History

Domestic Helpers Essay


Inwardly it domestic helpers essay isan excellent remedy for a cold and moist stomach, cheers the heart, refreshes the mind, takes away griefs, sorrow, and care, instead ofwhich it produces joy and mirth see the syrup galen, avicenna mentha sativa garden mints, spear mints are hot and dry in thethird degree, provoke hunger, are wholeessay for the stomach, stayvomiting, stop the menses, help sore heads in children, strengthen thestomach, cause digestion. Outwardly applied, they help the bitings ofmad-dogs. Yet they hinder conception memtha aquatica water mints. Ease pains of the belly, head-ache, andvomiting, gravel in the kidnies and stone methastrum horse-mint i know no difference between them and watermints mercurialis, mas, fœmina mercury male and female, they are both hotand dry in the second degree, cleansing, digesting, they purge wateryhumours, and further conception mezereon spurge-olive, or widdow-wail a dangerous purge, better letalone than meddled with millefolium yarrow meanly cold and binding, an healing herb forwounds, stanches bleeding. And essay say the juice snuffed up the nose, causeth it to bleed, whence it was called, nose-bleed. It stops lasks, and the menses, helps the running of the reins, helps inflammations andexcoriations of the priapus, as also inflammations of wounds galen muscus mosse is essaything cold and binding, yet usually retains asmatch of the property of the tree it grows on.

” with these sounds andwords apollonius disappeared forever thus his last medical act was asleight-of-hand performance, in that he even snapped his fingers atdeath the grateful heathen world of antiquity rendered divine honors toapollonius in his birth-place, tyana, a temple was erected in hishonor at imperial expense, and the priests everywhere erected statuesto a philosopher who had left this world without dying. In fact, eventhe emperor alexander severus set up an image of apollonius in hislararium, or domestic chapel and thus to medical superstition wasaccorded a triumph which no legitimate practitioner of any age has everenjoyed these theosophic vagaries reached their climax in neo-platonism, whichwas founded toward the end of the second century of the christian eraby the alexandrian porter, ammonius 175 to 242, and was furtherelaborated by plotinus 204 to 269 this religious, philosophicalsystem is of very writingicular interest in the history of medicinein that, in the first place, it stands in direct opposition to thephysico-mechanical conception of disease, and, explaining sickness froma theistic standpoint as a logical consequence, rejects the treatmentof disease by professional physicians now this theistic conception of disease was based primarily upon theassumption that the universe is filled with countless demons, spiritswhich, altho essentially superior to man, are inferior to god sucha demon was supposed to be the “spiritus rector” of all terrestrialoccurrences, especially all evil events were attributed to him ὂτιαὐτοὶ αἳτιοι γιγνόμενοι τῶν περὶ τὴν γῆν καθημάτων, οἷον λοιμῶν, ἀφοριῶν, σεισμῶν, αὐχμῶν καἳ τῶν ὁμοίων porphyrius de abst , lib 2, 40 as the demons played havoc with the condition of the humanbody, protection against them could not be expected from a professionalphysician, but only from essay one well versed in all their tricks anddevices, and, therefore, alone able to punish them thoroughly for theirmischievous behavior this taming of the demon could be accomplishedin various ways porphyrius enumerates three methods of gaining aninfluence over the host of demons the first and principal method theosophy attempted to attain themost intimate union with god prayer, abstraction of all thought fromthings earthly, and absorption in god were supposed to be the means ofwritingicipation in certain divine powers an individual thus favored wasenabled in a trice to restore health to incurable patients, such as theblind, the deaf, and the lame, and even the power of raising the deadwas conferred upon him however, the acquisition of such extraordinarypowers demanded certain qualifications of a rather exacting andterrestrial character it was incumbent upon such an applicant forthese special gifts to abstain from the use of meat, and, above all, from the society of women how thesis were deterred by these fastidiousrequirements from choosing the career of a famous man of miracles wedo not know nothing is reported on this subject by the pillars ofneo-platonism as, plotinus, porphyrius, damascius, jamblichus, nor dothey state whether they themselves absolutely abstained from meat andfrom the society of women theurgy was the second method of counteracting the evil influence ofdemons in this way good demons were urged by prayer and offerings toward off disease or other misfortune by the third method goety attempts were made to dispel the evildemons by conjurations and various kinds of mystical mummery thesemysterious accessories consisted mostly in muttering any number ofwords as meaningless as possible the more meaningless and the moreunintelligible were these words the more efficacious according to theassurance of jamblichus they would prove, especially when they weretaken from oriental languages for, as jamblichus says, the orientallanguages are the most ancient therefore, the most agreeable to thegods in such a manner words utterly nonsensical were drawled out atthe bedside, and, for greater security, written on tablets to be hunground the neck of the patient the magic word “abracadabra” enjoyedespecial respect to render its power certain it was written as thesistimes as it has letters, omitting the last letter each time until onlyone remained, and placing the words in such a succession as to forman equilateral triangle a tablet thus inscribed was worn around theneck of the sufferer as an amulet it may be that this wonder-workingword has arisen from the word “abraxas, ” with which the gnosticbasilides meant to designate the aggregate of the three hundred andsixty-five forms of revelation of divinity which he assumed to exist numerous other explanations are in vogue, however, with regard tothis medical, magic term compare häser, vol i , page 433 veryancient magic words which had originated in the earliest periods ofhellenism were revived thus, to banish