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a commercial firm furnishes physicians with ampules of arsenite of iron is this really arsenite of iron?. s h kempner, m d , new york answer -- ferric arsenite iron arsenite is in itself relativelyinsoluble in water, but may be treated with ammonium citrate, theresulting product thus being soluble. The latter substance wasat one time described in new and nonofficial remedies as “ferricarsenite, soluble” and is essaytimes sold as a solution in ampuleform in 1912, the council on pharmacy and chemistry deleted “ferricarsenite, soluble” from new and nonofficial remedies because “onecannot, in administering ferric arsenite, soluble, give a usefuldose of iron without giving too much arsenic. And, vice versa, onecannot give a safe dose of arsenic without giving too little iron ”the council, therefore, held the preparation to be irrational andunscientific -- query in the journal a m a , feb 19, 1921 k-y lubricating jelly to the editor:-- 1 what is the composition of “k-y lubricating jelly”?. 2 can you furnish a formula for a simple nongreasy lubricating jelly?. s t answer -- 1 the composition of “k-y lubricating jelly” has notbeen divulged examination of the advertising matter reveals onlymeaningless statements, such as. “this is a judicious combination ofvegetable products combined in well balanced proportions withnon-irritating antiseptics , ” “it incorporates a sufficient quantityof mild antiseptics of the thymol class ” and “ contains noformaldehyde ”2 probably a simple tragacanth jelly, which can be made cheaply, willproduce the same effects as those of the proprietary preparation thefollowing formula was published by mr j k thum, apothecary at thegerman hospital, philadelphia druggists circular, september, 1915, p 586:lubricating jelly tragacanth, whole 3 gm glycerin 25 c c phenol 1 5 gm distilled water, a sufficient quantity to make 300 c c the tragacanth is broken in small pieces, and put into a wide-mouthed bottle. The other ingredients are added and the bottle frequently shaken in regard to this formula, mr thum writes. It has been used in our gynecologic dewritingment for years for the last six years we have been dispensing it in collapsible tubes throughout the hospital for general work -- correspondence in the journal a m a , may 12, 1917 “nikalgin” to the editor:-- collier has a special article this week on “nikalgin ” have you any information on this subject?. it sounds like nostrum stuff p r minahan, m d , fond du lac, wis answer -- “nikalgin” is said to be the “invention” of gordon edwards, anengineer large claims for its anesthetic and antiseptic virtues havebeen made while no very definite information seems to be forthcomingregarding the preparation, it has been said to be “composed of quinin, hydrochloric acid and urea ” this would indicate that “nikalgin” maybe nothing more wonderful than the well known local anesthetic, quininand urea hydrochlorid, the quininae et ureae hydrochloridum of theu s pharmacopeia, or a modification of it -- query in the journala m a , sept 22, 1917 pertussin and syrup of thyme to the editor:-- a short time ago i received a sample of “pertussin” and used essay in an obstinate case of bronchitis with excellent results i have since received a catalog from a pharmaceutical firm, which advertises syrup of thyme i have searched for a formula to make my own syrup of thyme, but have not been able to find one will you publish one?.

Contributions from the does custom essay meister work journal. Miscellany albert abrams, a m , m d , ll d , f r m s 472 acetylsalicylic acid, not aspirin 480 the allied medical associations of america 486 “arsenicals” 491 beer and cancer cures 494 biologic therapeutics and its commercial domination 496 capell uroluetic test 497 chemotherapy and tumors 499 the direct sales company 510 discoveries and discoverers 511 “drug reform” 513 drug therapy. The fallibility of textbooks 515 thomas webster edgar 515 glycerophosphates 520 influenza vaccine 520 intravenous therapy 522 iodin fumes 523 italian physico-chemical company 524 what is liquid petrolatum?. 526 the lowenthal postgraduate course 527 medical society of the united states 531 the national formulary-- a review of the fourth edition 535 nonspecific protein therapy 536 willard ealon ogden 538 “patents” 542 pharmaceutical barnums 545 the pharmacopeia 546 physician stock in prescription products 548 pituitary gland preparations 549 proprietorship in medicine 550 philip rahtjen and his discoveries 553 sodium cacodylate in syphilis 555 tablets.

