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Bring theminto the form of pills by the gentle heat of a bath culpeper the operation is like the former pilulæ assaireth avicenna college take of species hiera picra galeni one ounce, mastich, citron myrobalans, of each half an ounce, aloes two ounces, the syrupof stœchas as much as is sufficient, make of them a mass according toart culpeper it purges choler and flegm, and strengthens the whole bodyexceedingly, being very precious for such whose bodies are weakened bysurfeits, or ill diet, to take half a dram or a dissertation services scruple at night goingto bed pills of bdellium mesue college take of bdellium ten drams, myrobalans, bellericks, emblicks, and blacks, of each five drams, flakes of iron, leek seeds, of each three drams, choncula veneris burnt, coral burnt, amber, ofeach a dram and an half, pearls half an ounce, dissolve the bdelliumin juice of leeks and with so much syrup of juice of leeks as issufficient, make it into a mass according to art culpeper both this and the former are seldom used, and thereforeare hardly to be had pills of rhubarb mesue college take of choice rhubarb three drams, citron myrobalans, trochisci diarrhodon, of each three drams and an half, juice ofliquorice, and juice of wormwood, mastich, of each one dram, the seedsof smallage and fennel, of each half a dram, species hiera picra simp galeni, ten drams, with juice of fennel not clarified, and honey somuch as is sufficient, make it into a mass culpeper it purges choler, opens obstructions of the liver, helpsthe yellow jaundice, and dropsies in the beginning, strengthens thestomach and lungs pilulæ arabica nicholaus college take of the best aloes four ounces, briony roots, myrobalans, citrons, chebs, indian bellerick, and emblick, mastich, diagrydium, asarabacca, roses, of each an ounce, castorium three drams, saffron one dram, with syrup of wormwood, make it into a mass accordingto art culpeper it helps such women as are not sufficiently purged intheir labour, helps to bring away what a careless midwife hath leftbehind, purges the head, helps head-ach, megrim, vertigo, and purgesthe stomach of vicious humours pilulæ arthriticæ nicholaus college take of hermodactils, turbith, agarick, of each half anounce, cassia lignea, indian spikenard, cloves, xylobalsamum, or woodof aloes, carpobalsamum or cubebs, mace, galanga, ginger, mastich, assafœtida, the seeds of annis, fennel, saxifrage, sparagus, bruscus, roses, gromwell, sal gem of each two drams, scammony one ounce, ofthe best aloes, the weight of them all, juice of chamepitys made thickwith sugar, so much as is sufficient. Or syrup of the juice of thesame, so much as is sufficient to make it into a mass culpeper it helps the gout, and other pains in the joints, comfortsand strengthens both brain and stomach, and consumes diseases whoseoriginal comes of flegm pilulæ cochiæ with helebore college take of the powder of the pills before prescribed, thepowder of the bark of the roots of black hellebore, one ounce. Make itinto a mass with syrup of stœchas according to art pills of fumitory avicenna college take of myrobalans, citrons, chebs, and indian diagrydium, of each five drams, aloes seven drams.

That he has attended the general practiceof an hospital in which are not less than fifty beds under the chargeof not less than two physicians or surgeons, for not less than oneyear or two periods of not less than six months each. That he hasalso attended two three-months’ courses or one six-months’ course ofclinical medicine, the same of clinical surgery. That he has, after anexamination in the subjects of the course, obtained a degree or diplomafrom such university, college, or incorporated medical school if suchinstitution require a four-years’ course for its diploma, or for thewant of such degree or diploma that he has satisfactorily passed anexamination in the various branches hereinbefore specified before theexaminers appointed by the council. That he is not less than twenty-oneyears of age. That he has paid to the registrar of the council a feeof ten dollars the council has power, subject to the approval ofthe governor in council, to make alterations as may be required inthe foregoing curriculum if any person apply for registration as apractitioner of any system of medicine, the registered practitioners ofthat system have the right to appoint an examiner or examiners on thesubjects peculiar to that system, viz , materia medica, pharmacy, andtherapeutics, and if they neglect so to do the council has the power toappoint such examiner or examiners 12 the last preceding section does not apply to persons in actual practiceentitled to register under sec 38 any person producing to the councilconclusive evidence that he has passed a matriculation or a preliminaryexamination, as required by this act for persons beginning medicalstudies in new brunswick, that he has before graduating or taking adiploma studied at least four years as provided in sec 12, or pursuedwhat the council deem an equivalent course of study and has passed afinal examination in the subjects of such course, or, for the want ofsuch requirement, shall have fulfilled such conditions as the councilmay determine, and shall pay a fee of ten dollars, shall be entitled toregistration and to receive a license to practise 13 the act makes special provision for residents of the province who beganstudy before january 1st, 1881 14, as amended 1882, c 30, s 1 duties of council - the council is empowered and required to regulatethe study of medicine, surgery, and midwifery, with regard topreliminary qualifications, course of study, final examination, and theevidence to be produced before the council. To appoint a registrationcommittee. To examine all degrees, diplomas, licenses, and othercredentials presented or given in evidence under the act to enable theowner to practise in new brunswick, and to oblige the owner to atteston oath or affirmation that he is the person whose name is mentionedtherein, and that he became possessed thereof properly and honestly;to cause every member of the profession practising in new brunswick toregister his name, age, place of residence, place of nativity, dateof license or diploma, and the place where he obtained it. To appointmedical examiners, who may be members of the council, to hold finalexaminations, who shall be regularly qualified practitioners of notless than five years’ professional standing and three years’ residencein the province 15, as amended 1882, c 30, s 2, 3 correction of register - the registrar is required to erase the namesof all registered persons who shall have died, left the provincewithout the intention of returning, or ceased to practise for fiveyears. And from time to time to make the necessary alterations in theaddresses or qualifications of registered persons any name erasedshall be restored by the order of the council on sufficient cause dulyshown 18 neglect to register - persons entitled to registration, neglecting oromitting to register, are not entitled to any rights or privilegesconferred by