disease, certain words wereemployed which were said to be derived from the temple of artemisin ephesus, and which read. Ασχι, κατάσχι, λίε, τετράε, δαμναμενεύς, αἲσσον the meaning of these words, according to the explanation of thepythagorean, androcydes, was. Darkness, light, earth, air, sun, truth besides, the attempt was made to obtain directly from the demons suchmagic words as were endowed with curative power for such purposessmall children were employed, in whom it was supposed that the demonspreferred to be present, and expressed themselves through their mouths such children, therefore, played a similar writing as does a medium withmodern spiritualists the senseless stuff babbled by such a child wasconsidered the immediate manifestation of a demon, and was accordinglyutilized to banish the demons which brought on disease moreover, the nonsensical practise which was carried on by the neo-platonistsby letter and word was to a certain extent accepted by professionalphysicians it had become a very common custom with physicians toapply various kinds of bombastic names to all their various plastersand ointments, powders, and pills it is necessary only to cast aglance upon the ancient pharmacopœia to find the most curious names galen mentions disapprovingly the fact that egyptian and babylonianexpressions were preferred in the nomenclature of medicine de simpl medicamentorum facult lib sic preface such were the methods with which the neo-platonists did not hesitateto treat the sick. And not only minor practitioners, but even theleaders of the entire movement, preferred banishing disease by meansof various kinds of magic formulæ to all other specially medicalmethods of treatment thus, for instance, eunapius of sardis about400 recounts how plotinus, one of the most gifted of the neo-platonicschool, repeatedly proved himself to be a medical miracle-worker, mostconspicuously during the sickness of porphyrius when the latter, afavorite disciple of plotinus, was traveling through sicily he becamedangerously ill in fact, according to the description of eunapius, he was actually breathing his last then plotinus appeared, and bymagic words cured the dying man instantly it appears, moreover, that plotinus did not only operate with wonder-working words, but heemployed still other agencies as, for instance, mysterious figures ὁχήματα villoison, anecd græca, vol ii , page 231 plotinus waseven said to possess his own demon, who was at his disposal alone, andby the aid of whom he performed other wonders as, for instance, that ofprophesying porphyrius, probably the most notable disciple of the neo-platonicschool after plotinus, claimed even that the demons personally taughthim to expel, with certainty and despatch, those pathogenic demons it was claimed by him that chaldean and hebrew words and songs werethe promptest means of turning out all these evil spirits. In fact, the philosopher, alexander of abonoteichos, in paphlagonia, was of theopinion that a pestilence, which was devastating italy, could not bechecked by any better means than that of affixing to the doors of theinfected towns and villages the sentence. “phœbus, the hair unshorn, dispels the clouds of disease ”thus the last great system into which the ancient philosophy developedwas attended by the unfortunate result of a very material increaseof superstition in the healing art this recrudescence of medicalsuperstition was by no means a transitory one, but proved exceedinglypersistent. In fact, we may unhesitatingly maintain that from thattime superstition never again disappeared from our science this isprincipally the fault of the position which christianity took withregard to demonology and the other fantastic ideas of neo-platonism early christianity, from the outset, was subjected to the influenceof ancient false ideas on the subject of demons without making anymodifications whatever, it had appropriated this false doctrine, andhad deduced from it the same medical notions as paganism had done the new testament exhibits numerous examples of a prevailing beliefthat supernatural beings i e , demons were frequently the cause ofbodily ailments. And as christ and his disciples had often cured suchpatients, it follows that the belief in demons and their relations topathology must have been widely disseminated among the christians ofthat period the church fathers also bear witness to this fact, asthey, in their writings, acknowledge, in plain terms, the belief indemons as causes of disease justin martyr, tatian, tertullian, origen, augustin, all mention demons and their power over the human body compare harnack, chapter v , page 68, etc , where these conditionsare most lucidly depicted thus, for instance, st augustine says:“accipiunt scilicet dæmones enim sæpe potestatem et morbos immittereet ipsum aerem vitiando morbidum reddere ”and, indeed, early christianity not only accepted pagan demonologyunchanged, it even increased the therapeutic aspect of this delusion ina most regrettable manner this belief in demons, under the influenceof christian doctrines, developed into an epidemic of insanity whichprevailed unrestrictedly for two or three centuries, and which wasagain awakened in the late middle ages, to grow at last into one of themost terrible aberrations of the human mind into the belief in witches this epidemic derangement of the mind, to which the belief in demonstended, under the influence of christian doctrines, culminated in thepatient manifest idea that he was possessed of a demon the mentaldisturbance set in with wild, spasmodic attacks of excitement, and, asit occurred not only in individual paper, but was also contagious, wemust not hesitate to designate this belief of the first three centuriesin demoniac possession an epidemic disease it was an affection, the mental substratum of which consisted in a mixture of overheatedreligious sentiment and unrestrained medical superstition the extentto which this belief in demoniac possession was disseminated during thefirst centuries of the christian era is shown by the fact that a numberof persons busied themselves with the cure of this affection in thefirst place, most christian communities owned an exorcist, or officialcaster-out of demons it seems that this profession of exorcists formeda clerical order of its own.