It is usually found about old ruinous buildings. It is socalled because of its virtue in stopping fluxes shinachia spinage i never read any physical virtues of it spina alba see the root spica see nardus stæbe silver knapweed. The virtues be the same with scabious, andessay think the herbs too. Though i am of another opinion stœchas french lavender cassidony, is a great counterpoison, opensobstructions of the liver and spleen, cleanses the matrix and bladder, brings out corrupt humours, provokes urine succisa, marsus diaboli devil-bit hot and dry in the seconddegree. Inwardly taken, it eases the fits of the mother, and breakswind, takes away swellings in the mouth, and slimy flegm that stick tothe jaws, neither is there a more present remedy in the world for thosecold swellings in the neck which the vulgar call the almonds of theears, than this herb bruised and applied to them suchaha an egyptian thorn very hard, if not impossible to come byhere tanacetum tansy. Hot in the second degree and dry in the third.

Under such circumstances, it would not be easy to give a specificanswer there are several signs which may indicate which wound wasfirst inflicted in certain paper an instrument may become duller oreven bent or twisted after and on account of the first wound, and thesubsequent wounds would vary accordingly the wound of the clothescorresponding to the first stab-wound may be and often is only bloodyinternally, while the second and following wounds are bloody on bothsides the following case quoted by taylor659 from the annalesd’hygiene, 1847, p 461, illustrates this point a man received threestabs from an assailant, one in the back at the level of the eighthrib, traversing the lung and heart and causing rapid death, and two onthe left elbow, cutting the coat and shirt but only grazing the skin the first one was evidently the first inflicted, for both the wounds inthe clothing on the arm were bloody externally at the edges, althoughthere was no blood effused here the correctness of this opinion wasconfirmed at the trial the point of a knife arrested and broken off in a bone may show thatthis was the last wound the amount of bleeding may show which was thefirst wound thus if several severe wounds have been inflicted, allor several of which would naturally cause profuse hemorrhage, and oneshowed signs of such hemorrhage while another did not, the former wouldbe likely to be the first wound inflicted or if one showed slighthemorrhage where much would be expected, this fact would indicate thatit was one of the last inflicted the absence of the signs of spurtingblood may tell which of two or more fatal wounds were first inflicted, for this would indicate that this wound was inflicted when the heartaction was weakened by loss of blood or even after death, and theother wound or wounds which did not present this sign would have beenthe first received in fact, if any of the signs are present about awound which we have seen to indicate that a wound was inflicted at anytime after death, this would show that this wound was not the firstreceived, and that the other or others were inflicted earlier questions as to the consequences of wounds not fatal may often bebrought up in civil actions for damages in certain countries thequestion of the consequences as to incapacity may determine whetheran injury shall be the ground of a criminal as well as of a civilaction thus in france an injury which involves an incapacity of twentydays or more subjects the assailant to a criminal action the term“incapacity” in this instance refers to general incapacity and notto incapacity for fine and professional work the latter, however, comes in under the civil action which may be instituted against theassailant or those directly or indirectly responsible for the injury the amount of the incapacity, its causes, whether due wholly or writinglyor not at all to the given injury, the probable duration of theincapacity, the treatment which it has and will necessitate, and thesisother such questions form writing of the medical testimony required insuch paper essaytimes with slight wounds the results, accompaniments, and complications may prolong the incapacity very greatly, as also thestate of health and the habits of the wounded person, the neglect oftreatment, improper treatment, etc any bodily or mental infirmity or does custom essay meister work ill-health which may result from aninjury and its necessary treatment in the past and future, all thesequestions and thesis more unnecessary to mention may be required of themedical witness no general rules can be laid down for all such paper in giving his testimony the medical man must depend in any writingicularcase upon his knowledge, judgment, and experience we can seldom give a precise solution of the question of survivalto determine the succession or inheritance if several of a family dietogether in an accident in case of death from inanition, cold or heat, or in drowning especially, if essay have wounds more or less grave inthemselves, we can essaytimes form an opinion with wounds we