the act 19 system of practice - no person otherwise qualified shall be refusedregistration or license on account of the adoption or the refusal toadopt the practice of any writingicular theory of medicine or surgery in case of refusal the aggrieved writingy may appeal to the governor incouncil, who is required, on due cause shown, to issue an order to thecouncil to register his name and grant him a license to practise, andthereupon the council shall forthwith register his name and grant him alicense to practise 20 evidence of qualification, fraudulent registration - no qualificationcan be entered unless the registrar be satisfied by proper evidencethat the person claiming it is entitled to it an appeal may be madefrom the registrar decision to the council any entry proved to thesatisfaction of the council to have been fraudulently or incorrectlymade may be erased by the order in writing of the council, and the nameof such person fraudulently registering, or attempting to register, may, at the discretion of the council, be published in the next issueof the royal gazette 21 forfeiture of right - a registered medical practitioner convicted offelony, or after due inquiry judged by the council to have been guiltyof infamous conduct in any professional respect thereby, subject toappeal to the governor in council, forfeits his right to registration, and by the direction of the council his name shall be erased from theregister 22 the time and place of inquiry under the preceding section must be fixedby the council, and at least fourteen days’ notice given to the writingyagainst whom inquiry is ordered act 1886, c 82, s 6 the act of 1886, c 82, regulates the procedure on such inquiry additional qualifications - every person registered who may obtain ahigher degree or other qualification is entitled to have it registeredin substitution for, or in addition to, the qualifications previouslyregistered, on the payment of such fee as the council may demand act1881, c 19, s 23 practitioner rights - every person registered under the act isentitled according to his qualifications to practise medicine, surgery, midwifery, or dentistry, or either or any of them as the case maybe, and to demand and recover reasonable and customary charges forprofessional aid, advice, and visits, and the cost of any medicine orother medical or surgical appliances rendered or supplied by him to hispatients 24 no person is entitled to recover any such charge unless he shall proveupon the trial that he is registered under this act 25 definition - the words “legally qualified medical practitioner, ” or“duly qualified medical practitioner, ” or other words implying that aperson is recognized by law as a medical practitioner or member of themedical profession, when used in a legislative act or a legal or publicdocument mean a person registered under this act 26 unregistered persons - no person shall be appointed a medical officer, physician, or surgeon in the public service or in any hospital or othercharitable institution unless registered 27 no certificate required from any physician or surgeon or medicalpractitioner is valid unless the signer be duly registered s 28 a person not registered or licensed, and not actually employed asa physician or surgeon in her majesty naval or military service, practising physic, surgery, or midwifery for hire, gain, or hope ofreward, forfeits twenty dollars for each day of such practice s 29 the sum forfeited is recoverable with costs the procedure in referenceto all penalties is regulated by act of 1886, c 82 persons liable as provided in secs 29 and 30 are not entitled to orsubject to the provisions of any act for the relief of debtors act1882, c 30, s 4 on the trial of such cause, the burden of proof as to license or rightto practise is upon the defendant act 1881, c 19, s 31. Act 1886, c 82, s 3 fraudulent registration - wilfully procuring or attempting to procureregistration by making or producing, or causing to be made or produced, a false or fraudulent representation or declaration, or aiding orassisting therein, is punishable with a forfeiture of not less than$100 act 1881, c 19, s 33 wilfully or falsely pretending to be or using any name or descriptionimplying registration is punishable with a forfeiture of from $50 to$100 34 limitations - no prosecution can be commenced under the act after oneyear from the date of the offence act 1886, c 82, s 4 exceptions - the act does not prevent persons from giving the necessarymedical or surgical aid or attendance to any one in urgent need ofit, provided it be without gain, and the giving of it be not made abusiness or way of gaining a livelihood. Nor does it prevent any womanfrom giving the necessary aid in paper of confinement as heretoforeaccustomed act 1881, c 19, s 36 examination - all persons who subsequent to the passage of the actpass the examination prescribed by the council of physicians andsurgeons, or presenting approved credentials, certificates, or diplomasequivalent to such examination, are entitled to register and receive alicense to practise 38 physicians in army or navy - a person while employed in actual servicein her majesty naval or military service as a physician or surgeon, may practise physic, surgery, or midwifery with registry or license39 non-residents - non-resident registered practitioners of medicineresiding in the state of maine or in the province of quebec or novascotia near the boundary line of this province whose regular practiceextends into any town, parish, or county in new brunswick may registerunder the act 44 no other non-resident practitioner of medicine is entitled to register act 1884, c 17, s 1 exceptions - the act does not extend to clairvoyant physicianspractising at the time of its passage in the province, nor to midwives act 1881, c 19, s 45 students - the act establishes a uniform standard of matriculation orpreliminary examinations sched b oaths - any oath or affidavit required by the medical act may be takenbefore any justice of the peace or person by law authorized to take anyoath or affidavit act 1882, c 30, s 6 fees - to the registrar, for registration under secs 12 and 13, $10 act 1881, c 19, s 12 and 13 to the registrar, for the registration of an additional qualification, such fee as the council may demand act 1881, c 19, s 23 to the registrar, or his deputy, annual fee from each practitioner, tobe fixed by the council, not more than $2 nor less than $1 act 1882, c 30, s 5 each registered medical practitioner must, if required by the council, pay to the registrar, or a person deputed by him, an annual feedetermined by the council, not less than $1 nor more than $2, payablejanuary 1st each year, and recoverable as a debt with costs in the nameof the council act 1882, c 30, s 5 if any practitioner omit to pay the registration fee before theregistrar causes the register to be printed in the royal gazette, theregistrar shall not cause the name of such practitioner to be printed, and he shall thereupon cease to be deemed a registered practitioner;but afterward, on paying such fee, he shall be entitled