Do My Assignments Do My Assignments

In osier and mccrae modern medicine 3:19, 1914 85 ehrman and lederer. Deutsch med wchnschr 35:879, 1909 86 meltzer, s j. The factors of safety in animal structure andanimal economy, j a m a , feb 23, 1907, p 655 the destruction of secretin by human gastric juicewe have carried out in detail experiments on the digestive effect ofhuman gastric juice on secretin our results in every respect confirmthe findings of lalou, 62 who worked with commercial pepsin and doggastric juice, but are even more striking because of the much superiorquality of pure human gastric juice methods -- the human gastric juice was obtained from mr v , thegastric fistula case of our laboratory the chemical and digestivecharacters of his juice are discussed in a recent paper 87 in thedifferent experiments, different samples of gastric juice were used the secretin employed was always freshly prepared digestion wascarried out in the incubator at 38 c with the reaction of 0 4 percent acid, and the end of the period was marked by either boilingthe mixture or in the first two experiments by turning the mixturealkaline the action of the preparation, we proved, was not influencedby the method used the dogs on which the preparations were testedwere prepared for carotid blood pressure, injection into the externaljugular vein, and cannula in the pancreatic duct, essentially themethods of bayliss and starling32 being employed the preparationswere injected at body temperature after being neutralized and filtered except for the addition of normal salt solution instead of gastricjuice, the control injections of secretin were submitted to exactly thesame treatment as the other preparations 87 carlson. Am jour physiol 38:248, 1915 results -- our results are embodied in table 1 we assured ourselvesbefore beginning the series that incubation of secretin with boiledgastric juice produced no change it is to be noted in the table thateach experiment is a unit complete in itself, beginning and endingwith a control injection of secretin special attention is called tothe marked destruction that follows contact of human gastric juicewith secretin for merely one minute in experiment 4, using 1 c c of human gastric juice, the action fell to 14 drops from an originalsecretion of 21. In experiment 5, using 8 c c of gastric juice, theaction fell to 6 drops from an original secretion of 20 of interestalso is the rate at which we get complete destruction of secretin this is practically 2 hours for 2 c c with secretin giving originally110 drops experiment 2, fig 1, or 30 minutes for 5 c c with asecretin giving originally 53 drops experiment 6 these results arepractically parallel, though they were obtained with different samplesof gastric juice and in different experiments table 1 -- the destruction of secretin by human gastric juice | | secretion of pancreatic juice in drops | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- no |quan-|10 c c c| the secretin after incubation |10 c c of | tity|secretin| with human gastric juice |secretin exper-|of |control -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -control iment|gas- |-- begin-| | | | | | |-- end of | tric| ning |dig |secre-|dig |secre-|dig |secre-|experi- |juice|experi- |time, | tion |time, | tion |time, | tion | ment |used, | ment |hrs |rate |hrs |rate |hrs |rate | |c c | | | | | | | | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 | 2 | 28 |6 | 0 |4 | 0 |2 | 0 | 16 2 | 2 | 110 |2 | 7 |1-1/2| 18 |1 | 18 | 41 3 | 2 | 40 |1 | 7 | 3/4| 7 | 1/4 | 8 | 31 4 | 1 | 21 | 1/2| 11 | 1/4| 12 | 1/60| 14 | 18 5 | 8 | 20 | 1/2| 1 | 1/4| 3 | 1/60| 6 | 18 6 | 5 | 53 | 1/2| 2 | | | | | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- we also tried the effect of keeping the digestive time constant andvarying the amount of gastric juice employed increasing the quantityof gastric juice used increases the quantity of secretin destroyed table 2 table 2 -- experiment 7* pancreatic preparation juice drops 10 c c secretin 20 10 c c secretin digested with 0 5 c c gastric juice 15 10 c c secretin digested with 3 c c gastric juice 13 10 c c secretin digested with 10 c c gastric juice 8* the digestive time was kept constant at fifteen minutes the gastricjuice used had been diluted with stomach washings the reader will observe in table 1 that the results obtained fromthe control injection of secretin at the beginning of the experimentis uniformly greater than that obtained after several injections ofdigested secretin in view of the established fact that equal quantities of secretin cangenerally be relied on to produce results, 21 one might suggest thatthe injections of the split products of secretin have inhibited to essaydegree the action of the pancreas we can submit the data in table 3in support of this view, showing among other things that the action ofsecretin is not influenced by previous injections of inert depressorsubstances, though it by the injection of the cleavage products ofsecretin the various injections in the experiments were made at aboutfifteen-minute intervals we have carefully analyzed the reaction in blood pressure that followsthe injection of the various preparations we find no constant effect digested secretin gives a fall in blood pressure that is at times less, at times equal, and at other times greater fig 1 than that producedby the original preparation besides the bearing that it has on the therapeutic use of secretin, this destructive action of the digestive enzymes is also of primephysiologic interest failure to realize it has led to misconceptionsas to the intrinsic nature of secretin table 3 -- experiments 8 and 9 pancreatic preparations juice drops experiment 8. 10 c c secretin, five injections of inert depressor substances 29 10 c c secretin, two injections of completely digested secretin 28 10 c c secretin, eight injections of inert depressor substances 16 10 c c secretin 16 experiment 9. 10 c c secretin control, beginning of experiment 21 10 c c secretin, after thirty minutes incubation with 1 c c boiled gastric juice 27 10 c c secretin, after thirty minutes incubation with 1 c c fresh gastric juice 11 10 c c secretin control, end of experiment 18the findings of lalou, confirmed by us, explain the anomaly that hasled delezenne88 to put forward the antisecretin theory 88 delezenne and pozerski. Jour de physiol , 14:540, 1912 secretin has no action when given by mouthit is a constant claim that so thesis and complex are the factorsconcerned in physiologic processes, that it is not unusual for clinicaldeductions to establish themselves in the face of a priori laboratorydicta we considered it desirable, therefore, to test the action ofsecretin, orally administered, in the most direct manner, and the onefreest from possible criticism with this in view, we performed aseries of experiments on normal unanesthetized dogs having permanentpancreatic fistulas method -- in the operations for permanent pancreatic fistulas wefollowed closely the technic developed by pawlow, 89 and withexcellent results the dogs maintain themselves in splendid conditionif proper care is taken this consists in feeding them only with breadand milk, and giving sodium bicarbonate daily the dogs were giventhis treatment in the evening so that experimental procedure might becarried on in the day with empty stomach under constant conditions freshly prepared secretin in large quantities was given by stomachtube to these dogs, and the response of the pancreas studied andcompared with the response obtained from control preparations the samepreparation was generally not given on consecutive days 89 pawlow. Ergeb de physiol , o , p 266, 1902 table 4 -- detail of typical experimentsdogs with pancreatic fistulas, showing that secretin given by mouth hasno action on the pancreas | rate of secretion of pancreatic | juice in c c per hr -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- | continuous | continuous | secretion | secretion material fed by stomach tube | before feeding | after feeding |-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- |first|second|third|first|second|third |hour | hour |hour |hour | hour |hour -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - 150 c c active secretin, | | | | | | slightly