cannotoften do so, although in case of murder, the nature of the wounds, theposition of the bodies, the examination of the spot of the accident ortragedy, may essaytimes help us to form an opinion incised and punctured wounds and wounds of blunt instruments regionallyconsidered the several varieties of wounds which we have been considering varyconsiderably in their nature, their effects, their danger, and inthesis other ways according to the region of the body in which they aresituated essay of these varieties are common in one situation andalmost never occur in others although the nature of wounds found inthe several regions of the body is not as important for a medicaljurist as their danger and their influence in causing death, we willnow consider the differences they exhibit on account of the region inwhich they occur wounds of the head these are often characterized by their apparent harmlessness andtheir real gravity sooner or later we might almost make the oppositestatement and say that those apparently grave are often virtuallyharmless, though this would be true only in a limited sense and incertain paper as to their nature, we find punctured wounds extremely rarely, incised and lacerated wounds often, while contusions and contusedwounds are still more common incised and lacerated wounds of thehead involve the scalp almost exclusively these wounds heal remarkablywell, even when the attachment is merely by a narrow pedicle, owingto the abundant blood-supply hemorrhage from the incised wounds isoften free, for the vessels cannot retract, but it is seldom dangerousunless the wounds are very extensive the only way in which they differmaterially from similar wounds elsewhere is in the greater frequencyof complicating erysipelas here than elsewhere this is probablyowing to the presence of septic conditions, as the head is generallydirtier than other writings of the body, and slight wounds especiallyare neglected if the scalp is shaved over a wide margin and cleanedlike other writings of the body, erysipelas is found little or nooftener than with similar wounds elsewhere the density of the scalpis so great that the redness and swelling accompanying inflammationsis comparatively slight if erysipelas follows slight wounds of thehead, there is essay reason to suspect constitutional predisposition orcareless treatment from infection of such wounds of the scalp abscessor diffuse cellulitis of the scalp may develop as well as erysipelas the constitutional symptoms in such a case may be marked or evensevere, but the prognosis is favorable in very rare paper necrosis ofthe skull may result or the inflammation may even extend to the brain these incised and lacerated wounds of the scalp are usually accidentalor inflicted by another. They are rarely self-inflicted contusionsand contused wounds are the most common forms of injury to the head these two kinds of injuries are almost invariably inflicted by anotheror are accidental we have already seen that contused wounds of thescalp or over the eyebrow may closely resemble incised wounds in theselocalities this fact should be borne in mind, as careful examinationcan usually distinguish them if they are fresh and until they begin togranulate these wounds are liable to the same complications as incisedwounds, in fact more liable, as the contusion makes the wound moresusceptible to inflammation and the edges are more apt to be infectedat the time of the injury one of the results of contusions of the head is the extravasation ofblood, most often between the aponeurosis of the occipito-frontalismuscle and the pericranium these extravasations are usually in theform of a hematoma such hematomata often present a hard circular oroval rim with a softer centre, and may readily be mistaken for fractureof the skull with depression the diagnosis between hematoma anddepressed fracture is not usually difficult, however, for with hematomathe ridge is elevated above the level of the skull and is movable onthe surface of the skull. Also the wounded edges often pit on pressure with depressed fracture, on the other hand, the edge is at or about thelevel of the rest of the skull. It is sharper, more irregular, and lessevenly circular contusions and the resulting hematoma may occasionallyend by suppurating, but this event is rare contusions and contusedwounds may occasionally show the marks of a weapon, indicating thatthey were inflicted by another also the position of the injury willindicate its origin, whether it is accidental or inflicted by another, for the former would not naturally occur on the vertex unless the fallwas from a considerable height another result of injuries to the head, especially of contusions andcontused wounds, is fracture of the skull this may be simple orcompound, depressed or not, etc fractures are serious inasmuch asthey imply a degree of violence which may do damage to the brain the fracture itself, especially if properly treated, affords a goodprognosis, irrespective of any brain lesion one variety of fracture ofthe skull offers an exception to this favorable