manner most disagreeable to the possessor of thesame neither were the prince of hell and his hosts always satisfiedto tease and to plague an individual being, but very frequently theycarried on this business wholesale they threw themselves upon theentire population of a country, and caused sickness in all who crossedtheir path the great epidemic of st vitus dance of the fourteenthcentury, for instance, was considered to be the work of the devil, andthe clergy busied themselves in driving out this devil pest by meansof sprinkling holy water and by the utterance of conjuring formulas the sexual life of men as well as of women offered an especiallyfruitful field for the activity of the devil and of his infernalcompanions thus, it was a favorite trick of the ruler of hell and ofhis subordinate demons to assume the shape of the husband or loverof this or that female, and, under this mask, to assume rights whichshould be permitted only to the husband the infernal spirit thatplayed this rôle was called incubus thus, for instance, hinkmer tellsus of a nun who was mischievously claimed by such an infernal paramour, and who could be relieved of him only by priestly aid but hell alsocontained female constituents who played the same rôle for the maleas did incubus for women such a wanton woman of hell was calledstriga or lamia compare hansen, pages 14 and 72 these amorous femalefriends of hell did not even stop when they met eminent saints in theconvent of st benedetto, near the italian town of subiaco, a rose-bushis shown even to-day into which the naked st benedict threw himself inorder to resist the unholy temptation and every one is sufficientlyacquainted with the troubles which st anthony of padua had with theseinfernal women however, we physicians know well enough the causeof these temptations they may surely and actually have approachedthe nun of whom hinkmer reports, also st benedict and st anthony;however, they were not the devil prostitutes, but the expressions ofsuppressed and disregarded impulses of nature which, in the form ofvoluptuous imaginations, appeared before the eyes of persons removedfrom terrestrial gratifications. For nature does not even exempt asaint, and the ancient saying, “naturam expellas furc, tamen usquerecurret, ” applies to them as well as to any other mortal finally these liberties which the devil and his infernal host were saidto take as regards matters pertaining to love, assumed general andquite serious forms.

under the most favourable circumstances the wolf's equipment of life-boats and rafts was probably sufficient for only three hundred and fifty at the outside, and there was a total of about seven hundred on board it would be only natural for the german crew to have the life-saving equipment themselves and our poor chaps would have been left to drown, there being no articles of an inflammable or floating description around her decks on the wall of my room was a typewritten notice over commander nerger's signature, stating that in event of the wolf's engaging an enemy a boat would be lowered and the women, children and medicos would be placed in same, under my charge this provided that there was sufficient time and the weather conditions favourable i could imagine just about how thesis chances we had that there would be sufficient time to execute this manœuvre however, this sign served the very good purpose of alleviating the women's anxieties to a certain extent it is quite possible that this was the only reason this notice was given us however, i am grateful for the writing it played the preceding was the tensest crisis in the wolf's fifteen months' history commander nerger sent down word to me afterwards that it was a japanese man-of-war, and to keep the news from my wife if possible the next night, september 6th, the wolf, which was primarily a minelayer and not a raider, laid ninety-eight mines at a distance of from seven and a half to ten miles off shore the lights of singapore were plainly visible from the port-hole on this occasion i was locked in the room for about two hours, but it was not difficult to count the "eggs" as they were being laid, for the mines came up out of no 3 hatch on an elevator and were conveyed aft to the "chute" on a small rail car which had a flat wheel, and i could hear it going along the deck "humpety-hump, humpety-hump " i estimated that it took about one hour and forty minutes to lay these ninety-eight mines from off singapore we practically retraced our steps back through the java sea and entered the indian ocean on october 9th, passing between the islands of java and canor we then proceeded to the drug abuse essay northward and westward until we arrived on the trade route running from colombo to delagoa bay here wolf cruised around slowly for a day or so, crossing and recrossing the route at regular intervals while lying here waiting for the prey, the wireless man told me he could hear several cruisers working their wireless and that there was one british cruiser patrolling the straits of malacca, one at bombay, two lying in the harbour of colombo the venus and the vulcan, i believe and another at a naval station in the mauritius islands all this time the bird, i e , the wolf's hydroplane, had been down below in the hole undergoing general repairs from an accident she had had, which nearly ended her activities and drowned both of the operators essay two weeks previous, while she was rising from the water and at a height of about sixty metres, essaything suddenly went wrong with the balancing mechanism and the plane made a dive for the sea, which she hit at a terrific speed. The back wings and the pontoons or boats were completely demolished the mechanic and the observing lieutenant were catapulted into the sea and had much difficulty in swimming back to the wreck, which had the appearance of a gigantic bird sitting on its nose with its tail standing up in the air it reminded me of an ostrich with its head buried in the sand the bonnet around the engine and mechanic's seat, in all seaplanes of this description, is watertight, so that in case of an accident of this kind the weight of the engine will not cause it to sink however, in this case, one of the struts supporting the pontoons had caused this watertight bonnet to leak and, although both operators baled for dear life, the water gained on them steadily when the rescuing launch finally arrived alongside the machine it was just on the verge of sinking the crew of the launch tied the machine to the launch with ropes in such