Iodin gr 1 bromin gr 1/4 phosphorus gr 1/100 thymol gr 2/3 menthol gr 2/3 sterilized oil gr 1the only statement regarding its method of preparation is the line“solution in cod liver oil, norwegian ” according to the promoters, “bromin-iodin” is. “a powerful anti-tubercular agent for hypodermic use in pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis useful in other forms of tubercular diseases, and in non-tubercular pulmonary diseases of a sub-acute or chronic nature ”the “formula, ” in the form in which the manufacturers publish it, iseither impossible or meaningless, according to the interpretation thatmay be given it is impossible if it is intended to indicate the actualcomposition of the product because that would mean that the oil isalleged to contain free or uncombined iodin, bromin and phosphorus both on theoretical grounds and also in the light of the findings ofthe chemical laboratory of the american medical association, it isnot possible that all these constituents can be present in the freestate the formula is meaningless if it is intended to convey the idea, merely, that iodin, bromin, phosphorus, thymol, menthol and sterilizedoil are combined to form “bromin-iodin ” in the absence of any detailsof the method of manufacture, it is futile to attempt to pass judgmenton the actual composition of the preparation the use of an almost identical product said, however, to containonly 1/2 grain iodin to each fluidram was described in 1908 by dr ingraham of binghamton, n y , in “five years successful experiencewith a special mode of treating pulmonary tuberculosis ” in 1910 thejournal1 characterized the preparation as “one of the innumerable‘treatments’ for pulmonary tuberculosis that have arisen, had theirday and, more or less gracefully, retired ” if the preparation hadvalue for the purpose for which it is recommended, its use during thesetwelve years should have secured its general recognition there is nosatisfactory evidence of its therapeutic efficacy the council refusedrecognition to bromin-iodin comp and, after submitting this report tothe bromin-iodin chemical company, authorized its publication -- fromthe journal a m a , dec 23, 1916 ammonium hypophosphite omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryammonium hypophosphite was admitted to new and nonofficial remediesin 1908 as a preliminary step in the consideration of a preparationcontaining it-- “gardner syrup of ammonium hypophosphite”-- becausethe council standardizes unofficial products before consideringpreparations or mixtures of these the therapeutic use of hypophosphites being irrational see, “thehypophosphite fallacy, ” report of the council on pharmacy andchemistry, the journal, sept 2, 1916, p 760, the salt, ammoniumhypophosphite, deserves continued recognition only on condition thatthis salt of ammonium is superior to other salts from which may beobtained the effect of the ammonium radical it has been claimed thatammonium hypophosphite has a less objectionable taste than otherammonium salts used for similar purposes this claim would meritserious consideration if in addition to being less objectionable tothe taste, the effects of ammonium hypophosphite were equal to or moredesirable than the official ammonium salts there is no evidence thatthis condition is met by the hypophosphite salt ammonium hypophosphite has long been known, yet it is not officialin the austrian, belgian, british, french, german, hungarian, italian, swedish, swiss or united states pharmacopeias neither is itmentioned in the leading textbooks on materia medica, pharmacology ortherapeutics in short it appears to be an instance of an obscure andsuperfluous salt selected for proprietary exploitation since the continued recognition of ammonium hypophosphite would tend toperpetuate the hypophosphite fallacy, and because there is no evidencesupporting its advantage as a means of securing the effect of ammoniumsalts the council directed its omission from new and nonofficialremedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 51 alphozone omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following advertisement appeared in the new idea september, 1916, a house organ of frederick stearns & co , the proprietors ofalphozone:illustrationin the light of our present knowledge the claim that alphozone is apreventive of infantile paralysis is without warrant and the advicethat the public depend on it for this purpose is reprehensible anddangerous therefore, the council directed that alphozone be omittedfrom new and nonofficial remedies -- from reports of council onpharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 50 calcium glycerophosphate and sodium glycerophosphate omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycalcium glycerophosphate and sodium glycerophosphate were acceptedfor new and nonofficial remedies chiefly in order that these productsmight be standardized these mixtures now being defined in the newedition of the u s pharmacopeia, this reason for including themin n n r no longer exists the report of marshall the journal, feb 13, 1915, p 573 which has the endorsement of the council thejournal, sept 30, 1916, p 1033 shows that organic phosphoruscompounds are split up into inorganic phosphates before absorption, that the animal organism can synthesize its complex organic phosphorusconstituents from inorganic phosphates and consequently that theglycerophosphates, so far as their phosphorus value is concerned, arenot superior to other phosphates in fact, sodium and phosphate aremore effectively administered as neutral or acid phosphate it isevident that sodium glycerophosphate is a superfluous pharmaceuticalpreparation, writingicularly when the difficulty of obtaining a pureproduct and its high price is considered so far as its calcium valueis concerned, calcium glycerophosphate has no advantages over suchcalcium salts as the carbonate, phosphate, lactate, or chlorid in viewof the foregoing, the council directed that sodium glycerophosphateand calcium glycerophosphate be omitted from new and nonofficialremedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 52 gardner syrup of ammonium hypophosphite omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryin recognition of the considerable revision of the therapeutic claimsmade by the manufacturer, gardner syrup of ammonium hypophosphitewas retained in new and nonofficial remedies, 1916, and the proprietoradvised of this provisional retention in the most recent advertising for this ammonium hypophosphite syrupthe claim is made. “besides being an active expectorant syrup of ammonium hypophosphite gardner is useful as an alterative and resolvent and by virtue of its phosphorus element, which is in the form of a hypophosphite, ph₂o₂, has a tonic value ”as detailed in the report of the council “the hypophosphite fallacy” the journal, a m a , sept 2, 1916, p 760 careful studies showthat the hypophosphites are devoid of the “alterative” and “tonic”actions claimed by the manufacturer of gardner syrup of ammoniumhypophosphite accordingly the council voted to omit gardner syrup ofammonium hypophosphite from new and nonofficial remedies and authorizedpublication