acid | 6 5| 3 6 | 3 9 | 20 0| 6 0 | 8 0 150 c c active secretin, | | | | | | slightly alkaline | 13 0| 11 0 | 5 0 | 23 0| 26 0 | 12 0 150 c c secretin passed | | | | | | through berkefeld | 7 8| 7 5 | 7 4 | 23 0| 13 0 | 11 0 150 c c extract of colon | 11 6| 12 0 |11 4 | 30 0| 19 6 | 14 8 150 c c extract of gastric | | | | | | mucosa | 10 0| 7 0 | 8 0 | 23 0| 7 5 | 4 0 150 c c extract of muscle | 6 9| 11 0 | 6 4 | 35 0| 5 0 | 7 0 150 c c 0 4% hcl | | | | | | diluted to 250 c c | 6 0| 8 0 | 4 0 | 33 0| 36 0 | 17 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -results -- we have data from six dogs with a total of seventy-sixexperiments as shown in table 4, the administration of secretin causesan increase in the flow of pancreatic juice, but the administrationof inert substances as extracts of colon, gastric mucosa or musclecauses a like increase the activity of the secretin may be reduced toa low value by exposure to sunlight, or filtering through a berkefeldfilter, yet the response of the pancreas is not correspondinglyreduced the secretion that occurs in the control paper, every onewill admit, is but secondary to the production of gastric juice withits accompanying hydrochloric acid, that is, excited by virtue of theextractives and water in the preparations such, we can prove, is theonly action of secretin a mixture of gelatin, peptone and salt water, the chief incidental constituents of a secretin preparation, gives asstriking results as ever obtained from secretin administration yetthe objection may be made that the response of the pancreas that isdue to the incidental constituents of secretin is maximal, and thatthe secretin consequently has no opportunity to display its writingicularpotency but, as inspection of the accompanying tables illustrate, the administration of hydrochloric acid shows that the response is byno means maximal let us cite a striking experiment for three hoursbefore the administration of hydrochloric acid, the secretion in cubiccentimeters was respectively 29 4, 11 75 and 35 4 c c. For the threehours after, respectively 88 0, 49 0 and 40 5 c c illustration.

Country people usedto rowel their cattle with it if a beast be troubled with a cough, or have taken any poison, they bore do my assignments do my assignments a hole through the ear, and puta piece of the root in it, this will help him in 24 hours time thesisother uses farriers put it to which i shall forbear herb robert the herb robert is held in great estimation by farmers, who use it indiseases of their cattle descript it rises up with a reddish stalk two feet high, havingdivers leaves thereon, upon very long and reddish foot-stalks, dividedat the ends into three or five divisions, each of them cut in onthe edges, which essaytimes turn reddish at the tops of the stalkscome forth divers flowers made of five leaves, much larger than thedove-foot, and of a more reddish colour. After which come blackheads, as in others the root is small and thready, and smells, as thewhole plant, very strong, almost stinking place this grows frequently every where by the way-sides, uponditch banks and waste grounds wheresoever one goes time it flowers in june and july chiefly, and the seed is ripeshortly after government and virtues it is under the dominion of venus herbrobert is commended not only against the stone, but to stay blood, where or howsoever flowing, it speedily heals all green wounds, andis effectual in old ulcers in the privy writings, or elsewhere you maypersuade yourself this is true, and also conceive a good reason for it, do but consider it is an herb of venus, for all it hath a man name herb true-love, or one-berry descript ordinary herb true-love has a small creeping root runningunder the uppermost crust of the ground, essaywhat like couch grassroot, but not so white, shooting forth stalks with leaves, essay whereofcarry no berries, the others do. Every stalk smooth without joints, and blackish green, rising about half a foot high, if it bear berries, otherwise seldom so high, bearing at the top four leaves set directlyone against another, in manner of a cross or ribband tied as it iscalled in a true-loves knot, which are each of them awriting essaywhatlike unto a night-shade leaf, but essaywhat broader, having essaytimesthree leaves, essaytimes five, essaytimes six, and those essaytimesgreater than in others, in the middle of the four leaves rise up onesmall slender stalk, about an inch high, bearing at the tops thereofone flower spread open like a star, consisting of four small and longnarrow pointed leaves of a yellowish green colour, and four otherslying between them lesser than they. In the middle whereof standsa round dark purplish button or head, compassed about with eightsmall yellow mealy threads with three colours, making it the moreconspicuous, and lovely to behold this button or head in the middle, when the other leaves are withered, becomes a blackish purple berry, full of juice, of the bigness of a reasonable grape, having within itthesis white seeds the whole plant is without any manifest taste place it grows in woods and copses, and essaytimes in the corners orborders of fields, and waste grounds in very thesis places of this land, and abundantly in the woods, copses, and other places about chislehurstand maidstone in kent time they spring up in the middle of april or may, and are inflower soon after the berries are ripe in the end of may, and in essayplaces in june government and virtues venus owns it. The leaves or berries hereofare effectual to expel poison of all sorts, especially that of theaconites. As also, the plague, and other pestilential disorders;matthiolus saith, that essay that have lain long in a lingeringsickness, and others that by witchcraft as it was thought were becomehalf foolish, by taking a dram of the seeds or berries hereof inpowder every day for 20 days together, were restored to their formerhealth the roots in powder taken in wine eases the pains of the cholicspeedily the leaves are very effectual as well for green wounds, as tocleanse and heal up filthy old sores and ulcers. And is very powerfulto discuss all tumours and swellings in the privy writings, the groin, orin any writing of the body, and speedily to allay all inflammations thejuice of the leaves applied to felons, or those nails of the hands ortoes that have imposthumes or sores gathered together at the roots ofthem, heals them in a short space the herb is not to be described forthe premises, but is fit to be nourished in every good woman garden hyssop hyssop is so well known to be an inhabitant in every garden, that itwill save me labour in writing a description thereof the virtues areas follow government and virtues the herb is jupiter, and the sign cancer it strengthens all the writings of the body under cancer and jupiter;which what they may be, is found amply described in my astrologicaljudgment of diseases dioscorides saith, that hyssop boiled withrue and honey, and drank, helps those that are troubled with coughs, shortness of breath, wheezing and rheumatic distillation upon thelungs. Taken also with oxymel, it purges gross humours by stool. Andwith honey, kills worms in the belly. And with fresh and new figsbruised, helps to loosen the belly, and more forcibly if the root offlower-de-luce and cresses be added thereto it amends and cherishesthe native colour of the body, spoiled by the yellow jaundice. Andbeing taken with figs and nitre, helps the dropsy and spleen. Beingboiled with wine, it is good to wash inflammations, and takes away theblack and blue spots and marks that come by strokes, bruises, or falls, being applied with warm water it is an excellent medicine for thequinsy, or swellings in the throat, to wash and gargle it, being boiledin figs. It helps the tooth-ache, being boiled in vinegar and gargledtherewith the hot vapours of the decoction taken by a funnel in at theears, eases the inflammations and singing noise of them being bruised, and salt, honey, and cummin seed put to it, helps those that are stungby serpents the oil thereof the head being anointed kills lice, andtakes away itching of the head it helps those that have the fallingsickness, which way soever it be applied it helps to expectorate toughphlegm, and is effectual