prognosis, and that isfractures of the base of the skull these may be fatal directly frominjury of the vital centres at the base of the brain or soon fatal fromhemorrhage in these writings or the fatal result may be secondary to aninflammation or meningitis which good treatment is often unable toprevent it should not be considered that these fractures are uniformlyfatal, for quite a considerable proportion recover fracture of thebase usually occurs as the result of a fall the injured person mayland on the feet or buttocks, and yet receive a fracture of the base ofthe skull, the force of the fall being transmitted through the spine tothe base of the skull fracture of the base of the skull usually occursfrom an injury to the vault, not by contre coup, but by extensionof a fissure found higher up in the skull this extension takes placein the same meridian line of the skull with that of the force whichproduced the fracture, and in this way the base of the skull isfractured in different writings according to the point and direction ofthe application of the force thus in case the force compresses theskull antero-posteriorly the fracture will pass antero-posteriorlytoward the base from the front or the back, whichever received the blow see fig 13 fractures of the vault of the skull occasionally occuropposite to the point struck. This may occur by contre coup, but notalways so, as not infrequently in such rare paper a close examinationmay reveal an extension of a fissure from the point injured to theopposite pole of the skull the shape and rarely the size of a fractureof the skull, especially if punctured in character, may show the shapeand more rarely the size of the instrument or object which producedit awriting from fracture of the base, the prognosis in fracture of theskull is serious, mainly on account of the danger of inflammation, which is greater in compound fractures, and also on account of the moreremote danger of irritation from depressed fragments causing epilepsy, insanity, etc , at a later period illustration. Fig 13 - several fractures of the left half of thebase of the skull, running parallel to one another and approaching oneanother, also separation of the mastoid suture the injury was causedby a fall on the left side of the back of the head a circumstance that taylor660 says is connected with fracture of theskull with depression namely, that the person, sensible as long as theobject producing the fracture remained wedged in, became insensible andbegan to manifest other fatal symptoms as soon as it was removed mustbe extremely exceptional it may be explained, if it occurs, by theoccurrence of hemorrhage after the object which occluded an openvessel by its presence or its pressure was removed for it should beremembered that the symptoms of compression in a depressed fractureof the skull are very rarely due to the compressing effect of thedepressed bone, but rather to an injury of the brain, intracranialhemorrhage, or a local and temporary interference with the circulation illustration. Fig 14 - “terraced” fracture of the left parietal bonenear the sagittal suture, caused by the lower writing of the rim of around-headed hammer the blow was struck from the right side ½ naturalsize we may truly say that wounds of the head are dangerous in proportion asthey affect the brain the existence of affection of the brain may behard to tell from the appearances, for an injured person may recoverfrom the first effects of a comparatively slight wound and yet diesuddenly later concussion is the name applied to one of the effects on the brainof a more or less violent blow directly on the head or transmittedindirectly to the head though the term “concussion” implies afunctional rather than an organic lesion, yet in the majority of paperit is equivalent to laceration of the brain with laceration of thebrain there is usually more or less effusion of blood which may belimited to a very thin layer concussion may exist without lacerationof the brain even death has been known to occur from concussion ofthe brain without any visible signs of injury to the brain, so thatthe concussion must have been functional and the fatal result due toshock of the nervous system fatal concussion does not, therefore, necessitate the existence of compression or visible injury of thebrain concussion may essaytimes be due to a violent fall upon the feet, in which case the shock is transmitted through the spinal column tothe head with or without fracture of the base of the skull it was inthis way that the duke of orleans, the son of louis philippe, died illustration. Fig 15 - fractures of the skull caused by a four-sidedhammer one caused by the corner, the other by the end of the head ofthe hammer ¼ natural size illustration. Fig 16 - four-sided fracture caused by a hatchet-shapedinstrument, the edges formed by depression of the broken outer table ofthe skull the symptoms of concussion show all degrees of severity thus theinjured person may become confused and giddy with or without falling, he may become pallid and nauseated and may