to all hisrights and privileges as a registered practitioner from the time ofpayment act 1884, c 17, s 2 newfoundland medical board - there is a board composed of seven regularly qualifiedmedical practitioners of not less than five years’ standing, appointedas provided in the act, and known as the “newfoundland medical board, ”whose duties relate, among other things, to the making and enforcing ofmeasures necessary for the regulation and the practice of medicine act1893, c 12, s 2, 3, 19 the board is authorized to appoint examiners and fix times ofexaminations 5 the secretary of the board is the registrar 7 register, evidence - it is the duty of the registrar on or beforejanuary 1st in each year to cause to be published in the royalgazette of newfoundland a list of the names of all persons appearingon the register at that date, with their places of residence, titles, diplomas, and qualifications as conferred by any college or body, withthe date 8 such register is called the medical register, and a copy thereofis prima facie evidence that the persons therein specified areregistered according to the act. And the absence of a name therefrom isprima facie evidence that such person is not so registered s 9 qualification - the members of the board form a body of medicalexaminers of diplomas and degrees, whose certificate shall be the onlylicense permitting the practice of medicine, surgery, or midwifery, except as hereinafter provided, provided the applicant for such licenseshall previously have obtained a medical diploma from a recognizedcollege or university, or as hereinafter provided 10 every person is entitled to have his name entered on the registeron satisfying the board that he holds a degree or diploma from essayregular university or school of medicine in good standing, and he shallthen receive from the board a license bearing its seal, on the paymentto the registrar of $5, and shall have his name entered on the register11 no such licensed practitioner shall be entitled to practise in any yearwithout taking out from the board, before the 1st of january in everyyear, a certificate of practice for which he shall pay $1 s 12 students - the act provides the requirements for entering on the studyof medicine, surgery, or midwifery in the colony 13, 14, 17 duties of board - the board is required to examine all degrees andother credentials produced or given in evidence under the act forthe purpose of enabling the owners to practise, and, if it be deemednecessary, to oblige the owner to attest on oath or affidavit that heis the person whose name is mentioned therein, and that he has becomepossessed of the same by lawful means 16 the board is required to cause every member of the professionpractising in newfoundland to enter his name, age, place of residence, date of license or diploma and where it was obtained, on the register18 neglect to register - a person entitled to be registered, who neglectsor omits to apply, is not entitled to any of the rights or privilegesconferred by the act so long as the neglect or omission continues25 additional qualification - a person registered who obtains a higherdegree or diploma is entitled to have it inserted in the register inaddition to or in substitution for those previously registered s 26 rights of registered persons - a person properly registered under theact is entitled to practise medicine, surgery, and midwifery in anywriting of the colony, and to demand and recover reasonable charges forprofessional aid or advice with the cost of medicine or other medicaland surgical appliance supplied by him 27 unregistered persons - no person whose name is not registered under theact is entitled to recover any fees for any medical or surgical advice, or for any services whatsoever rendered in the capacity of a medicalman, nor to recover the payment of charges for any medicine or medicalor surgical appliance which may have been both prescribed and suppliedby him this clause is not intended to interfere with the practice ofmidwifery by competent females as hereinafter provided 28 offences and penalties - except as hereinafter provided, if a personnot registered or licensed under the act practises medicine, surgery, or midwifery for hire, gain, help sic or reward, or wilfully andfalsely pretends to be a physician, doctor of medicine, surgeon, orgeneral practitioner, or takes or uses any name, title, addition ordescription, implying or calculating sic to deceive or lead thepublic to infer that he is registered under this act, or who proposesby public advertisement, card, circular, or otherwise, to practisemedicine, surgery, or midwifery, or give advice therein, or in anywiselead people to infer that he is qualified to practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery, he shall forfeit $20 for each day that he sopractises or leads people to infer that he is a practitioner, or shallsuffer imprisonment not exceeding twelve months 29 persons violating the above regulations are subject to the penalties ofthe act, and in all paper the burden of proof as to qualification isupon the defendant or practitioner 30 expulsion of member - the newfoundland medical board may try and expelany member of the profession for acts of malpractice, misconduct, orimmoral habits, provided five-sevenths of the whole number record theirsignatures to such a measure 32 exceptions - the act does not prevent private persons from giving thenecessary medical or surgical aid in times of urgent need, providedsuch aid or attention is not given for gain or hire, nor the giving ofit made a business or a way of gaining a livelihood 34 every person residing in the colony and who shall have practisedmedicine, surgery, and midwifery for five years consecutively in onelocality previous to the passage of the act, on the proof of the same, shall have his name registered and receive a license to practise underthe act. Provided, the board may grant a license to any person who mayhave practised for a shorter period, on being satisfied by examination, or inquiry, that such person is reasonably competent and fit. Andfurther provided, that the board may, after examination and inquiry, license persons with a reasonable amount of competence to practisein specified localities, in which no qualified practitioners reside37 any person while employed in actual service in any naval or militaryservice as physician or surgeon may practise medicine, surgery, andmidwifery after having been registered 38 definition - the words “legally qualified medical practitioner” or“duly qualified medical practitioner, ” or any other words importing aperson recognized by law as a medical practitioner or a member of themedical profession, when used in any act of the legislature or legal orpublic document, mean a person registered under this chapter, unless asotherwise provided 39 medical appointments - no person shall be appointed as a medicalofficer, physician, or surgeon in any branch of the public service orany hospital or other charitable institution unless he be registeredunder the provisions of this chapter 40 theories of medicine