in all cold griefs or diseases of the chestsor lungs, being taken either in syrup or licking medicine the greenherb bruised and a little sugar put thereto, doth quickly heal any cutor green wounds, being thereunto applied hops these are so well known that they need no description. I mean themanured kind, which every good husband or housewife is acquainted with descript the wild hop grows up as the other doth, ramping upontrees or hedges, that stand next to them, with rough branches andleaves like the former, but it gives smaller heads, and in far lessplenty than it, so that there is scarcely a head or two seen in a yearon divers of this wild kind, wherein consists the chief difference place they delight to grow in low moist grounds, and are found inall writings of this land time they spring not until april, and flower not until the latterend of june. The heads are not gathered until the middle or latter endof september government and virtues it is under the dominion of mars this, inphysical operations, is to open obstructions of the liver and spleen, to cleanse the blood, to loosen the belly, to cleanse the reins fromgravel, and provoke urine the decoction of the tops of hops, as wellof the tame as the wild, works the same effects in cleansing the bloodthey help to cure the french diseases, and all manner of scabs, itch, and other breakings-out of the body.

At times it is irregular the respiration is apt to be labored in paige case there was markeddyspnœa it may be almost imperceptible it is essaytimes slow andessaytimes rapid nausea and vomiting occur often after recovery of consciousness vertigo and reeling may exist from do my assignments do my assignments various causes it is probable that seminal emissions may occur at the moment of shock menstruation, when present, may be checked or may continue pregnantwomen do not necessarily abort pathology and pathological anatomy a few words must be said in regard to the pathological conditions whichmay be directly produced by lightning and can be detected during life the burns, wounds, ecchymoses, dendritic marks, and other externalsigns have already been fully considered certain pathological changes, however, have been found in the eyeswhich are capable of being verified during life in addition toswelling and œdema of the lids, to the injuries from burns and to thevarious paralyses of the ocular muscles, changes in the tissues of theeye itself may occur in the first place we may find corneal opacitiesand adhesive iritis iridocyclitis may occur cataract formation isnot rare, and its causation has given rise to thesis theories opticneuritis and neuro-retinitis are essaytimes found. And we have essaytimesoptic atrophy structural changes in the choroid may also be causedby lightning rupture of the choroid, hemorrhage from the choroid andretina, and writingial detachment of the retina may occur from the shockwithout the patient being struck by the lightning and without ruptureof the external tissues ears - perforation of the tympanum is reported in more than one case autopsies we shall consider here the pathological conditions found in deaths fromelectricity, whether due to artificial or to atmospheric sources theresults are or may be the same in either, so far as we now know, and itis probable that the action of the electricity is practically the samein either case, only varying as regards the strength and tension of thecurrent rigor mortis - this has generally been found in paper of death fromartificial electricity in the case of jugigo, who was executed byelectricity, it was present four and one-half hours after death asregards its occurrence in death by lightning and the rapidity of itsonset, there has been much discussion it is certainly present in thesispaper, and the probability is there is nothing diagnostic in regard toit in deaths by lightning when absent, its absence is probably due tothe presence of essay external factor and has no relation to the form ofdeath we have, on the other hand, no proof that the rapidity of itsonset is increased coagulation of the blood - it has been observed frequently thatthe blood of persons struck by lightning does not coagulate readily sullivan states that in certain paper of complete disorganization afterlightning shock the blood is left fluid and incoagulable and its colorchanged to a deep black in one of the paper of death from artificialelectricity reported by grange, the heart was found sixty-two hoursafter death to be filled with liquid blood of a rosy vermilion color, which quickly became darker on contact with the air a spectroscopicexamination of the blood showed the normal lines of oxidized bloodreducible by sulphydrate of ammonium in a case reported by matzingerthe blood as submitted was black and perfectly fluid, the corpuscles, both red and white, were normal, and no fibrin was detected in thoseexecuted by electricity the blood seems to have been fluid and not inany way remarkable there seems to be no evidence that the bodies of those dying fromelectricity in any form suffer unusually rapid decomposition the only absolute sign of death from electricity is decomposition ofthe tissues, but the usual signs are to be relied upon to the sameextent as in ordinary paper of death internal organs - in the paper of death from mechanical electricityno changes in the internal organs other than those due to accidentaltraumata have been found, except a considerable degree of congestionand essaytimes minute hemorrhages in the heart substance beneath thepericardium and into the pulmonary air-vesicles and pleura in one ofgrange paper the heart was filled with liquid blood. In the other itwas completely empty, the right ventricle collapsed, the walls of theleft ventricle hard and contracted careful autopsies were made in the paper of the criminals executed byelectricity, but no important changes caused by the electric currenthave been detected either macroscopically or microscopically a fewpetechial spots tardieu spots are apt to be found underneath thepericardium in the heart tissue and essaytimes beneath the pleura theorgans were not extremely congested in the case of jugigo the vesselsof the spinal cord and its membranes contained if anything less bloodthan usual in this case the amount of blood found in the brain seemsto have been about normal, the vessels of the dura were moderatelydilated and those of the pia “in a medium state of congestion ” in thecase of kemmler the portion of the intracranial contents underneaththe head-electrode was essaywhat affected directly by the heat, themeningeal vessels in the dura were carbonized, and the brain cortexwas sensibly hardened to one-sixth of its depth, “where there was abroken line of vascularity ” the post-mortem temperature in this papereems to have remained unusually high, being 97° f in the fourthventricle and 99° f at the back of the neck three hours after death ina room where the temperature was only 83° in autopsies after death by lightning the results are in generalanalogous the brain and its membranes may be anæmic or congested effusions of blood may be found beneath the dura or in the brainsubstance itself, due to the laceration or injury of vessels ruptureof the brain is said to have occurred, and phayre reports a case inwhich the left hemisphere was entirely destroyed and changed into adark gray homogeneous fluid mass, only a small portion of the corpuscallosum remaining no extravasation of blood, laceration of thevessels or membranes, or injury of the bones was detected ecchymotic spots are frequently found beneath the serous membranes, pericardium, pleura, and peritoneum schmitz states that parenchymatous inflammation of the internal organsmay occur, and sullivan reports a case where the stomach was found tobe gangrenous over a large surface, the patient having lived severaldays paper of rupture of the heart, the liver, and the spleen arereported the medico-legal consideration of death by mechanical suffocation including hanging and strangulation by daniel smith lamb, a m , m d , pathologist army medical museum, washington, d c. Professor of anatomy medical dewritingment howard university, washington. Secretary association of american anatomists. Late acting assistant surgeon united states army.