vomit, but after a shortperiod he recovers gradually illustration. Fig 17 - fracture of parietal bone with depression, caused by the blow of an axe with a more severe injury, with which there is generally essaylaceration of the brain, the injured person falls and lies quietand relaxed, apparently unconscious, though often he can be writinglyroused paralysis and anæsthesia are absent the heart is feeble andfluttering, the skin cold and clammy the pupils, as a rule, reactto light, but otherwise vary considerably urine and fæces may bepassed involuntarily as he begins to regain consciousness, vomitingusually occurs consciousness usually returns within twenty-four orforty-eight hours, when headache and indisposition to exertion arecomplained of, and this may last for a long time occasionally thesymptoms instead of abating increase, and coma supervenes, oftenindicating meningitis, encephalitis, or intracranial hemorrhage inother paper the person may die almost immediately on the spot where hefell, while in still others apparent recovery takes place and deathoccurs later either suddenly or after a reappearance of symptoms in such paper, abscess of the brain may occur and be the cause ofthe fatal result these abscesses are the result of the injury, whichmay be almost anything from a compound fracture to a slight contusionnot leaving any scar the abscess may occur within a week661 or notuntil after months or years this interval of apparent recovery maylead to the false supposition that death was not due to the injury, but to essay intervening cause it is well to bear in mind that abouthalf of the paper of abscess of the brain are not traumatic a largemajority of these are due to suppuration in the middle ear, a few toseptic diseases or tuberculosis the situation of the abscess oftendistinguishes between the traumatic and non-traumatic varieties thetraumatic variety is usually found beneath the injury or essaytimesdirectly opposite, where the brain is injured by a kind of focussingof the radiated effects of the blow the paper of abscess of the braindue to ear disease are usually found in the temporal lobe of the brainlying over the position of the ear or in the cerebellum behind it the uncertainty of the nature and the extent of the cerebral injuryin so-called contusion of the brain renders it necessary to be verycareful in giving a prognosis any injury should be consideredserious which has produced unconsciousness, for such an injury mayproduce enough laceration of the brain to render serious dangerpossible or even probable we have seen that as a rule the symptomsof concussion come on immediately, but it is possible that symptomsat first so slight as to escape notice may become serious in a fewhours or days a gradual hemorrhage may essaytimes account for this the knowledge of certain acts performed or a conversation held at thelast moment before the injury may be retained after recovery fromconcussion of the brain this is not necessarily the case, for insteadof remembering up to the moment of the injury, the injured person mayremember only up to a certain time shortly before, or a writing and noteverything may be remembered illustration. Fig 18 - wounds of the vault of the cranium caused byartillery side-arms, followed by death shortly after the diagnosis of concussion of the brain from alcoholism isessaytimes a matter of medico-legal interest or importance concussionmay be so slight as to simulate intoxication the history often clearsthe case up the history of a blow or a fall or the presence of marksof violence on the head indicates concussion, though the blow or fallmay not have caused the symptoms, which may be due to alcoholism theodor of the breath may indicate alcoholism, but here too we may haveboth present and the concussion may be responsible for the symptoms or again the alcohol may have been given as a heart stimulant afterthe accident this combination often occurs if there is no odor inthe breath, the presumption is in favor of concussion as mistakes arestill not infrequently made in diagnosis, those paper in which thereis any ground for doubt should be carefully watched for developments in general, the existence of concussion is more often overlooked thanthe coexisting alcoholism, so that if there is any doubt in a givencase it should be treated as one of cerebral injury the injury whichcauses the concussion in such paper is often due to the alcoholism wemay be able to verify this supposition if the injury is such as wouldbe likely to be caused by a fall there may be nothing found in thebrain after death to distinguish between concussion and alcoholism abruise on the head only indicates a probability of concussion, for thebruise and alcoholism may both be present, the former perhaps due tothe latter the presence of alcohol in the stomach would indicate theexistence of alcoholism another effect of an injury which has caused concussion of the brainis an extravasation or effusion of blood extravasation of bloodin or on the brain is one of the commonest causes of death from injuryto the head it may