or surgery - no person otherwise fully qualifiedshall be refused registration, or a license to practise, on account ofhis adopting or refusing to adopt the practice of any writingicular theoryof medicine or surgery in case of such refusal by the board, the writingyaggrieved may appeal to the governor in council, who, on due causeshown, shall issue an order to the board to register the name of suchperson and grant him a license 41 midwives - the act does not prevent competent females from practisingmidwifery 42 fees - to the registrar, for license, $5 11 to the board, each year, for a certificate of practice, $1 s 12 northwest territories college of physicians and surgeons - the members of the medicalprofession are a body corporate under the name of “the college ofphysicians and surgeons of the northwest territories” ord 5 of 1888, s 2 every person registered according to ordinance 11 of 1885 is a memberof the said college and shall be held to be registered under thisordinance from the date of its passage 3, as amended ord 9of 1891-92 every person registered under this law is a member of the college4 council - there is a council of said college elected by the membersfrom the members registered in pursuance of this ordinance s 5, 6, 7 the council appoints among other officers a registrar 26 register, qualification - persons registered under ordinance 11 of 1885are entitled to register under this ordinance 31 the council is required to cause the registrar to keep a register ofthe names of all persons who have complied with this ordinance, andthe rules and regulations of the council respecting the qualificationsrequired from practitioners of medicine or surgery only those personswhose names are inscribed in the register are deemed qualified andlicensed to practise medicine or surgery, except as hereinafterprovided 32 the registrar is required to keep his register correct and to make thenecessary alterations in the addresses or qualifications of personsregistered 33 the council is required to admit on the register. A any person possessing a diploma from any college in great britainand ireland having power to grant such diploma entitling him topractise medicine and surgery, and who shall produce such diploma andfurnish satisfactory evidence of identification. B any member of the college of physicians and surgeons of theprovinces of manitoba, ontario and quebec upon producing satisfactoryevidence of the same and of identification.

As an ointment and as an emulsion the ointment, so declarethe manufacturers, “is always required”. The emulsion may be used“as an auxiliary treatment ” the dionol “literature” when stripped ofthe verbal camouflage with which it abounds may be said to propoundthe following theories and propositions. First, that the nerves of thebody are electric conductors insulated from the surrounding tissues bythe nerve sheaths. Second, that inflammation breaks down the insulationwith the resultant escape of the current and an interference with thenormal metabolic action of the cells. Third, that dionol, when appliedto the body, penetrates the tissues, “coating the cells and with themthe nerve sheaths with a nonconducting layer which is sufficient toinsulate the nerve sheaths and stop the leak ”so much for the theory on which the alleged action of dionol is based dionol itself is a sort of glorified petrolatum not, of course, thatthe manufacturers describe it in any such crude and understandablelanguage according to the company, dionol is “composed of purehydrocarbons, especially selected with regard to specific gravity, viscosity and other necessary physical properties” which has been“perfectly deionized by our special scientific process under thebaines method ” it appears, from further reading, that ordinarypetrolatum will not “turn the trick”. Presumably because it does notovercome the human short circuits which the dionol company declare arealways present in inflammation when, however, the petrolatum has beensubjected to the “baines method” it achieves, it seems, an esotericvalue that puts to shame its plebeian origin the whole thing is very simple to those physicians that like this sortof thing this preparation should make a strong appeal -- from thejournal a m a , jan 26, 1918 glorified petrolatuman indiana physician sends us in a batch of leaflets detailing themarvels of “dionol” and thus comments. “i received the enclosed in the mail today and i am puzzled, perplexed and astounded i had formed the opinion that the profession was getting better. That it was more scholarly than formerly when the two course school was still in existence and any one could matriculate. That it was no longer possible for a ‘patent medicine’ manufacturer to palm off his wares on us after reading this stuff and realizing that such methods must be remunerative, i am deeply humiliated is it possible that educated physicians respond to this kind of advertising?. or has essay one perpetrated a joke on me?. if the profession can be thus successfully exploited one can no longer wonder at the following which every new ‘ic’ and ‘ism’ acquires ”it is a pity that the medical profession generally does not react tothe dionol and similar advertising as does our correspondent as theconcern continues to do business, the presumption is that at leastessay physicians are using dionol as was pointed out in the journalof jan 26, 1918, dionol seems to be a glorified and esoteric formof petrolatum the exploitation of dionol is based on the followingtheory. 1 the brain is a generator of neuro-electricity. 2 thenerves are the conductors of this electricity. 3 the nerve sheathsare the insulator. 4 wherever there is local inflammation thenerves are short circuited, due to a breaking down of the insulationresistance of the nerve sheath. 5 this results in “an escapeof neuro-electricity;” 6 dionol coats the nerve sheaths with anonconducting layer and this restores the insulation and “stops theleak ”whether this ingenious theory was invented to lend an air ofverisimilitude to an otherwise bald and unconvincing tale and give a“reason for being” for dionol or whether dionol was first inventedand it became necessary to evolve a theory that would give essayplausibility to the claims made for this etheralized petrolatum, we areunable to say in any case the theory and the product are exploitedtogether among the material sent in by a correspondent are essay “dionol casereports ” neither the names nor the addresses of the physicians makingthese reports are given, but the company states that they may be had“on request ” one special “report” is featured under the heading“infected wound striking results after united states and frenchgovernment army surgeons failed” is signed “dr w ” it is dated july19, 1919 a few months ago the dionol company was sending out this sametestimonial with the full name and address of the “doctor” giving it investigation showed that the “doctor” in question was an osteopathwhose specialties, according to his advertisement in his localnewspaper, are “catarrhal deafness and hay fever, acute and chronicdiseases”!.