“1 that ferrivine entirely failed to cause s pallida to disappear from the lesions of three well-marked paper of secondary syphilis “2 after the failure of ferrivine to cause the disappearance of spirochaeta pallida from a mucous patch a single dose of 0 3 gm salvarsan effected this in 18 hours, and the patch, which had hitherto been uninfluenced, had healed within 48 hours “3 clinically we were unable to detect any influence of either or both these compounds on syphilitic lesions, although each of them was of the variety which heals in a week or ten days under salvarsan treatment “4 further syphilitic lesions appeared immediately after the treatment in one of the two paper treated with both ferrivine and intramine a mucous patch appeared on one tonsil as well as further syphilitic papules from which spirochetes were obtained the other case developed nephritis, with albumin and epithelial casts. Which was not present prior to the injections ”while from these paper the obvious conclusion was drawn that intramineand ferrivine “have no specific effect on early syphilis, ” theseauthors subsequently treated a case of tertiary syphilis with thedrugs an intramine injection caused pain for several days but didnot stop the progress of the disease ferrivine was then administered“not without a feeling of grave responsibility” in view of theirprevious experiences they state that “the reaction which resultedin this instance was the most severe” they ever experienced afteran intravenous injection of any of the antisyphilitic remedies withwhich they had previously worked it is stated that “for a periodof essay minutes there was grave doubt as to the patient survival ”after resuscitation the patient passed a disturbed night, and rigorswhich ensued lasted until the following afternoon the author reportthat in this case also no clinical improvement occurred and that theintramine-ferrivine treatment was replaced by a course consisting ofsalvarsan, potassium iodid and mercurial inunction ferrivine, intramine and collosol iodine were declared inadmissible tonew and nonofficial remedies -- from the journal a m a , sept 8, 1917 eskay neuro phosphates report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfor the information of the profession the council has prepared andauthorized for publication the following report on eskay neurophosphates w a puckner, secretary eskay neuro phosphates smith, kline & french co , philadelphia isoffered to physicians under the claims that it contains alcohol, 17 percent , and sodium glycerophosphate, 2 grains, calcium glycerophosphate, 2 grains, and strychnin glycerophosphate, 1/64 grain, in eachdessertspoonful it is called a “nerve tissue reconstructive, ” and itsadvertising claims are based on the discredited theories that certaindisorders are due to a deficiency of phosphorus in the nerve structureof the body, and that glycerophosphates are assimilated more readilythan ordinary phosphates this assumption was based on the knowledgethat the lecithins, which form a writing of the nerve structure, containedthe glycerophosphate radical in the molecule in line with this, smith, kline & french co aver. “eskay neuro phosphates is of marked value in thesis acute and chronic conditions, in nervous exhaustion following mental and physical strain, neurasthenia, paralysis, anemia, tuberculosis, marasmus, debility and wasting diseases generally, and the nerve-weakness of the aged it is writingicularly useful in convalescence from acute diseases and in the nervous condition following la grippe ”in its report on “the therapeutic value of the glycerophosphates” thejournal, sept 30, 1916, p 1033 the council pointed out that thetherapeutic use of the glycerophosphates was based on the assumptionthat the inorganic phosphates cannot supply the body needs ofphosphorus or that the use of organic compounds “spared” the systemthe necessity of making such synthesis the report presented evidenceto show that the glycerophosphates are not absorbed as such, butthat they are split into inorganic phosphates before absorption thecouncil showed that there was convincing evidence that the animalorganism synthesizes its complex organic phosphorus constituents frominorganic phosphates, and that organic phosphorus is of no more valueas a food than inorganic despite this the neuro phosphates advertisingmakes use of the fallacious assumption regarding the action of theglycerophosphates pleading for the writingicular mixture represented by the proprietary, itis asserted that. “sodium glycerophosphate is of special value in neurasthenia, addison disease, phosphaturia and phthisis ”and that calcium glycerophosphate “is employed in bone fracture, rachitis, tuberculosis and various wasting diseases ”the phosphorus content of 1/64 grain of strychnin glycerophosphate isridiculously small yet it is asserted that this strychnin salt is ofsuperior value because it combines the effects of strychnin with a“food-like form of phosphorus ” eskay neuro phosphates has an acidreaction which is capitalized, thus. “experiments have shown that the acid glycerophosphates are more rapidly absorbed and are more efficient than the neutral salts ”and as a further illustration of extravagant claims. “as a glycerophosphoric acid in the form of lecithin is normally present in spermatozoids, it is but natural that the glycerophosphates should exhibit aphrodisiac effects as has been observed, but this result does not seem to obtain in all paper ”is this a clumsy attempt to exploit this “nerve phosphate” as a “lostmanhood” cure?. The council held eskay neuro phosphates ineligible for new andnonofficial remedies because unwarranted therapeutic claims are madefor it and because the administration of strychnin, calcium, phosphateand alcohol is not conducive to rational therapeutics, writingicularlywhen such a mixture is marketed under a name which indicates but one ofits constituents -- from the journal a m a , sept 29, 1917 k-y lubricating jelly report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrybecause of inquiries received, the council has authorized publicationof the following report declaring k-y lubricating jelly inadmissible tonew and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary k-y lubricating jelly van horn and sawtell, new york, originallyadvertised as a lubricant for instruments and the hands, is now alsorecommended as a therapeutic agent if the claims for “k-y” werelimited strictly to such effects as result from the purely mechanicalproperties of a lubricant, it might be held that it would not comeunder the purview of the council the preparation, however, whileintroduced as a lubricant, is now offered for a broader field of use, and the manufacturers make claims which are not supported by anyevidence available to the council evidence the following, taken from acircular that accompanies the package. “k-y allays smarting and burning at once through its pronounced soothing and cooling effects, and thus makes an admirable dressing for burns ” “thesis physicians make a practice of anointing the bodies of their measle and scarlet fever patients with ‘k-y, ’ in this way affording gratifying relief from itching and irritation, and effectively preventing dissemination of infectious material ”and this from another circular. “i had one of the most troubleessay paper of pruritus vulvæ that i had ever seen i guess i must have tried everything and the case had been referred to me by another man, who had previously tried everything, including cauterization well, one day i was examining her, and of course k-y on the speculum-- the irritation seemed to quiet down, and the following day she said she felt