occur with or without marks of external injury aperson suffering from such an extravasation of blood may recover fromthe first effects of the injury, and at a varying time afterward thesymptoms may return and increase so as to result fatally in such acase the opening of the bleeding vessel may have become plugged untilessay exertion, emotion, or excitement on the writing of the injured personhas loosened the plug a hemorrhage may have ceased from writingialsyncope and return with a stronger heart action due perhaps to theadministration of alcohol this effusion may occur on the surface ofthe brain in connection with a superficial laceration of the brain orjust beneath or outside the dura mater and not involving the braindirectly the latter paper are almost always due to the effects ofviolence, though there is at least one case of apparently spontaneousrupture of the middle meningeal artery the violence which causesa rupture of the branches of this artery may be so slight as toleave no bruise or so severe as to cause fracture of the skull themost important symptom of such extradural hemorrhage is a period ofconsciousness after recovery from the first effects of the injury, then stupor may appear and deepen into coma a subdural hemorrhage maycause almost the same symptoms, though the injury is usually such ashas produced a depressed fracture this hemorrhage is most often dueto the rupture of a number of small vessels under the fracture, thoughif one larger vessel is ruptured it is most often the middle cerebral a thin layer of hemorrhage in connection with a superficial lacerationof the brain is of frequent occurrence with or without the other twoforms of intracranial hemorrhage if the brain is lacerated we may haveconvulsions in addition to other symptoms death occurring during orsoon after a prize-fight may occur from essay of the above classes ofintracranial extravasations it may be questioned whether the blows ora fall caused the hemorrhage it is generally due to a fall in suchpaper, but may be due to blows, but the guilt is the same unless thefall was accidental as the result of severe traumatism the vessels ofthe interior of the cerebrum may be ruptured or hemorrhage may occurinto the ventricles of the brain in such paper the symptoms willresemble those of ordinary apoplexy, only the cause is different fromthe latter and the injury is usually so severe as to leave no doubt asto the existence of a traumatism the following question may arise inpaper of intracranial hemorrhage and especially in the latter class ofsuch paper, i e , in cerebral hemorrhage:was the extravasation of blood due to disease or violence?. it maybe alleged in defence that the hemorrhage was the natural resultof disease where the hemorrhage is extradural or subdural or inconnection with a superficial laceration of the brain, the cause isalmost always traumatic we have referred to one case of extraduralhemorrhage from spontaneous rupture of the middle meningealartery 662 subdural hemorrhage may occur from pachymeningitishæmorrhagica interna, but this condition is readily diagnosed onpost-mortem examination and often with considerable certainty duringlife a history of alcoholism, headache, impaired intellect, unsteadygait, occasional losses of consciousness, stupor increasing to coma, etc , indicates such a condition it is in paper of cerebral hemorrhage that there is the most difficultyin discriminating between that due to disease and that due to injury it may be alleged that the hemorrhage was from diseased vessels, orthat the effects of a blow, which cannot be denied, were aggravated bydisease of the cerebral vessels or by excitement due to intoxication orpassion cerebral hemorrhage from disease is rare before 40 years ofage, except in alcoholics when the hemorrhage is due to disease theblood-vessels are diseased the most frequent site of such hemorrhagesis the course of the lenticulo-striate artery in the ganglia of thebase or the white substance of the centrum ovale when injury is the cause of the hemorrhage it is usually found beneaththe point injured or directly opposite to this external signs of theblow are generally visible if it be severe enough to cause a cerebralhemorrhage the vessels may be perfectly healthy and the victim quiteyoung if the hemorrhage is due to an injury, also the ruptured vesselsmay be plainly torn the most difficult paper are those where thereis the history of an injury and at the same time such a condition ofdisease of the cerebral vessels, etc , as would account for spontaneoushemorrhage where the injury was slight in the case of alcoholics oraged people the medical witness should be especially careful in statingthat a cerebral hemorrhage was due to the injury then, too, in the actof falling from the occurrence of a cerebral hemorrhage due to diseasethe head may be injured and show marks of violence it should be bornein mind that an injury to the head may be inflicted when disease of thebrain, vessels, or membranes already exists in such a case a slightblow might cause extensive hemorrhage, but