of this report -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1916, p 55 gluten products made by the kellogg food company report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfor over two years the council has had under consideration certainproducts offered for the use of diabetics by the kellogg food companyof battle creek, mich these are. Pure gluten biscuit pure gluten meal 40 per cent gluten biscuit 40 per cent gluten flour 40 per cent gluten meal 20 per cent gluten meal the council found these products ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies because the statements of composition writingicularly of starchcontent were insufficient and because the exploitation of the productsto the laity was objectionable june 21, 1915, the company promised toplace a statement of the starch content on the package of each glutenproduct, to place on the gluten flour sacks a caution that diabeticsuse the flour only on the advice of their physicians, and to revise itsadvertising in accordance with the suggestions of the council nothingfurther having been heard from the company, in april, 1916, specimensof the product were obtained, through a layman, direct from thekellogg food company these specimens, together with the advertisingmatter received at the same time, and also a letter of advice from thecompany to another layman, were sent to the council referee, whosereport follows as will be seen, the referee finds that the amountsof carbohydrates contained in pure gluten flour, 40 per cent glutenflour and pure gluten meal are greater than the amounts claimed inthe company published analyses. That in the two first mentioned theamounts of protein are less than the amounts claimed. That exaggeratedclaims are made on all the labels and in the advertising literature, and that the company prescribes directly to the patient the following report was sent to the kellogg food company forconsideration in reply the firm stated that a revision of itsadvertising was under consideration but would make no statementas to how soon this revision would be carried into effect as theconsideration had already consumed two years, the council decided togive the profession the facts and authorized publication of the report at the same time the kellogg food company was advised that its productswould be considered further whenever any submitted evidence warrantedthis w a puckner, secretary referee reporti submit herewith my report on certain foods offered by the kelloggfood company for the use of diabetics i shall discuss these productsfrom the standpoint of the claims made on the label, from thestandpoint of the company toward nonmedical treatment as revealed in aletter to a layman, and lastly, on the basis of the claims made for thefoods in the company literature claims made on the label pure gluten biscuit referee company water 8 30 5-10 ash 2 04 1-2 protein n × 5 7 73 87 75-80 fiber 0 12 2 4-3 carbohydrates 14 84 0-5 fat 0 81 0 25-0 70 starch 4 02 0-5the sample analyzed does not contain the amount of protein claimedfor it it also contains more starch than one might suspect from thecompany analysis a more conservative claim would be “starch lessthan 5 per cent ” the company makes the error of using the terms“starch” and “carbohydrates” as synonymous if the maximum figures ofthe company analysis are used, the carbohydrates would amount to5 per cent , whereas i find 14 84 per cent the claim on the label“guaranteed to contain less than 5 per cent of carbohydrates” isincorrect the next claim, “each ounce of this gluten contains 23 gramsof protein and represents 95 calories” is approximately correct, as myanalysis shows 20 9 grams of protein and 103 calories the following remarks under “vegetable proteins” are in my judgmentexaggerated. “leading authorities are now agreed that meat, fish, eggs and other animal proteins are greatly inferior to vegetable proteins in diabetes, often increasing the sugar output and the dangerous acidosis which leads to diabetic coma after thesis years of experimentation, we have succeeded in perfecting a process whereby the carbohydrates are excluded ”in this connection, von noorden, whom the company constantly quotes, says. “in the slighter forms of diabetes, the influence of meat albumins is not great and it is difficult to demonstrate the reaction of the patient to different forms of albumin it may be necessary to add more albumin than the patient can actually take before glycosuria indication is reacted once a medium amount of albumin is exceeded, say 70 to 80 grams, the glycosuria increases, no matter what the type of albumin is ”my analysis also shows that the carbohydrates are not excluded fromthis food as claimed above 40 per cent gluten biscuit referee water 8 50 ash 1 48 protein n × 5 7 41 15 fiber 0 08 carbohydrates 47 81 fat 0 98 starch 36 98no analysis is supplied by the company, but this may be called properlya “40 per cent gluten biscuit ” the company claims, however, that thisis “best for diabetics, ” which is not true here, as in the case of “40 per cent gluten flour, ” the companylabel attributes to “dr wm osler in ‘practice of medicine, ’” thefollowing quotation. “of gluten foods, thesis are very unpalatable, others are frauds a good gluten flour is made by the battle creeksanatarium co , mich ” i have no way of knowing to which gluten flourof the company dr osler had reference the “pure gluten meal” might becalled properly a “good gluten flour, ” but this “40 per cent glutenflour” is no better, and no worse, than the average gluten flour on themarket the quotation from osler gives an entirely false impression 40 per cent gluten flour referee company water 8 62 5-10 ash 0 89 0 5-1 protein n × 5 7 33 63 40-45 fiber 0 08 1-3 carbohydrates 55 35 40-45 fat 1 43 0 2-0 5 starch 48 04 my analysis shows 6 37 per cent less protein than the companyminimum, and 10 35 more carbohydrates than their maximum in past yearsi have found the protein in this brand to range from 35 0 to 42 9 percent using the factor 5 7 it is true that the manufacturer doesnot state what protein factor is used in his reported analysis, but asin four other brands 5 7 is used, it is fair to assume that the samefactor applies to this as well at least such should be the case, asotherwise the manufacturer analyses would be meaningless even usingthe factor 6 25 this later sample contains only 36 88 per cent ofprotein the following statement, in my judgment, as applied to a foodcontaining over 48 per cent of starch, does not hold water. “thisfood is of special service in paper of glycosuria and in the milderforms of diabetes ” with this brand as with “40 per cent glutenbiscuit” the manufacturer again uses the misleading quotation fromosler 40 per cent gluten meal referee company water 7 30 5-10 ash 1 36 1-2 protein n × 5 7 41 55 40-45 fiber 0 10 1-2 carbohydrates 48 58 40-45 fat 1 11 0 2-0 5 starch 36 59 40-45the claimed analysis is justified by my findings i must takeexception, however, to the following statement. “prepared with greatcare from a good grade of spring wheat, by our special process, whichpreserves the natural food properties of the product ” the companyevidently tries to carry water