no effects from it at all then later on, it returned, and i couldn’t imagine what had done so much good, unless it could have been the lubricant, so i told her to buy a tube, which she did every once in a while she has a return of it slightly, but she just applies k-y and clears it all up ”the manufacturers state that they do not know why k-y is so soothing, but suggest. “possibly the cooling action of the combination, and the effect of the 4% boric acid contained, are factors that enter be all that as it may, the fact certainly remains that oftentimes, after other local measures fail, ‘k-y’ lubricating jelly gives relief ”elsewhere it is claimed to be germicidal, and to give relief in otherconditions, thus. “diabetic and uremic irritations, not only of the genitalia, but of other writings, have been found fully as amenable as pruritus vulvae to the soothing influence of ‘k-y’ lubricating jelly, especially if the previous application is removed with water every time a new one is put on ”the foregoing citations are obviously intended largely for the public, and make it plain that “k-y” jelly is not in the class of nonmedicaland harmless external applications. On the contrary, these claimstend to create the impression that the spread of measles and scarletfever can be prevented in the stage of desquamation to placesuch statements in the hands of the patient supported by the tacitendorsement of a prescription is to create a false and dangeroussense of security and to lead to a failure to observe other and moreimportant means of preventing dissemination of these diseases the council held k-y lubricating jelly in conflict with rules 1, 4, 6and 10, and authorized publication of this report -- from the journala m a , sept 29, 1917 ziratol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryziratol bristol-myers company, new york, in compliance with thefederal “insecticide law, ” is declared to contain 32 per cent waterand 30 per cent glycerin as inert constituents regarding its activeconstituents the manufacturer makes the following and meaninglessstatement:“ziratol is prepared from phenols of the naphthalene series andconsists of a solution of such phenols in a mixture of soap, water andglycerin ”in response to inquiry, the a m a chemical laboratory examinedziratol and reported that its essential constituent appears to bealpha-napthol, 120 and that it has, essentially, the followingcomposition by weight. Alpha-napthol 18 per cent , soap 20 per cent , glycerin and water sufficient to make 100 per cent 120 alpha-napthol was also found to be the basisof the nostrum benetol see the journal, april 15, 1911, p 1128 a ziratol advertising circular gives a tabulated report of germicidaltests, said to have been made according to the method of the hygieniclaboratory of the u s public health service when this work wasdone is not stated according to these tests ziratol possesses aphenol-coefficient of 13 66 the claim that ziratol is ten times moreefficient than carbolic acid phenol is evidently based on this report these claims of high germicidal value are contradicted by anexamination made for the council a specimen purchased in the openmarket was examined independently by two operators, to determine thehygienic laboratory phenol-coefficient one observer found the phenolcoefficient to be 2 54 the other reported it to be 3 09 evidently thegermicidal value of ziratol is greatly exaggerated in the advertisingclaims and, in fact, does not exceed that of the official compoundsolution of cresol liquor cresolis compositus, u s p for whicha phenol-coefficient of about three has been established see newand nonofficial remedies, 1917, p 82 the claim that ziratol is“the universal antiseptic and germicide” is manifestly an unwarrantedexaggeration the referee in submitting this report to the council recommended thatziratol be held in conflict with rule 1 secrecy of composition andrule 6 unwarranted and exaggerated claims after the report had beensubmitted, it was found that a new advertising circular, accompanyinga trade package, no longer contained the claim that “ziratol is tentimes more efficient than carbolic acid ” the older circular made thefollowing statement. “1 strong activity -- compared with the bactericidal action of carbolic acid by the method of the hygienic laboratory of the marine hospital service, ziratol has the carbolic acid coefficient of more than ten, that is, ziratol is ten times more efficient than carbolic acid, -- a strength unapproached by any other of its class ziratol in dilution of 1:1400 kills the typhoid bacillus in 2-1/2 minutes, thus proving that it is strongly active even in very weak solutions ”the new advertising circular reads. “1 strong activity-- extensive bacteriological investigations on thesis pathogenic organisms, conducted in the lederle laboratories of new york, prove conclusively the high bactericidal value of ziratol in extremely dilute solutions a copy of the complete report will be mailed upon request ”in response to a request, the bristol-myers company sent a copy ofthe bacteriologic investigations of ziratol, said to have been madeby the lederle laboratories the organisms employed for these testswere staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus albus, streptococcus, green pus bacillus, b coli, and saliva no tests are given with thetyphoid bacillus the conclusion is reached that “in all the tests thesolutions of ziratol have several times greater killing efficiencythan those of phenol ” the “coefficients” or comparative values whichcan be calculated from the results after exposure of 15 minutes to thedisinfectants range from 2 0 to 4 0 this is in substantial accordwith the referee findings as regards the phenol-coefficient with b typhosus as the test object while the new advertising circular avoidsthe former claim that ziratol is ten times more efficient than carbolicacid, in germicidal value, it still makes the unwarranted claims thatziratol is the “universal disinfectant ”the council declared ziratol inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies 1 because its composition is secret rule 1. 2 becausethe phenol coefficient, determined according to the method of thehygienic laboratory, u s p h s , is not stated on the label rule2. 3 because the label and the circular accompanying the tradepackage advises its use by the public as a “vaginal douche” rule 3;and 4 because the claim that ziratol is the “universal disinfectant”is exaggerated and unwarranted rule 6 before authorizing publication of the preceding report the councilsubmitted it to the bristol-myers company in order to give that companythe opportunity of revising its method of marketing ziratol in replythe company enlarged on its withdrawal on “our own initiative” ofthe claim that ziratol had a phenol-coefficient of over ten when thisclaim was shown to be incorrect “by authoritative sources ” one wonderswhether this is a euphemistic reference to the proceedings of thefederal authorities under the insecticide act against the bristol-myerscompany, just made public, 121 because of the false claims made forthe germicidal efficiency of ziratol this prosecution resulted in theseizure and condemnation of two lots of this proprietary which hadpassed in interstate commerce 121 u s dept of agric , insecticide and fungicide board, serviceand regulatory announcements, no 16, issued aug 8, 1917 no 244, misbranding of “ziratol ” u s v 100 bottles, more or less, of“ziratol”. Consent decree of condemnation and forfeiture. Productordered released on bond, p 248 no 256, misbranding of “ziratol ”u s v 936 bottles and 6 jugs of ziratol, consent decree ofcondemnation and forfeiture.