and where did he die?. This question is essaytimes settled by examination of the spot wherethe deceased lay and the furniture, etc , about essaytimes the flooror ground and the furniture or surrounding objects at a distance givethe requisite evidence the examination of the cracks and corners ofthe floor and furniture should not be neglected, and taylor instancesa case where the hair of a dog helped to clear up the case if thebody has not been disturbed the most blood is usually found wherethe deceased died if the victim succumbs at the spot where he waswounded, blood is found only in the immediate neighborhood, except forarterial jets, which may be as far distant as two metres the separateblood-spots of an arterial jet are circular if the jet strikes theobject perpendicularly, oval or wedge-shaped with the larger end awayfrom the body if it strikes the object obliquely if the blood-stains are more diffused and are found in other places, careful notice should be taken as to whether the different placescommunicate with one another by traces of blood if they do notcommunicate, it goes to show that the body was moved after activebleeding had ceased, that is, after death, but this indication isnot absolutely positive if traces of blood do connect the largerblood-spots, it is of interest and importance to know where thedeceased was wounded and where he died, also whether he moved orif he was moved before or after death this question is not alwayscapable of solution essay injuries exclude the possibility of activemotion stupefying contused injuries of the head or an incised woundopening a great artery are both inflicted where there is the greatesthemorrhage, and the spot where the deceased was wounded and died shouldbe identical in such paper a second large spot of blood, connectingor not with the first wound, indicates that the body has been moved but if the wound does not bleed much or rapidly, the wounded personmay fall at a distance from the spot where he was injured, and deathoccurs, as a rule, where there is the greatest amount of blood. For acertain amount of bleeding occurs for a short time after the victimfalls or even after death one can find in thesis places the signs ofarterial jets marking the movement of the deceased from one blood-spotto another this is quite different from the tracks caused by dragginga bleeding body all this it is important to notice, for the draggingor passive moving of the body strongly indicates murder blood at adistance may indicate the occurrence of a struggle, or that the bodywas moved, or it may show the tracks of a murderer as to the latterpoint, the imprints of the hands and feet, whether bloody or not, may indicate murder and establish the identity of the murderer wehave already seen how they may occur on the deceased and indicate astruggle, and thus be presumptive of murder when the marks are made bythe naked foot, it is well to examine it by lining it off in squares, and so to compare it with the imprint of the foot of the accused simple inspection can essaytimes give the required evidence we mayeven get an impression of such imprints in the snow imprints of theboots or shoes worn by the accused compared with those imprints foundat and near the scene of the crime may essaytimes help to clear up thecase, but this may perhaps be considered outside of the sphere of themedical witness such and other signs of a struggle about one of theblood-spots would indicate that the wound was received there, thoughdeath may have occurred at another spot in such a case it would bewell to examine to see if there was much blood where the body wasfound, for if there was not it would indicate that the body had beenmoved there after death, and thus be strongly presumptive of murder as furnishing essay evidence which may help to distinguish betweensuicide and homicide in the origin of wounds, the question may beasked, what was the position of the victim when injured or dying?. andalso, what were the relative positions of the victim and assailant?. The position of the victim at the moment of the injury is essaytimesindicated by the position of the wound, the direction of its tract, and the direction from the wound of the blood on the body and clothes on the neck or extremities the course and form of the wound mayindicate the position of these writings when the wound was inflicted, for essaytimes in flexions of these writings the skin lies in folds, anda wound inflicted when these writings were so flexed would be irregular, wavy, or zig-zag further, the position and movement of these writingsnecessary to restore directness to the wound may indicate the positionof the writings when the wound was inflicted the examination of therelative positions of the wound in the clothes and the body may helpto indicate the position of the body when wounded the position ofthe blood on the body and the direction of the blood from the wound, whether below or at the sides, etc , tends to show the position ofthe body when bleeding thus if the body was at any time in the erectposition, essay of the blood-stains will be vertically below the wound, or if the victim was lying on the back then the stain would be at thesides only and not below the wound, except such stains as indicatethat they were produced by arterial jets few suicides cut the throatin the recumbent position. Therefore it may be considered in the lightof an indication of homicide if the blood-stains show that the victimwas not erect after the wound was inflicted it is well also to notethe form, direction, and obliquity of the blood-spot this wouldindicate, by comparison with the wound, the relative position of thewounded person and the blood-spot, and thus show whether the body hadbeen moved or not, as, for instance, by the murderer for the purposeof robbery the force of the bleeding is also indicated by the form ofthe spot, and this would indicate how rapidly death probably ensued this fact might thus help us to judge whether the victim probably diedwhere he was wounded, and whether other and remote blood-spots wouldnot be presumptive of murder if the victim is found in night-clothes, this fact would help to show that he was lying down when wounded themedical evidence as to the position of the victim when injured is, therefore, circumstantial and not very positive. That in regard to therelative position of the victim and assailant is even less positive we presuppose in this question that the case is one of murder we arenot to prove murder or refute suicide we can rarely be positive asto the relative position of the assailed and the assailant a woundin the back may be caused by essay one in front with an arm behind the direction of the wound would indicate this, for if the assailantis right-handed and inflicts a wound on the back from in front, astab-wound would almost always be directed from left to right, anincised wound from right to left, both from above downward with aleft-handed murderer the direction would most likely be from right toleft and from above downward for a stab-wound, and from left to rightand from above downward for an incised wound if the assailant were atthe back of the victim and wounded him in front, the direction of thesewounds would be the opposite of the above, i e , from right to leftfor a stab-wound and from left to right and from above downward foran incised wound with a right-handed assailant and vice versa witha left-handed assailant these wounds occur more commonly than thoseof the back, and are especially noticeable in incised wounds of thethroat in the case of these incised wounds of the throat inflictedfrom behind, the direction from left to right and from above downwardresembles that of self-inflicted wounds in the same