a manner that it could not sink and the whole outfit was hoisted on board the wolf all six cylinders of the engine were cracked and the "bird" appeared a total wreck however, the "aeroplane" squad set to work and repaired the planes and put spare cylinders on the engine. And in a few days she was ready for duty again the crew of the plane apparently were none the worse for their mishap one day one of the officers told me that probably in a few days they would pick up a nice fat steamer with plenty of food on board on the morning of october 26th, immediately after breakfast, i noticed that they were getting the "bird" on deck and assembling it i asked one of the officers whether there was "essaything doing" and he said. "if we have any luck after lunch we shall have fresh meat for supper " about 11 a m the "bird" was finished and the engine warmed up suddenly essaybody shouted, and everybody got his binoculars and looked astern of us, and, sure enough, a faint outline of smoke could be seen on the horizon the hydroplane went up and in half an hour came back and reported a large steamer approaching commander nerger shaped his course so as to meet this steamer but still give him the impression that we were en route from the cape to colombo at 3:05 p m the steamer was right abreast, she was a fine big class a japanese passenger steamer, deeply loaded, and i could see passengers on her saloon deck at 3:07 p m the wolf broke out the imperial navy flag and signalled for the hitachi maru to stop and not use her wireless, also dropped a shot across the hitachi's bow when the hitachi failed to stop, the wolf fired another shot closer to her bow the jap concluded to run for it and started in to work his wireless, also swung his ship into such a position as to bring his gun for submarine defence, 4 7 quick firer, into action meantime the wolf had opened fire on her in deadly earnest one six-inch shell from the after gun struck the hitachi and exploded just under her gun where the gun crew was working, killing six japs and blowing the balance into the water i saw one jap in writingicular hoisted high into the air above the smoke of the explosion, and he was spinning around like a pin-wheel another shot from the after gun put the gun on the hitachi out of commission altogether, and killed another man in the meantime from forward the wolf had succeeded in putting a 4 5 shell through the wireless room, where the operator was working this shell came through one side of the room, passed between the operator and his "set, " cutting one of his aerial leads in two, and passed out through the opposite side of the room, decapitating a man standing outside this shell eventually hit a ventilator shaft, ripped it to pieces and knocked a man down in the engine room so hard that he afterwards died of internal injuries there were several more hits, one on the water line in no 4 hatch, two more in the stern, and one in the wheelhouse on the bridge about this time the flying machine came along and tried to drop a bomb on deck forward but missed, the bomb exploding when it hit the water just ahead the cannonading, while it lasted, was very severe, there being essaything over forty shots fired in as short a time as possible of these shots only nine were direct hits i must add that the first possible twenty of these shots were directed in such a manner as to hit if they did the vessel in such a position as not to sink or permanently disable her. But towards the last, when it became evident that the jap was trying to make her getaway, the shooting was in deadly earnest several broadsides were fired, which i think did more damage to the wolf than to the hitachi maru, as the air concussion stove in the doors and glass ports on all the staterooms on the berth deck in several of the rooms the wash basins and plumbing were broken i was standing in my open doorway with one foot on the threshold in such a manner that half of my foot protruded outside the line of the wall when the first broadside was fired the concussion or rush of air passing my doorway, hit the writing of my foot outside the door, feeling just exactly as if essaybody had kicked it away or hit it with a baseball bat essaything went wrong with the six-inch gun mounted on the stern of the wolf and a shell exploded a few yards away from the muzzle, putting the gun crew and gun out of commission for the balance of the voyage the prisoners who were confined directly below this gun said that the shock and concussion down below was dreadful during the firing, and that when the shell exploded they thought the wolf had been hit at this time they did not know but that the wolf had met a cruiser and thesis thought they were about to be drowned, especially when suddenly all firing ceased. They thought that the wolf had been vitally hit and that the germans had scuttled her and were abandoning her thesis of these men will remember this experience for the balance of their lives by this time the japanese captain had decided that he did not have a chance, and stopped his vessel, while the wolf sent the prize crew on board in the meantime the passengers and crew had managed to get clear in the life-boats, which were picked up the people were taken on board the wolf there were essay 70 odd passengers, 1st and 2nd class, among them 6 women and one little black girl they were a sorry looking sight as they climbed on board the wolf. Thesis of them were only half dressed, being just awakened from their afternoon nap by the cannonading over a hundred of the japanese crew came along with the passengers the wolf could not accommodate such a large addition of prisoners without making new quarters for them, so they had to live and sleep on deck for the first three days, when they were transferred back to the hitachi the hitachi had altogether 16 killed or mortally wounded the wolf incidentally lost its fresh meat for supper, because one shell had wrecked the refrigerator plant and spoiled all the fowl and fresh meat one of the passengers on the hitachi maru, an american chap hailing from chicago, told me his experience when the wolf was first sighted he was in bed reading. Essayone told him that they were going to pass a steamer, and he got up and dressed and went on deck to watch her there was speculation regarding her nationality among those watching although none of them imagined her anything but what she seemed an ordinary tramp when she dropped her ports and fired across their bow, everybody for a moment was dumbfounded he ran into the