as that which acceleratescauses, death, even though it might sooner or later have occurred inthe same manner without injury, is due to the injury inflicted from the above considerations we see that spontaneous cerebralhemorrhage and that due to disease are not always easily distinguishedfrom that due to violence in severe injuries the structure of thebrain is plainly bruised, etc , but the greatest difficulty exists inpaper of slight violence where arteritis of the cerebral blood-vesselscoexists the spontaneous extravasation of blood in or upon the brainfrom excitement does not usually occur except with diseased vessels, old age, or alcoholism it is rare, therefore, in the young andhealthy if there is any doubt as to the origin of the hemorrhage, themedical witness should state the cause most probable in his judgment taylor663 supposes the case of a man excited by passion, alcohol, or both, who becomes insensible and dies after being struck a blow soslight that it would not have affected a healthy person if examinationreveals a quantity of blood effused into the substance of the brain, there can be little doubt in the mind of the medical man that theexcitement was the principal cause of the effusion on the other hand, if a severe blow or a violent fall on the head had been received in apersonal conflict with another and it is found that death was due to aneffusion of blood upon the surface, there can be little doubt in themind of the medical examiner that death was due to the blow, whichwould satisfactorily account for the conditions found without referenceto coexisting excitement, etc in fact, in all paper where a questionis raised as to the cause of the hemorrhage, it is most important toconsider whether the violence was not sufficient to account for thehemorrhage without the coexistence of disease or excitement it isalso most important to bear in mind that after severe injuries, asafter a fall, causing extensive fracture of the skull, followed or notwith extravasation of blood, the injured person may walk about and dieessay distance from the place of the accident and where no chance fora similar accident exists in this way the suspicion of murder may beoccasioned, as illustrated in the following case cited by taylor:664a man was accused of the murder of his companion, who was found dead ina stable with fracture of the temporal bone which had caused rupture ofthe middle meningeal artery the accused stated that the deceased hadbeen injured by falling from his horse the day before after the fall, however, the deceased had gone into a public-house, where he remainedessay time drinking before returning to the stable the extravasationhad here taken place gradually, as is characteristic of hemorrhage fromthe middle meningeal artery, and perhaps the excitement due to thedrinking had influenced it the date of an effusion of blood may essaytimes be a matter ofimportance in determining whether a given extravasation of blood in oron the brain was caused by a recent blow or had existed previously thecolor and consistence of these effusions indicate whether they are oldor recent. The precise date we cannot state, but the information wecan give is often all that is required the color of recent effusionsis red, which changes after essay days to a chocolate or brown, whichgenerally turns to an ochre color see plate i this latter colormay be met with from twelve to twenty-five days after the injury theconsistence of the coagula also becomes firmer with age, and as thecoagula become firmer they are more or less laminated and the expressedlymph may lie between the laminæ or around the coagula illustration. Medical jurisprudence plate i extravasations in several portions of the arachnoid, with hemorrhagesin neighboring portions of the brain death in four days cerebral abscess epilepsy, paresis death 3¼ years after the injury recent and old cerebral effusions on account of the thesis layers of the brain coverings, a rough diagramof the coverings as given by taylor1 may be of much use to themedical expert in illustrating his evidence so as to make it clear tothe court see fig 19 wounds of the brain vary very widely in their immediate resultsaccording to the writing of the brain injured thus essaytimes a slightwound of the brain may be instantly fatal and often a severe wound inanother writing is not so extensive wounds may occur especially in thefrontal lobes with remarkably slight disturbance if a person with awound of the brain survives the first effects of the injury the dangerof inflammation remains this danger may not be removed for a longtime, for the inflammation may develop very slowly, not showing itselffor from three to ten weeks or even later thus taylor665 citesthe case of a child who was accidentally shot through the brain thesymptoms of inflammation did not appear until the twenty-sixth day anddeath occurred on the twenty-ninth day illustration. Fig 19 - diagramatic representation of the skull andmembranes of the brain for exhibition in court a, skull with outerand inner tables and diploë. B, dura mater.