on both shoulders, on the one handclaiming a reduction in the starch content, while on the other claimingthe preservation of all “the natural food properties ”20 per cent gluten meal referee company water 7 65 5-10 ash 1 22 1-2 protein n × 5 7 24 68 20-30 fiber 0 12 1-2 carbohydrates 65 41 65-70 fat 0 92 1-2 starch 51 24 65-70the company analysis is confirmed as the company claims directlythat this is “not a diabetic food, ” any criticism of its use forthat purpose is disarmed however, again exception must be taken tothe statement that “the natural food properties of the product” arepreserved pure gluten meal referee company water 4 60 5-10 ash 0 96 1-2 protein n × 5 7 76 78 75-80 fiber 0 08 1-3 carbohydrates 16 77 0-5 fat 0 81 0 25-0 70 starch 6 77 0-5the minimum claim as to protein is justified again the companyconfuses carbohydrates and starch, and the food instead of containingfrom 0 to 5 per cent of “carbohydrates starch” actually contains16 77 per cent of carbohydrates, of which 6 77 per cent is starch once more the statement that “the natural food properties” arepreserved is untrue as applied to a wheat product deprived of most ofits starch in justice to the company, it should be noted that on the labels of“pure gluten biscuit” and “pure gluten meal” appears the warning:“every person suffering from diabetes should be under the care ofan experienced physician, ” and on the label of “40 per cent glutenmeal, ” “persons suffering from diabetes should use this food only onthe advice of a physician ” on the other hand, the suggestion on thelabel of “pure gluten meal, ” “write for a copy of diabetic foods andhow to use them” is a more or less direct invitation to self-treatment moreover, a letter dated may 9, 1916, apparently dictated for thekellogg food company by one ruth french, in reply to an inquiry from alayman, gives direct advice with no reference whatever to a physician claims made in a letter to a laymanin addition to this inconsistent attitude the letter makes certainclear misstatements, as follows:“40 per cent gluten flour actually contains 40 per cent of puregluten, making it a perfectly safe article of diet in all but thegravest paper of diabetes from our gluten flour excellent bread, gemsand puffs are made that perfectly satisfy the craving for bread with noharmful results ” this flour contains 33 63 per cent of gluten, not 40per cent. It is not “a perfectly safe article of diet in all but thegravest paper of diabetes, ” for if one reads the literature correctly, starch restriction is more necessary in mild than in severe paper ofdiabetes furthermore, the bread, gems and puffs made from such a flourdo not “satisfy the craving for bread with no harmful results ”in the next paragraph of the letter, undue emphasis is laid on the“objectionable properties” of flesh foods, a statement only in accordwith the tenets of extreme vegetarians i also doubt very much whetherthe statement is true that “under a diet of our diabetic foods thethirst to which diabetics are so often subject is usually very muchrelieved ”in the next paragraph the assertion is made that “the diet indicated is in keeping with the ideas of the highest medical authorities meat is entirely excluded from the dietary ” my reading of theliterature does not show that the leading authorities take any suchposition later on reference is made to von noorden claim as to thesuperiority of vegetable over animal proteins, which i have alreadydiscussed under “pure gluten biscuit ” certain detached sentences ofvon noorden might justify such a statement, but a reading of all hesays on the subject leads to a very different conclusion claims made in an advertising bookletthe whole booklet is written from the standpoint of an extremevegetarian, and therefore is often misleading in its conclusions page 5 “the researches of ogata and others have shown that cane sugaris a less wholeessay food than the natural sugars found in fruits andproduced in the body by the digestion of starch, that is, fruit sugarsand malt sugars ” in opposition to this i quote from von noorden, theirown authority, “die zuckerkrankheit und ihre behandlung, ” berlin, 1910, page 270:“that levulose, milk sugar and inulin are more useful than the othercarbohydrates is a common opinion, but the importance of their use inpractice does not correspond with the theory in light paper the formof carbohydrates makes little difference. In severe paper the advantagefrom using levulose, milk sugar, etc , is only slightly greater thanfrom using bread and flour only in certain paper does it appearto me that the special form of carbohydrates possesses any writingicularsignificance ”on page 92 of the same work von noorden tells us that of thecarbohydrates dextrose is the worst, with maltose almost as bad inspite of the fact that kellogg exploits his “meltose, ” the “newcarbohydrate, ” as of special value for diabetics he also says thatlevulose increases glycosuria only about half as much as dextrose, when used occasionally, but with long use it is as bad as dextrose andstarch page 5 the company refers to sugar as “possibly also causingdiabetes ” sugar or any other carbohydrate may under diabeticconditions cause an increase of glucose in the urine, but i do notbelieve that any food or any diet can cause diabetes page 7 “that the large use of meat and eggs is not only detrimentalbut positively dangerous in thesis paper of diabetes is now a well knownand recognized fact ” the dietaries of well known authorities ondiabetes are not in harmony with this statement page 13 “it has been discovered that the complete suppressionof carbohydrates from the dietary is not only unnecessary but ishighly detrimental and even dangerous ” “the complete suppression ofcarbohydrates from the dietary” is the only means the physician has todetermine the diabetic carbohydrate tolerance if carbohydrate-poorfoods are so “highly detrimental and even dangerous, ” why does thecompany exploit foods like “pure gluten flour” and “pure glutenbiscuit, ” whose chief claim to excellence is their comparative freedomfrom carbohydrates?. Page 17 “cream is an emulsion, and, with the exception of egg yolk, is the only form in which animal fat is found in an emulsified state ”milk, nature most wonderful emulsion, is apparently overlooked page 19 “ these foods will be found of great value especially as substitutes for the breads and meats which are the mostobjectionable features of the ordinary diet, and which should, as faras possible, be interdicted in this class of paper ” this is simplyspecial pleading for the kellogg vegetarian diet page 19 “our glutens are all thoroughly standardized, so that intheir use the physician and the patient know just the amount of starcheaten ” this standardization is largely mythical for instance, “puregluten biscuit” claims 0 to 5 per cent “carbohydrates starch, ”whereas i find 14 84 per cent carbohydrates with 4 02 per cent starch “40 per cent gluten flour” claims 40 per cent gluten and40 to 45 per cent carbohydrates, whereas i find 33 63 and 55 35per cent , respectively “pure gluten meal” claims 0 to 5 per cent “carbohydrates starch” whereas i find 16 77 per cent carbohydratesand 6 