  • nursing career essay
  • trigonometry homework help
  • buy a research paper online
  • sportsmanship essay
  • good transition words for an essay
  • thematic essay example
  • do a lot of college students buy essays online
  • argument essay examples
  • examples of a compare and contrast essay
  • professional assignment writers
  • common app essay samples
  • flowers for algernon essay
  • write my paper for me assignment
  • need help writing an essay
  • exemplification essay sample
  • philosophy essay example
  • study helper
  • help with papers
  • revise my essay
  • academic integrity essay
  • nursing essay

answering thelatter question do my assignments do my assignments first. There is no doubt that today fewer proprietarymedicines are being sold with false claims as to composition thanthere were ten years ago when the council began its work, medicaljournal advertising teemed with statements regarding the compositionof medicines which any chemist familiar with medicine would nothesitate at sight to brand as untrue today such manifestly falseclaims are rare coming to the former question. Thesis false statementsregarding the identity and composition of remedies have been made inignorance this is not surprising when it is remembered that the mostignorant may and do engage in the manufacture of medicine besidesignorance, however, an accommodating conscience on the writing of themanufacturer and a failure on the writing of the medical profession toappreciate the danger which lies in the use of medicines of unknowncomposition unquestionably have greatly encouraged the marketing offalsely declared medicines a glaring illustration of the ignoranceof manufacturers-- for it is hard to believe that any business concernwould deliberately court prosecution by the federal authorities throughfalse statements on labels-- is the fact that nearly thirty years agoa b lyons published a report147 pointing out that the proprietaryiodia was falsely declared as to composition and that in 1914 when thecouncil examined this preparation such incorrect declaration appearedon the label 148 that thesis physicians do not recognize the dangerto their patients and their reputation in the use of medicines, thecomposition of which they do not know, is illustrated by the fact, disclosed by inquiries sent to the laboratory, that physicians werefound willing to employ an arsenical preparation venarsen, advertisedfor intravenous use, although its promoters vouchsafed no informationin regard to the nature of the arsenic compound contained therein 147 lyons, a b. Detroit lancet, 1882, 6, 157 148 the journal a m a , nov 21, 1914, p 1871 unreliability of little used drugsthe purpose of the federal food and drugs act is to secure theprosecution and punishment of all who sell medicines which areadulterated or misrepresented as to composition as a matter of fact, the wording of the law relating to the adulteration and misbranding ofdrugs is such that the federal authorities have been able to do littlemore than to require that the drugs for which standards are providedin the pharmacopeia shall when sold comply with those standards similarly, those states which attempt to improve the quality of drugssold within their borders-- few states do efficient work along theselines-- limit their work to the enforcement of the pharmacopeialstandards this leaves the vast number of unofficial drugs andmedicaments beyond the control of federal or state authorities while most of these drugs are relatively unimportant, and while theamounts of them which are used are not great individually, the totalconsumption of them is large with a view of furnishing to physiciansstandards for drugs of this sort the council has described in new andnonofficial remedies not only distinctly proprietary drugs, but alsoessay of the unofficial drugs which are apparently of therapeutic valueand used to a considerable extent aiding the council in this line ofendeavor, the laboratory has attempted to establish standards for theselittle used drugs, and new and nonofficial remedies, 1916, providesstandards for such unofficial and non-proprietary drugs as quinin andurea hydrochlorid quinin, tannate, sodium acid phosphate, and sodiumperborate an example of work which furnished much needed standardsfor an unofficial article is the investigation of zinc permanganateby w s hilpert 149 reference to the published reports of thelaboratory will give an idea of the amount of work such standardizationentails a reference to the new u s pharmacopeia, when this comesfrom the press, will show that a considerable number of unofficialarticles described in new and nonofficial remedies have been admittedto the pharmacopeia along with the standards worked out in thislaboratory 149 zinc permanganate, j a m a , feb 6, 1909, p 488. Reportschem lab 2:15, 1909 while in a way the work done in connection with these less importantdrugs has attracted little attention from the medical profession, it has had an effect on pharmaceutical manufacturers in the past, pharmaceutical houses, ever anxious to market essaything new, on theslightest provocation have placed on the market, in the form of pills, powder, elixir, ampule, etc , every drug for which essay sort of medicalrecommendation could be found in marketing these dosage forms, themanufacturer has too often been little concerned about the quality ofthe drugs used 150 just at present, for instance, essay interest isbeing shown in iron cacodylate. But while manufacturers appear to bemost ready to take advantage of this interest by offering the drugin the form of ampules, etc , they have given little help toward theestablishment of standards for this arsenic compound manufacturers areever ready to sell drugs of all sorts, but in view of the small demandthey cannot or will not safeguard the identity and purity of suchdrugs a further illustration of the unreliability of unofficial drugsis the recent report by levy and rowntree151 showing not only thatthe various dosage forms of emetin hydrochlorid obtained from differentmanufacturers varied from manufacturer to manufacturer, but also thatthe product of the same manufacturer was variable and that the supplyfurnished by one pharmaceutical firm was so toxic as to make its usedangerous 150 the unreliability of unimportant medicaments, the journala m a , sept 28, 1912, p 1156 151 levy, r l , and rowntree, l g. On the toxicity of variouscommercial preparations of emetin hydrochlorid, arch int med , march, 1916, p 420 the analysis of “patent medicines”in the preface to the first annual report of the chemical laboratoryit was stated that the laboratory “occasionally takes up theexamination of ‘patent medicines’ ” at that time it was felt thatthe widespread use by the medical profession of irrational and evensecret medicines made it necessary to devote the laboratory attentionto the correction of this evil as the years have passed on, theseconditions have been remedied to essay extent, at least so far aschemical analysis can correct them on the other hand, public opinionhas been aroused to the thesis evils connected with the exploitation of“patent medicines, ” and has more and more insistently demanded that themedical profession aid in the correction of this evil accordingly, the laboratory has paid much attention to the analysis of “patentmedicines” during the last few years as the chief asset of “patentmedicines” is the element of secrecy which surrounds