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Essay writings which are to be cut into panes coolfaster than others a bullet striking the portion of the glass whichhas does custom essay meister work cooled quickly strikes an object which will yield essaywhat to theforce. In doing this a hole will be made smaller than if that morebrittle had been struck furthermore, all rifles taper more or lessfrom breech to muzzle, that is, the muzzle will measure one or morethousandths or hundredths less than the breech the bullet being forcedthrough the narrow aperture yields to the pressure and becomes smaller the gun under consideration was measured at the new york armory, andfound to be 44 at the breech or chamber and 423 at the muzzle considering these various facts, statements that a ball of known sizewill make a hole through glass smaller than the size of the ball whenfired do not admit of doubt as to their verity essay statements bearingon this same point contained in a recent letter from captain shaler, ofthe united states army, deserve mention here the following experimentwas made in washington by captain lyon in october, 1880:“noticing a statement in a newspaper to the effect that a ball firedfrom a rifle would, in passing through glass, make a round hole smallerthan the diameter of the ball used, the following experiment was made:“service ammunition used, in a calibre 45 springfield rifle topenetrate glass ═════════════════════╤═══════════════════╤════════════════════════ time fired │ size of hole made │ remarks │ in glass, inches │ ─────────────────────┼───────────────────┼──────────────────────── 1 │ 0 570 │ 2 │ 0 550 │ 3 │ 0 600 │ 4 │ 0 600 │ 5 │ 0 575 │ 6 │ 0 575 │ the frame holding the 7 │ 0 590 │ glass was placed 25 8 │ 0 620 │ yards from the muzzle 9 │ 0 600 │ of the gun │ │ average size of hole │ 0 586 │ calibre of bullet │ 0 458 │ │ ────── │ difference │ 0 125 │ ─────────────────────┴───────────────────┴────────────────────────“from the above it will be noted that there is no uniformity in thesize of the holes and that they all exceed the diameter of the bullet “these experiments were supplemented by essay made recently in whicha sash containing six panes of ordinary window-glass was placedat twenty-five yards from the firer and the glass was successivelypenetrated a separate pane being used in each case by bullets from aservice 45-calibre springfield rifle, a 30-calibre springfield rifle, a 45-calibre colt revolver and a 22-calibre revolver in every casethe hole made was much larger than the bullet making it ”with reference also to the effect of a ball being smaller than itsoriginal diameter after it leaves the piece, captain shaler states:“all very compressible bullets forced by inertia lose a certain amounteven though they also gain force by slugging forcing by inertia tendsto shorten the bullet and increase the diameter, while slugging tendsto lengthen the bullet and reduce its diameter whether the bullet issmaller after it leaves the piece depends upon the bullet used and themethod of forcing employed ”to return to the billings case, it was claimed that the bullet wasalso too small it weighed 165 grains, 55 less than when it was firedfrom the rifle balch found in firing at human skulls, the subjects inall the trials but two being placed in a sitting posture, essaytimeswith a sash like the billings window in front of the subject, that theball lost lead in accordance with the resistance it met with and theamount of bone ploughed in its passage these experiments conclusivelyprove that the weight of a ball taken from a body after being fired, it having traversed a bone in its flight, is by no means evidence ofits weight before firing. In other words, a ball always loses essaylead when passing through bone with the same rifle as that producedat the trial he made a series of experiments in the dissecting-room, endeavoring to make a bullet enter the skull at the same point and innearly as possible the same direction as in the case of the murderedwoman in six such experiments there were varying losses of lead, allthe bullets used being the same general weight in two trials thedistance was but ten feet from the muzzle, yet more lead was lostthan in any of the other four the least loss recorded took place atthe longest distance, thirty-five feet this in writing accounts for theloss of lead, for at ten feet the bullet has not acquired its greatestpenetrating power, for he showed by experiment that a 220-grain bulletfired at a human skull will lose more lead than was missing from thebillings bullet, thus disposing of the question raised by the defencethat a ball could not have weighed 220 grains before being fired just how to account for the missing lead has never been clearlyestablished we have to remember that a few grains may be left inthe bore of a rifle, especially if rusty.