77 per cent starch i have a record of six analyses each of “40per cent gluten flour” and “40 per cent gluten biscuit, ” which showthe hollowness of this claim of “standardization ” the flour showed33 6, 35 0, 42 9, 36 8, 35 6, and 40 9 per cent of protein, with from40 8 to 55 4 per cent of carbohydrates. The biscuits 32 7, 33 2, 39 5, 43 3, 33 9, and 41 2 per cent of protein, with from 41 1 to 54 0 percent of carbohydrates in fact, my experience shows that the kelloggproducts are more poorly “standardized” than most of the diabetic foodson the market page 20 “may be made to carry a large amount of fat in the form ofbutter, a most desirable thing in the treatment of diabetes, ” while onpage 16 the company claims that in an experiment of minkowski on a dog, butter “passed through the body without change, none being absorbed”;these are certainly contradictory statements the explanation is thaton the one page the company is exploiting its biscuits, and on theother its nut preparations page 20 again the incorrect claim is made for “40 per cent glutenflour” that “we believe this to be the only standardized gluten flourmade ”page 21 the claim is made that flesh foods are “objectionable onaccount of the large amounts of ptomains and toxins which theycontain ” i was not aware that fresh meats contained any ptomainswhatever on the same page the claim is again made that by the use ofthe kellogg nut foods “diabetics lose their thirst, ” a claim which ithink is more than doubtful page 22 “nuts are a whole food, containing all the elements requiredfor the perfect nutrition of the body ” a marked characteristic ofnuts is that they are not “a whole food, ” as with the exception ofa few varieties, such as the chestnut, they are extremely poor incarbohydrates, which fact gives them their value in the diabetic diet page 23 “with the exception of the potato, the beet and the carrot, vegetables contain little sugar or starch ” corn, beans and peas areall vegetables which are relatively high in carbohydrates, and for thisreason are specifically excluded from the diabetic dietary from the foregoing considerations i would recommend that the companyanalyses of “40 per cent gluten biscuit, ” “40 per cent gluten meal, ”and “20 per cent gluten meal” be accepted as correct before thecouncil can accept any of these products, the following steps should betaken:the company on all its labels should correct the impression that“carbohydrates” and “starch” are synonymous terms the labels of all the preparations examined should be changed inaccordance with the criticisms given above in all paper in which analytic data are given, it would be preferableto state only the minimum of protein and the maximum of carbohydrates the booklet, “practical suggestions about diet in diabetes, ” shouldbe radically changed along the lines noted above -- from reports ofcouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 56 iodo-mangan omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryiodo-mangan, made by the chemische fabrik helfenberg a g , neardresden, gerthesis, and sold in the united states by the reinschildchemical company, new york, is a solution said to contain iron, manganese and iodin in combination with peptone it is claimed tobe a reconstructive tonic and blood-making adjuvant, with favorableaction in affections of the glandular system it was admitted to newand nonofficial remedies in 1907, before the council had adopted thepresent rule 10, which provides that no article shall be admittedto new and nonofficial remedies which, because of its unscientificcomposition, is useless or inimical to the best interests of thepublic or of the medical profession in 1911 the council consideredthe question whether or not this product was still eligible anddecided in the end to retain it as probably having essay merit todetermine if iodo-mangan was eligible for new and nonofficial remedies, 1917, the reinschild chemical company was requested to send in thecurrent advertising matter as this advertising was not sent in andas apparently the product was not marketed at the present time, thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry voted to omit iodo-mangan from newand nonofficial remedies at the same time the reinschild chemicalcompany was informed that the preparation might be submitted forreconsideration at any time -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1916, p 64 liquid albolene report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryas now marketed, liquid albolene mckesson and robbins, new york, isclaimed to be made only from genuine russian oil and hence to possessdistinct advantages over “ oils purporting to be russian, most of which are imperfectly purified and thesis of which are positively dangerous for continued use ”on the other hand, a short time ago, mckesson and robbins claimed thatliquid albolene was then available “ of as high a quality as we had supplied before the european war thanks to the research and scientific achievement of our chemists, we are now able to offer liquid albolene, using as a base a specially refined domestic oil that is in every way suitable for medicinal purposes, and having the same viscosity as russian oil ”the advertising matter suggests the promiscuous, thoughtless andirrational use of liquid albolene and of a number of albolenepreparations by extravagant claims, such, for example, as the following. “albolene will never fail to bring a free, easy stool, no matter what condition may be present, from obstinate atony of the bowel to fissure, fistula, or even malignant disease, and in spite of the failure of ordinary purgatives to which the patient may have become habituated “aromatic liquid albolene is actually the first laxative presented to the medical profession that seems to have no drawback “it will not have been lost upon the physician who has read the remarks on the use of aromatic liquid albolene to regulate the bowels in surgical paper, that there are thesis instances where it would prove equally valuable during the treatment of acute diseases in the exanthemata, in pneumonia, for example, to cite only a few of the conditions where it may be used to advantage, an absolutely reliable laxative that will not in any way weaken or distress the patient, presents obvious superiority to any of the agents heretofore in common use ”the council held liquid albolene ineligible because the product ismarketed in a way to encourage its indiscriminate and irrational use bythe public rule 4 and because unwarranted therapeutic claims are madefor it rule 6 -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 65 naphey medicated uterine wafers report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrynaphey medicated uterine wafers were submitted to the council by themanufacturers, naphey & co , essay years ago and were rejected naphey &co has recently requested reconsideration of the preparation, and hassubmitted advertising matter, trade packages and sample packages thelabel of the trade package contains the following. “naphey wafers for the local treatment of diseases of women, indicated in catarrhal conditions of the vagina, and of the uterine cervix as a sic!.