situation asa general rule, wounds are on the same side of the victim that theassailant was. The facts given above help to show us the exceptions thus a wound on one side is presumptive that the murderer was on thatside, or possibly at the front or back and only exceptionally on theopposite side the presence of wounds on one side only may help toconfirm the testimony of a witness that the victim was against a wallor essay other obstacle which protected the other side the question ofthe relative position of the combatants in duels and the nature of theweapons used as shown by the wounds has essaytimes come up, especiallyin other countries, to determine whether the combat was regular andfair in all paper of suspected suicide, but where a doubt exists betweensuicide and murder, or even accident, hereditary disposition andorganic affections of the body, such as alcoholism, incurable orpainful diseases, chronic inflammation of the brain and meninges or ofthe genito-urinary organs all such and hereditary predisposition maysupport the idea of suicide imputed or self-inflicted wounds closely allied with the question of the suicidal or homicidal originof wounds is the question whether a wound imputed to another isself-inflicted or inflicted by another these wounds are seldom fatal in discussing the question whether a wound is self-inflicted orinflicted by another, we have referred occasionally to suicidal woundswhere the circumstances were such as apparently purposely to implymurder and impute the cause of death to essay one else this happensmore often in paper of unsuccessful suicide here we have recourse tothe same evidence that we have gone over in the present section whichhelps to distinguish between a suicidal and a homicidal wound thecase may be essaywhat more difficult, as the unsuccessful suicide maymanufacture evidence against the accused and hide to essay extent theevidence of suicide these paper can usually be decided, however, inconnection with the circumstantial and other evidence the majorityof paper of imputed but self-inflicted wounds are very superficial, often not below the true skin being self-inflicted they have thesisof the characters of suicidal wounds thus they are usually situatedin front and on the left or right according as the wounded person isright or left handed, and the direction is usually similar to that insuicidal wounds such wounds are generally incised or punctured wounds, seldom contused wounds, and in this respect they resemble suicidalwounds as exceptions to this rule, bergeret650 mentions essay paperwhere females in attacks of hysteria have inflicted severe contusionson themselves, and have preferred charges of attempted murder againstinnocent persons like suicides also the hands are seldom injured, though they may be much so in resisting homicide in other respects, however, these wounds differ from suicidal wounds thus they are not usually situated over a “mortal” spot, and they areoften numerous and scattered, essaytimes parallel and essaytimes not the wounds in the dress do not correspond even as often as in suicide in comparing cuts in clothing with those on the body, it is importantto find what articles were worn at the time the assault was alleged tohave taken place, and to make sure that the clothes examined were thoseworn or alleged to have been worn it may not be necessary that theclothes examined should have been really worn, for if they were allegedto have been worn and were not, the examination of them will almostalways show the deception or the self-inflicted nature of the wounds then take careful note of the position, direction, form, and sizeof the cut and the apparent sharpness of the weapon in the severallayers, and see if they correspond with one another and with the woundson the body in those various writingiculars in imputed wounds the clothesare generally cut when off the body and can seldom be done so as todeceive a careful examiner several wounds cannot exist in the sameregion of the body without essay being bloody and showing the marks ofit on the clothes even a single wound of the clothes generally showsblood on the inner surface if there is a corresponding wound of thebody underneath in simulated and imputed injuries the blood-stain maybe on the outside of the clothing instead of on the inside, showingthat it was artificial and not natural an impostor may either do toomuch or too little, and the medical witness should be on guard againstboth alternatives taylor651 mentions a case which occurred inlondon essay time ago, in which there were two cuts in the shirt neartogether exactly alike in size, form, and direction, making it evidentthat the weapon had gone through a fold of the shirt this proved thatthe shirt could not have been worn at the time it was cut, for if theshirt was folded while on the body the weapon must have gone throughthe fold and then through another layer of shirt, making three cutsinstead of two, or five instead of four, before it could have reachedthe body this and other facts made self-infliction of the slight woundon the chest probable the same author cites another case showing theimperfect manner in which the cuts in the clothes are made in imputedwounds, the clothes being off the body at the time the case occurredin nottingham in 1872, the accused being charged with wounding theplaintiff on the highway by stabbing him in the arm, though there wasno robbery or other motive for the act the coat and shirt sleeve werefound cut, but there was no corresponding cut in the lining of the coatsleeve the charge was clearly false, and was trumped up by the youthwho was the plaintiff because he wished to leave the place where he hadbeen sent for private study in examining a case where the self-inflicted nature of imputed woundsis in question, the following are essay of the thesis points to keep inmind in the examination and to be ascertained by the examination. 1 the relative position of the plaintiff and the assailant at thetime of the alleged attack this can be compared with the positionas stated by the plaintiff or other witnesses 2 the situation, direction, depth, nature, and number of the wounds 3 the situationand direction of blood-marks or wounds on the dress or person of eitheror both 4 the marks of blood and the quantity of it at the spot ofthe alleged struggle 5 the signs of a struggle and the various otherpoints of circumstantial evidence gone over in considering suicidal andhomicidal wounds though a severe blow may cause a slight mark, it does not follow thata slight mark implies a severe injury, else the exception is made therule the inconsistency of the story of the plaintiff is generally sopalpable that imposture is evident, but prejudice and unjust suspicionare often excited against those accused thus taylor652 states that“a strong suspicion was raised against the then duke of cumberland, in1810, in reference to the death of sellis, when a skilful examinationof the wounds on the deceased would have shown that they might havebeen self-inflicted ” the same author also cites the case of m armand, a merchant of montpelier, who at aix in march, 1864, was tried for analleged murderous assault on, or imputed murderous strangulation of, his servant the excoriation on the back of the neck was so slight asto escape the observation of essay medical men, and it was evidentlyself-inflicted, either accidentally or purposely, as the facts showed the assertions of a number of medical men were taken by the court tosupport the servant story to the effect that his master had struckhim a severe blow on the back of his neck, rendering him insensible forthesis hours from concussion of the brain the evidence given chiefly bytardieu for the defence