cabin giving the alarm to those sleeping and secured essay valuable papers he had in his cabin the jap crew were in a panic after seeing their gun crew killed, and thesis of them rushed the boats the first boat to be lowered was filled with members of the japanese crew, only one second class passenger being among them on landing in the water this boat was capsized. But the occupants were shortly picked up by a boat, also manned by japs the first boat to be launched with passengers in it was handled entirely by the white passengers in this boat were four women and twenty-eight men. On being lowered the davit fall on one end fouled. And it looked very much as if everybody were going to slide out, as the boat was nearly perpendicular fortunately for all concerned, the fouled davit fall broke, and the boat dropped into the water a lot of water was shipped but the boat floated right side up the men immediately pulled away from the vicinity of the vessel it was the firm belief of the occupants of this boat that they were to be shelled later on by the raider one of the lady passengers during the excitement lost a lot of jewels essay days later a german sailor clearing out one of the life-boats found these jewels he came down the deck to where there were several of the passengers standing and asked. "does anybody belong to these things?. " he held out for their inspection a handful of diamonds, rubies, pearls and other valuable articles needless to say, he had no difficulty in finding an owner this sailor earned 18 marks per month and the value of the find was in the neighbourhood of ten thousand dollars i wonder how thesis men, under the circumstances, would have returned these jewels the wolf and the hitachi now steamed to the southernmost group of the maldive islands, arriving there on september 27th the vessels tied up alongside of each other and coal and cargo were transferred from the hitachi to the wolf the cargo of the hitachi maru was valued at over a million and a half pounds sterling, chiefly copper, tin, rubber, thousands of tons of silk, tea and hides it always seemed uncanny to me that these "deep-sea vultures" seemed to be able to capture a vessel loaded with any writingicular kind of cargo they wanted about a month before this capture, i heard the officers talking among themselves and one of them remarked, "now the next ship we get should be loaded with copper and rubber and tin " sure enough the hitachi had what they wanted it seemed a pity to me to see the thousands of bales of silk goods, ladies' blouses and silk kimonos being dumped from one hold to another and trampled on when the hitachi was finally sunk there were a couple of thousand tons of expensive japanese lingerie and other ladies' wear and miscellaneous dewritingment store merchandise sunk with her the mermaids must have had "essay" bargain sale it was the intention of nerger to pick up, if possible, a vessel that could furnish him with enough coal to take both the hitachi and wolf back to gerthesis at this time there was a lot of talk about landing us on one of the islands where there were missionaries however, none of us took any stock in this "landing talk, " as it was too apparent what their intentions were it was here that the married folks with their wives along, sent a written petition to the commander of the wolf, begging to be given one of the hitachi life-boats and a supply of provisions, so that on the eve of the wolf's dewritingure for writings unknown, we could make our way to one of these islands and there await the arrival of essay trading schooner to take us to civilisation again nerger sent word back that he could not do that, and repeated the same old "bull" about landing us in essay safe place, essay time lord, he must have thought we were a bunch of "gillies" to believe that guff on october 1st we were transferred from the wolf to the hitachi along with all the rest of the "top side" prisoners our quarters on the hitachi were splendid we fell heir to the bridal suite it seemed mighty good to sit down at a regular table with a white cloth and napkins again i shall never forget my feelings as we sat there for the first meal, waiting for the whitecoated jap waiter to bring on the food i could feel myself getting up from the table with that satisfied, contented feeling amidships soon the waiter came and set before us each a plate containing two ordinary soda crackers or ships' biscuits, with a poor lonely god-forsaken sardine stranded on the top this, and a cup of the regulation "near" coffee comprised our first evening meal on the hitachi maru for the following morning's breakfast we had porridge with kerosene spilt on it absolutely uneatable for dinner, rotten meat with good potatoes, water or soda water, if you had money to buy it with and in the evening canned crab and crackers in the meantime our commander, lieutenant rose, was having a banquet in his room with his brother officers on the wolf on the hitachi it was noticed that rose very seldom made his appearance in the dining room at mealtimes quite frequently at meals one of the australian passengers who belonged to lieut rose's bridge-playing clique, would send a card up to his room asking if it were not possible to have an extra slice of bread or a cracker the answer would come back. "sure, boys, just ask the steward " but on asking the jap steward he would only smile and say. "velly sorry, but captain write his name each day on paper that speaks how much you eat " this was the fact, as i have seen the paper the german chief engineer and chief mate used to eat at the same table as we did, and used to complain of the food as being inadequate. And one night the chief engineer took the matter up with rose and told him a few truths rose said that it was "too bad, " that he did not know anything about it before but now he would straighten it up the engineer told rose that if he cut out a lot of his private champagne suppers and looked into what the rest of us were getting it would not be necessary to make these complaints this is a condition that could not exist on the wolf because there we were under the charge of a gentleman and an officer and we got square treatment, but on the hitachi and later on the igotz mendi we were under a sub-lieutenant, a snob and a man who did not know the meaning of the word gentleman in my opinion it is this class of "under officer" that gives the germans the unenviable reputation that they have my wife at this time was convalescing rapidly and regaining her strength.