Of mars, tocleanse this virtue. Of saturn, to extinguish it conservative the conservative virtue is vital, natural, animal vital the vital spirit hath its residence in the heart, and isdispersed from it by the arteries. And is governed by the influenceof the sun and it is to the body, as the sun is to the creation. Asthe heart is in the microcosm, so is the sun in the megacosm. Foras the sun gives life, light, and motion to the creation, so doth theheart to the body. Therefore it is called sol corporis, as the sun iscalled cor cœli, because their operations are similar inimical and destructive to this virtue, are saturn and mars the herbs and plants of sol, wonderfully fortify it natural the natural faculty or virtue resides in the liver, and isgenerally governed by jupiter, quasi juvans pater. Its office is tonourish the body, and is dispersed through the body by the veins from this are bred four writingicular humours, blood, choler, flegm, andmelancholy blood is made of meat perfectly concocted, in quality hot and moist, governed by jupiter. It is by a third concoction transmuted intoflesh, the superfluity of it into seed, and its receptacle is theveins, by which it is dispersed through the body choler is made of meat more than perfectly concocted. And it isthe spume or froth of blood. It clarifies all the humours, heats thebody, nourishes the apprehension, as blood doth the judgment. It is inquality hot and dry. Fortifies the attractive faculty, as blood doththe digestive. Moves man to activity and valour. Its receptacle is thegall, and it is under the influence of mars flegm is made of meat not perfectly digested. It fortifies the virtueexpulsive, makes the body slippery, fit for ejection. It fortifies thebrain by its consimilitude with it.

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If the wound was in a very vascular writing and of essay size, orif a large vessel or thesis moderately large vessels were divided andthe vessels, especially the veins in the neighborhood, are empty, thenwe may be quite sure of death from hemorrhage if there is no diseasefound which could be rapidly fatal the case is still stronger the bodyshould be pallid after fatal hemorrhage, but the same may be the casefrom death from other causes in case the body and surrounding objectshave not been disturbed, then the amount of clotted blood in the wound, on the body and clothes, and about the body, taken in connection withthe foregoing points, can leave no doubt we should remember, however, that not all the blood about the body was necessarily effused duringlife, but a little hemorrhage may have occurred after death while thebody was still warm and the blood fluid, i e , during the first four, eight, or ten hours but the amount thus lost is small in paper ofdeath from internal hemorrhage we do not have so much difficulty inpronouncing an opinion, as by post-mortem examination we can determinethe amount of the hemorrhage we can judge, too, from its position, whether it has acted mechanically to interfere with a vital function, and has thus caused death, or whether the latter was due to syncopefrom the quantity lost 2 severe mechanical injury of a vital organ, such as crushing ofthe heart, lungs, brain, etc this crushing may be accompanied byhemorrhage, but death may be more immediate than the hemorrhage wouldaccount for the mechanical injury done to the vital centres in themedulla by the act of pithing is the direct cause of the sudden deathwhich follows it exceptionally slight violence to a vital organ isfatal, but this may be better explained by attributing it to shock 3 shock - an injury is often apparently not enough to account forthe fatal result so speedily the marks of external injury may failentirely or be very trifling thus more than once persons have died inrailway collisions with no external marks of violence so, too, a blowon the upper abdomen, on the “pit of the stomach, ” has been rapidlyfatal without any visible injury to the viscera death is attributed tothe effect on the cardiac plexus, and there may be no marks externallyor only very superficial ones in reg v slane and others durhamwint ass , 1872, quoted by taylor, 628 the deceased was proved tohave sustained severe injuries to the abdomen by kicks, etc , but therewere no marks of bruises all organs were found healthy on post-mortemexamination, but the injured man died in twenty minutes death wasattributed to shock and the prisoners were convicted of murder death from concussion of the brain is another example of death fromshock this may occur with only a bruise on the scalp and with nointracranial hemorrhage or laceration of the brain the medical witnessshould be cautious in the above classes of paper in giving evidence, asthe defence may rely upon the absence of any visible signs of mortalinjury to prove that no injury was done, a principle fundamentallywrong also a number of injuries, no one of which alone could be the directcause of death, may cause death on the spot or very soon afterward death in such paper, where there is no large effusion under the skin, is referred to exhaustion, which, however, is merely another termfor shock such paper are exemplified by prize-fighters who, duringor after the fight, become collapsed and die of exhaustion havingsustained numerous blows on the body during the thesis rounds, the bodypresents the marks of various bruises, but there may be nothing elseto explain the sudden death no one injury or bruise is mortal, andyet, when the deceased was previously sound and in good health, deathmust be referred directly to the multiple injuries received in thefight we have already stated above that if the injuries are numerous, the loss of a smaller amount of blood may be fatal we see, therefore, that there is not always a specific and visible “mortal” injury toaccount for death this is a well-known medical fact, but