showed the story of the complainant to be afabrication, and the accused was justly acquitted was a wound accidental?. In answering this question we must distinguish accidental wounds fromthose self-inflicted and those inflicted by another these threeclasses comprise all wounds in case of a trial for murder it may bealleged by the defence that the wound was caused by accident or thatit was due to suicide from a fall, falls being a common class ofaccidental wounds so we have to judge between accident on the onehand and homicide and suicide on the other hand the question arisesespecially in paper where the injury causing death is one commonly dueto accident as to the question between accidental and suicidal wounds, they areoften easily distinguished, especially if the body has not beendisturbed in suicide there is clear evidence of design, and thecircumstantial evidence helps to make the case clear it may not alwaysbe possible to decide, however, as an accidental wound may essaytimesresemble a suicidal or homicidal one accident is often shown by thenature of the wound thus it is rare for an accidental mortal woundto be caused by a knife or similar weapon held in the hand and forcedinto the body by a fall, the blow of an opening door, etc but suchexceptional paper have been reported incised and punctured woundsare, therefore, very rarely accidental, and most accidental wounds arecontused wounds or contusions again, accident is often shown by the situation of the wound, whichshould be on an exposed writing of the body unless the accident is due toa fall from a height, when the wound may be almost anywhere but suchinjuries are easily shown to be due to falls the fall, of course, may be accidental, suicidal, or homicidal essay wounds in exposedwritings forbid accident on account of their nature, i e , deep incisedwounds of the throat if the deceased has a life insurance, suicideis less probable, as the insurance is not paid in case of suicide infine, accidental wounds are distinguished from suicidal by 1 theirnature. Accidental wounds are almost always contused, suicidal veryrarely so, only in paper of lunatics and delirious persons and wheresuicide is accomplished by a fall 2 the situation of the wound orwounds indicates their origin we have already studied the situationof suicidal wounds and have also seen that accidental wounds are onlyon exposed writings, except when the injury clearly indicates a fall froma height the evidence from the direction of wounds rarely applies, asthis is valuable only in incised and punctured wounds, which are seldomaccidental both kinds of wounds are usually few in number except incase of a fall from a height or a crush, though essaytimes suicidalwounds are multiple the evidence from weapons, if there be any, points strongly to suicide the signs of a struggle are hardly consistent with either suicide oraccident the only case in which they might occur would be where astruggle occurred to prevent a suicide from throwing himself off aheight or before a vehicle or railway train in such a case accidentwould be excluded by the signs of a struggle, and the question wouldlie between homicide and suicide the examination of the clothes ofthe deceased would furnish no evidence unless essay letter or paperwere found stating the purpose of committing suicide little or noevidence would be furnished by the position of the body when foundin paper which might otherwise be doubtful organic lesions or otherfacts predisposing to suicide would furnish presumptive evidenceagainst the wounds being accidental of all these various points thefirst, as to the nature of the wounds, is by itself the most valuableand conclusive but this gives us no assistance in clearing up a casewhere it is doubtful whether a fall from a height or a crush by avehicle or railway train was accidental or suicidal essay of the otherpoints mentioned may aid us in such a case, and also the fact that suchinjuries are far more often accidental than suicidal but in thesepaper, also, certain circumstances may show that the fall was not theresult of accident accidental wounds are generally caused by a fall or a crush, andthe fact of their accidental character is generally established bythe circumstances of the event certain accidental wounds presentcharacteristics which allow the true nature of the wounds to bedetermined but in essay paper a suspicion may arise and the questionmay be asked as to whether the wound was accidental or homicidal forinstance, if a person receives fatal homicidal injuries, and justbefore or after death the body is thrown from a height or is runover and crushed, it may be hard to determine the murderous elementamong the thesis wounds this is the case if the homicidal wounds werecontusions or were caused by blunt instruments, but rarely, if everso, if they are incised or punctured wounds or both but even in theformer instance, a close examination of the lesions and of the localityof the injury can often clear up the case thus in a case mentionedby vibert, 653 as cited by hofmann after taylor, a woman was founddead at the foot of essay stairs in a cave she had died of a fractureof the skull and of the spine, produced by the fall but about four orfive feet above the level of the top step there was found on the wallthe fresh marks of an arterial jet of blood examination showed a woundin the right temporal region which had opened the temporal artery, andit was therefore thought that the woman was wounded at the top of thestairway and then thrown down, which was afterward proved to be true in another case, reported by m tourdes, a man knocked down and killedby an axe, which crushed his skull and caused the brain to exude, wasplaced in a road frequented at night by heavy wagons the head wasplaced in the rut, but the coagulated blood and brain formed a puddlewhich did not appear on the wheels or their track, and no bloody furrowwas caused by their passage the same author mentions the case of awoman plainly strangulated by the hands and then thrown into the ditchof the fortifications of paris it is especially with regard to fractures of the skull that thequestion often comes up as to the accidental or homicidal nature ofthe injury, as to whether it is due to a fall or a wound essaytimes adepressed fracture may show the form of the instrument an extensivecomminuted fracture of the skull may indicate greater violence thanwould be received from a fall from the little height which thecircumstances may allow as to the slighter degrees of fracture, the disposition of the fracture itself often shows less than theform and site of the ecchymosis, the lesion of the scalp, and theplace and position of the body when found in such paper the tracesof a struggle, the existence of other wounds, etc , may be of greatimportance in distinguishing between homicide and accident, as indistinguishing between the latter and suicide, the most obscure anddifficult paper are those where the injury has been caused by a fallfrom a height or by a crush this is illustrated by the case of madame de tourville, which isquoted by taylor 654 she was killed in july, 1876, by a fall from aprecipice her husband, a lawyer, was accused of murder committed bypushing her over a precipice in the stelvio pass the place where herdead body was found was at a considerable depth below, and the injurywas chiefly in the head, which had been crushed by the fall the bodyshowed no evidence of intentional violence the prisoner guilt wasestablished on the following points. 1 the false and inconsistentstatements made as to the occurrence. 2 the marks of the body havingbeen dragged essay distance so that a writing of the dress was found, ina bloody condition, essay way from the body.