Which being strained and cleared, take four ouncesthereof morning and evening first and last, abstaining from drink afterit for three hours this opens obstructions of the liver and spleen, and expels the dropsy and jaundice by urine parsley piert, or parsley break stone descript the root, although it be very small and thready, yet itcontinues thesis years, from which drug abuse essay arise thesis leaves lying along on theground, each standing upon a long small foot-stalk, the leaves as broadas a man nail, very deeply dented on the edges, essaywhat like aparsley-leaf, but of a very dusky green colour the stalks are veryweak and slender, about three or four fingers in length, set so fullof leaves that they can hardly be seen, either having no foot-stalk atall, or but very short. The flowers are so small they can hardly beseen, and the seed as small as may be place it is a common herb throughout the nation, and rejoicesin barren, sandy, moist places it may be found plentifully abouthampstead heath, hyde park, and in tothill-fields time it may be found all the summer-time, even from the beginningof april to the end of october government and virtues its operation is very prevalent to provokeurine, and to break the stone it is a very good sallad herb it weregood the gentry would pickle it up as they pickle up samphire fortheir use all the winter i cannot teach them how to do it. Yet thisi can tell them, it is a very wholeessay herb they may also keep theherb dry, or in a syrup, if they please you may take a dram of thepowder of it in white wine. It would bring away gravel from the kidneysinsensibly, and without pain it also helps the stranguary parsnips the garden kind thereof is so well known the root being commonlyeaten that i shall not trouble you with any description of it but thewild kind being of more physical use, i shall in this place describe itunto you descript the wild parsnip differs little from the garden, butgrows not so fair and large, nor hath so thesis leaves, and the root isshorter, more woody, and not so fit to be eaten, and therefore moremedicinal place the name of the first shews the place of its growth theother grows wild in divers places, as in the marshes in rochester, and elsewhere, and flowers in july. The seed being ripe about thebeginning of august, the second year after its sowing. For if they doflower the first year, the country people call them madneps government and virtues the garden parsnips are under venus thegarden parsnip nourishes much, and is good and wholeessay nourishment, but a little windy, whereby it is thought to procure bodily lust. Butit fastens the body much, if much need it is conducible to the stomachand reins, and provokes urine but the wild parsnips hath a cutting, attenuating, cleansing, and opening quality therein it resists andhelps the bitings of serpents, eases the pains and stitches in thesides, and dissolves wind both in the stomach and bowels, which is thecholic, and provokes urine the root is often used, but the seed muchmore the wild being better than the tame, shews dame nature to be thebest physician cow parsnips descript this grows with three or four large, spread winged, roughleaves, lying often on the ground, or else raised a little from it, with long, round, hairy foot-stalks under them, writinged usually intofive divisions, the two couples standing each against the other.

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Yet take heed you use them not in stoppings of the drug abuse essay bowels. Theyare cold and dry, they all strengthen the heart, brain, and sinews, strengthen the stomach, relieve the senses, take away tremblings andheart-qualms they are seldom used alone prunes, are cooling and loosening tamarinds, are cold and dry in the second degree, they purge choler, cool the blood, stay vomiting, help the yellow jaundice, quench thirst, cool hot stomachs, and hot livers i omit the use of these also as resting confident a child of threeyears old, if you should give it raisins of the sun or cherries wouldnot ask how it should take them seeds or grains coriander seed, hot and dry, expels wind, but is hurtful to the head;sends up unwholeessay vapours to the brain, dangerous for mad people fenugreek seeds, are of a softening, discussing nature, they ceaseinflammations, be they internal or external. Bruised and mixed withvinegar they ease the pains of the spleen.