it does notaccord with the erroneous popular prejudice that no one can die fromviolence without essay one visible wound which is mortal in otherwords, the non-professional mind leaves out of account the idea ofshock, only regarding material injury and not functional disturbance if the circumstances accompanying death are unknown, it is well to becautious but if the deceased was in ordinary health and vigor andthere was no morbid cause to account for the sudden death, we need nothesitate to refer death to the multiple injuries ii was the wound the cause of death necessarily?. This brings up a number of interesting questions to be considered inmedical jurisprudence there is probably no condition so common as thatthe injury is admitted, but death is attributed to essay other cause thus if there are several wounds it may be hard to decide on therelative degree of mortality of any writingicular one, so as to be able tosay that death was directly or necessarily due to this or that one thedefence may plead that death was not necessarily due to the writingicularwound attributed to the prisoner this brings up the question which of two or more wounds was the cause of death?. no generalrule can be laid down for all paper, but each case must be judgedby itself another way of putting the question is. “which of two ormore wounds was mortal?. ” the questions are not quite synonymous, fortwo or more of the wounds might be “mortal” but not equally the causeof death in fact, as we have already seen, no one of the wounds ifthey are multiple may be of itself mortal, but taken together theyare so consequently we will suppose that there are but two wounds, and not multiple ones, and the question remains which of these woundswas the cause of death a wound may be said to be of itself mortalwhen it is the cause of death directly or indirectly in spite of thebest medical assistance in essay continental states mortal wounds aredivided into two classes, those absolutely and those conditionallymortal, the former including those in which the best medical assistanceis at hand, sent for or timely rendered without everting the result the mortal result in the second class is conditional on want oftreatment, improper treatment, or accidental circumstances as taylorsays, it is better to look at the effect of the wound and the intentof the assailant, as is done in english law, rather than at accidentalrelations of the wound to return to the question, we can readily imagine that a man mayreceive two wounds at different times or from different persons, anddie after the second wound taylor629 mentions the following casein which the question arose as to which of two injuries caused death:in reg v foreman c c c february, 1873 the prisoner had struckthe deceased essay severe blows on the head a fortnight later, havingwritingially recovered, another man gave him essay severe blows on thehead a fortnight later still he had left hemiplegia, and died a fewdays later of a large abscess in the brain the question arose whichset of blows had been the cause of the abscess the prisoner, thefirst assailant, was acquitted, as the deceased had had no serioussymptoms until the second assault, and there was no satisfactorymedical evidence as to the relation of the two assaults to the abscessformation the same author also supposes the following case. A manhaving received a gunshot wound of the shoulder is doing well, whenin another quarrel he receives a penetrating stab-wound of the thoraxand abdomen he dies after lingering for a time, under the effectsof these wounds if the wound of the shoulder could be proven to bethe cause of death, the second assailant could not be convicted ofmanslaughter, and so too with the first assailant if it could be shownthat the victim died of the stab-wound it might be possible for asurgeon to decide the question definitely at once if death occurredsoon after the stab, which was found to have penetrated the heart, alarge blood-vessel, or one of the viscera. Or, on the other hand, ifthe stab-wound was found to be superficial and not penetrating, and thewound in the shoulder had suppurated and caused septicæmia in either or any case, everything would depend upon the evidencefurnished by the medical witness his knowledge and judgment arerequired to distinguish the guilty from the innocent again, essaytimes death may appear to be equally the result of eitheror both wounds, in which case, as far as the medical evidence goes, both assailants would be liable to the charge of manslaughter or thesecond wound may be accidental or suicidal, and again the questionwould arise as to the cause of death a case illustrating this istold by taylor630 substantially as follows. A grocer assistantpursued a thief, who had stolen from a cart, into a coal-shed, wherehe was stabbed twice in the abdomen the larger wound suppurated, the smaller wound healed up, and the man died of peritonitis onpost-mortem examination the suppurating wound was found not to involvea vital writing, while the small healed wound had wounded the liverand gall bladder and had set up the fatal peritonitis the largesuppurating wound had apparently been inflicted purposely. The fatalwound, directed upward and backward, might have been accidental by thedeceased rushing upon the knife held more or less in self-defence thecase never came to trial, as the assailant was never found, but it canbe readily imagined what complications might have arisen furthermore, the wounded person may have taken poison or beensubsequently ill-treated, and he may have died from these causes ratherthan the injury but the question arises as to whether the woundwas necessarily the cause of death here, in order to exculpate theassailant, the supervening disease or maltreatment must be such as toaccount for sudden or rapid death under the symptoms which actuallypreceded death was death due to natural causes?.