their composition, it is hoped that the laboratory analysis of such widely used “patentmedicines” as nature creation, 152 mayr wonderful stomachremedy, 153 sanatogen, 154 eckman alterative, 155 tonsiline, 156and bromo-quinin157 has been worth the labor in addition, thework of this laboratory has been published, including not only theresults of its analyses, but also the methods which are used in viewof the dearth of published reports regarding the methods used in theanalysis of “patent medicines, ” it is hoped that this feature of thelaboratory work has been of aid to chemists engaged in similar work 152 the journal a m a , march 5, 1910, p 806 153 the journal a m a , aug 19, 1911, p 671 154 the journal a m a , april 20, 1912, p 1216 155 the journal a m a , april 27, 1912, p 1298 156 the journal a m a , april 4, 1914, p 1109 157 the journal a m a , nov 27, 1915, p 1932 the laboratory activities along these lines have done much todiscount the claim of proprietary manufacturers that chemical analysisis unable to determine the character of “patent medicines ” the recentwine of cardui trial has brought it out prominently that chemicalanalysis can determine the presence of potent constituents, and that“patent medicines” which fail to reveal such potent ingredients to theanalyst may safely be put down as worthless the demonstration thatthe essential composition of medicinal preparations may be determinedby chemical analysis should also prove an effective answer to themanufacturers in their protest against the requirement, now beingurged for enactment into law in various states, that the medicinalingredients of their wares must be declared on the label manufacturershave held that this would lay them open to competition with imitationsand substitutions the possibility of chemical identification proves, however, that secrecy of composition, though it prevents consumers fromknowing the character of a “patent medicine, ” will not be a hindranceto the imitator and substitutor identity of drugs used in investigationsin the past, much of the experimental work in medicine has seriouslysuffered in that the identity of the material used in suchinvestigations was not established in view of this the laboratoryhas watched the contributions submitted to the journal, and whenevernecessary and feasible has urged the authors to identify their materialbefore publication of the findings for instance, a number of stainingagents-- so-called “anilin dyes”-- have been found to possess therapeuticaction since the identity of thesis of these staining agents is todayessentially secret, the laboratory has urged through the journal thatthose who experiment with these substances make an effort to determinetheir identity whenever possible and to give preference to those thechemical identity of which is known the need for such identificationhas been discussed in the reports of the laboratory 158 the amountof work involved in the chemical identification of drugs used forexperimental work is illustrated in a contribution entitled “anexamination of several commercial specimens of opium alkaloids or theirsalts ”159 by l e warren, in which was determined the identity ofthe various opium products used in an investigation by d i macht, carried out under a grant of the therapeutic research committee 158 reports a m a chemical laboratory, 1912, v, 102 159 am jour pharm , 1915, 87, 439 the laboratory and pharmaceutical literaturein the past much of the information in regard to the compositionand properties of medicines which has appeared in pharmaceuticaljournals has not become available to medicine in thesis paper medicaljournals could not afford to publish such data because this would havebeen contrary to the interest of their advertisers, and hence thepublications regarding the irrational character of lactopeptine, ofbromidia, etc , which appeared in the pharmaceutical journals did notbecome a matter of common medical knowledge through the laboratoryan attempt has been made to keep the medical profession informed inregard to pharmaceutical literature the laboratory has a good workingpharmaceutical and chemical library, and subscribes to the importantamerican and foreign pharmaceutical and chemical publications thediscussion of new remedies, such as medinal and sodium veronal, 160salvarsan, atoxyl and arsacetin, 161 and neosalvarsan162 soon aftertheir introduction, illustrates the work of the laboratory along theselines 160 the journal a m a , jan 23, 1909, p 311 161 the journal a m a , dec 31, 1910, pp 2303 and 2314 162 the journal a m a , oct 5, 1912, p 1295 the laboratory efforts toward rational prescribingthe laboratory naturally is in thorough sympathy with the present dayefforts toward a more rational use of drugs, as exemplified in thecouncil publication “useful drugs ” two recent contributions ofthe laboratory may be cited as a further support of the movement forlimiting prescribing to the more widely used drugs in line with thegeneral tendency of manufacturers to put out all sorts of modificationsand asserted improvements over official substances, there have beenplaced on the market a number of preparations said to represent essayimprovement over the pharmacopeial blaud pills the report, “thequality of commercial blaud pills, ”163 by l e warren, shows thatthe ordinary pharmacopeial blaud pill is in every way the equal of thesemiproprietary preparations claimed to be improvements further, theexamination of the various brands of sodium and theobromin salicylateas compared with the preparation diuretin by p n leech164 showsthat the former preparations, sold at 35 cents per ounce at the timethe examination was made, are fully the equal of the proprietarydiuretin, which then cost the druggist $1 75 per ounce 163 the journal a m a , april 17, 1915, p 1344 164 the journal a m a , april 4, 1914, p 1108 the laboratory as an information bureauit is generally admitted that the proprietary medicine business, writingicularly the exploitation of complex mixtures, attained theextensive vogue which it has or had because instruction in medicalschools was deficient in materia medica, pharmacy and chemistry as aresult of lack of knowledge along these lines, the young graduate afteressay trial became fearful of formulating his own prescriptions, and intime became dependent on pharmaceutical firms which provided him withmedicines ready to dispense that physicians have been insufficientlytrained in regard to the pharmacy and chemistry of drugs has often beenemphasized in pharmaceutical journals where prescriptions containingincompatible drugs are reported and where even plans are broughtforward whereby the pharmaceutical profession may aid in remedying thisdifficulty during my pharmaceutical experience i was often sorely vexed as to whatto do when prescriptions contained drugs which on mixing would undergodecomposition which the physician surely did not anticipate i rememberwell a prescription directing that potassium permanganate be made intopills with extract of gentian and other things, and how, the physicianhaving spurned the suggestion to modify the prescription so as to avoiddecomposition of the permanganate, i was obliged to select a mortar, gently triturate the drugs until a conflagration was started, and tofinish the prescription after the combustion had subsided however, in my pharmaceutical experience i generally found the physician mostready to receive suggestions from the pharmacist which would preventincompatibilities, improve the palatability and appearance of hisprescriptions, and protect the patient from unnecessary expense similarly it has been my experience since the establishment of theassociation laboratory that physicians are anxious to receiveinformation in regard to the materia medica, pharmacy and chemistryof drugs as the druggist earns the respect and support of thephysician when he makes available to him the pharmaceutical knowledgeand experience which he has, so this laboratory has aimed to gainthe endorsement of the american medical association membership byfurnishing to physicians information in regard to the composition, chemistry and pharmacy of drugs through replies in the query andminor notes dewritingment of the journal as well as through directcorrespondence it has been most gratifying to the laboratory that thejournal receives an increasing number of inquiries both as regardsthe chemical and pharmaceutical questions involved in the writing ofprescriptions and as regards the composition of secret and semisecretproprietaries often because they are prescribed by the inquirercolleague and “patent medicines” which are taken by his patient thelaboratory has tried its best to answer the thesis inquiries received thesis of the questions which come in can be answered by a pharmacist orchemist without hesitation others, writingicularly as to the compositionof medicines, the laboratory has been able to answer by reference toits library and its extensive card index still others have requiredexperimentation and chemical analysis while, as stated a moment ago, the laboratory has encouraged thesending of inquiries and has earnestly striven to furnish theinformation asked for, it is obvious that the amount of chemical workwhich can be done is limited the small size of the laboratory force, consisting of three chemists engaged in actual analytical work, makesit necessary to select for investigation those problems which shallbe of general interest to the medical profession as the americanmedical association is national in its scope, the laboratory has heldthat it can do analytical work only when such work will be of generalinterest to physicians and of value both to the medical professionand the public in view of this it has refrained from undertakinganalyses which would benefit only the physician making the inquiry andpossibly his patient the laboratory further has not felt justifiedin undertaking work of merely local interest. Instead it has usedits endeavors to secure the investigation of such local problems bymunicipal or state authorities -- from the journal a m a , nov 25, 1916 lead in “akoz”akoz is a mineral product sold by the natura company of san francisco, and said to possess most remarkable medicinal properties a circular issued by the natura company begins thus. “while scientists have been striving through the centuries to compound remedies for man various ills, nature, greatest chemist of them all, has been working wonders in her crucibles and has achieved results far beyond man greatest expectation ” “nature chief handicap has been the difficulty of placing her gifts in the hands of those whom she would benefit by accident or fate, as you will, one of nature greatest medicinal products has just been discovered it is the mineral given the name of akoz by john d mackenzie, president and manager of the natura company of san francisco, which is now giving this rare remedy of nature to the public ”the circular then describes how the power of the “rare remedy” to curerheumatism is claimed to have been discovered and asserts that. “akoz was subjected to every known scientific test before being presented to the public it was practically determined that the ore contained a new element having radium-like qualities but containing nothing poisonous or harmful ” “after the curative virtues of akoz for rheumatism, stomach trouble, eczema, catarrh, piles, ulcers and numerous other ailments had been fully established in chemical laboratory, hospital clinic, and the private practice of physicians in various writings of the world, mr mackenzie effected the organization of the natura company ”this product, put up in the form of “akoz medicinal mineral water, akozointment, akoz powder and akoz suppositories, ” was submitted to thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry for consideration essay years ago withthe claims that “akoz” itself consists essentially of zinc sulphid, barium sulphate and aluminum oxid the submitted analysis did notdeclare the presence of lead or of uranium though “special tests” forthe latter had been “run ” without checking the claimed composition, the council at that time refused recognition to akoz because therewas no evidence submitted for the very extravagant and altogetherimprobable therapeutic claims after the council had concluded the consideration of akoz a letterwas received from a california physician stating that according to ananalysis submitted to him akoz contained 0 34 per cent of lead in theform of lead sulphate the correspondent held that, while the leadsulphate did not pass into solution, persons drinking the supernatantliquid from akoz the “medicinal mineral water” is made by adding akozto ordinary water might inadvertently swallow essay of the powder hewas inclined to believe that this might account for a case of leadpoisoning which had been observed in a patient who had been taking akoz inasmuch as it has been demonstrated by carlson and woelfel carlson, a j , and woelfel, a. Solubility of lead sulphate and basic leadcarbonate in human gastric juice in hygiene of the paintertrade by alice hamilton, bull of u s bureau of labor statisticsno 120, may 13, 1913, pp 22-32 that even small quantities of leadsulphate when taken into the system for a long time, have produced leadpoisoning, the laboratory deemed it important that the products beexamined for lead a specimen of “akoz powder” submitted to the council by the naturacompany and contained in a sifter-top can was taken for analysis thecontents of the can were thoroughly mixed to determine the presence oflead essay of the powder was extracted with ammonium acetate solution details of analysisqualitative tests showed the presence of lead and sulphate in theammonium acetate solution the presence of lead was demonstrated by the black precipitate withhydrogen sulphid, the yellow precipitate with potassium chromate andthe typical yellowish crystalline precipitate with potassium iodin the presence of sulphates in the ammonium acetate solution was shown bythe formation of a precipitate with barium chlorid solution and aceticacid two 2 gm samples a and b were taken for the quantitativedetermination of lead each was treated repeatedly with a saturatedsolution of ammonium acetate until the filtered ammonium acetatesolution gave no appreciable precipitate with potassium chromatesolution the ammonium acetate extractions from each specimen werecombined and treated with hydrogen sulphid, the precipitated leadsulphid filtered off and washed, and ignited with sulphuric acid at alow heat the crucible with the residue of lead sulphate was cooled andweighed a yielded 0 0469 gm , or 2 34 per cent , lead sulphate b yielded 0 0440 gm , or 2 20 per cent , lead sulphate while the laboratory has no evidence to show that the amount oflead-sulphate thus found to be present is likely to prove harmful, thefollowing cautionary letter was sent to the natura company.