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And juices culpeper 1 rob, or sapa, is the juice of a fruit, made thick bythe heat either of the sun, or the fire, that it is capable of beingkept safe from putrefaction 2 its use was first invented for diseasesin the mouth 3 it is usually made, in respect of body, essaywhatthicker than new honey 4 it may be kept about a year, little more orless rob sive sapa, simplex or simple rob, or sapa college take of wine newly pressed from white and ripe grapes, boilit over a gentle fire to the thickness of honey culpeper whenever you read the word rob, or sapa throughout thedispensatory, simply quoted in any medicine without any relation ofwhat it should be made, this is that you ought to use rob de barberis or rob of barberries college take of the juice of barberries strained as much as youwill, boil it by itself or else by adding half a pound of sugar toeach pound of juice to the thickness of honey culpeper it quenches thirst, closes the mouth of the stomach, thereby staying vomiting, and belching, it strengthens stomachsweakened by heat, and procures appetite of any of these robs you maytake a little on the point of a knife when you need rob de cerasis or rob of cherries college take of the juice of red cherries essaywhat sowerish, asmuch as you will, and with half their weight in sugar boil them likethe former culpeper see the virtue of cherries, and there you have a method tokeep them all the year rob de cornis or rob of cornels college take of the juice of cornels two pounds, sugar a pound andan half, boil it according to art culpeper of those cornel trees are two sorts, male and female, thefruit of the male cornel, or cornelian cherry is here to be used thefruit of male cornel, binds exceedingly, and therefore good in fluxes, and the immoderate flowing of the menses rob cydoniorum or rob of quinces college take of the clarified juice of quinces, boil it till twowritings be consumed and with its equal weight in sugar boil it into a rob miva vel gelatina eorundem or jelly of quinces college take of the juice of quinces clarified twelve pounds, boilit half away, and add to the remainder, old white wine five pounds, consume the third writing over a gentle fire, taking away the scum allyou ought let the rest settle, and strain it, and with three pounds ofsugar boil it according to art culpeper both are good for weak and indisposed stomachs college rob of sour plums is made as rob of quinces, the use ofsugar is indifferent in them both rob of english currants is made in the same manner, let the juice beclarified culpeper the virtues are the same with rob of barberries rob baccarum sambuci or rob of elder berries college take of the juice of elder berries, and make it thick withthe help of a gentle fire, either by itself, or a quarter of its weightin sugar being added culpeper both rob of elder berries, and dwarf-elder, are excellentfor such whose bodies are inclining to dropsies, neither let themneglect nor despise it they may take the quantity of a nutmeg eachmorning, it will gently purge the watery humour college in the same manner is made rob of dwarf-elder, junipers, and paul betony, only in the last, the sugar and juice must be equalin weight succus glycyrrhizæ simplex or juice of liquorice simple college infuse liquorice roots cleansed and gently bruised, threedays in spring water, so much that it may over-top the roots thebreadth of three fingers, then boil it a little, and press it hard out, and boil the liquor with a gentle fire to its due thickness culpeper it is vulgarly known to be good against coughs, colds, &c and a strengthner of the lungs succus glycyrrhizæ compositus or juice of liquorice compound college take of the water of tender oak leaves, of scabious, ofeach four pounds, english liquorice scraped and bruised two pounds, boil them by degrees till they be soft, then press out the liquorstrongly in a press, to which add three pounds of juice of hyssop, anddry it away in the sun in a broad earthen vessel culpeper the virtues are the same with the former succus pronorum sylvestrum or juice of sloes, called acacia college take of sloes hardly ripe, press out the juice, and make itthick in a bath culpeper it stops fluxes, and procures appetite college so are the juices of wormwood, maudlin, and fumitory madethick, to wit, the herbs bruised while they be tender, and the juicepressed out and after it be clarified, boil over the fire to its justthickness lohoch, or eclegmata culpeper because this word also is understood but by few, we willfirst explain what it is 1 the word lohoch is an arabick word, called in greek eclegma, in latin linctus, and signifies a thingto be licked up 2 it is in respect of body, essaything thicker thana syrup, and not so thick as an electuary 3 its use was against theroughness of the windpipe, diseases, and inflammations of the lungs, difficulty of breathing, colds, coughs, &c 4 its manner of receptionis with a liquorice stick, bruised at the end, to take up essay andretain it in the mouth, till it melt of its own accord lohoch de farfara or lohoch of coltsfoot college take of colts-foot roots cleansed eight ounces, marsh-mallow roots four ounces cleansed, boil them in a sufficientquantity of water, and press the pulp out through a sieve, dissolvethis again in the decoction, and let it boil once or twice, then takeit from the fire, and add two pounds of white sugar, honey of raisinsfourteen ounces, juice of liquorice two drams and an half, stir themstoutly with a wooden pestle, mean season sprinkle in saffron andcloves, of each a scruple, cinnamon and mace, of each two scruples, make them into a lohoch according to art culpeper it was invented for the cough lohoch de papavere or lohoch of poppies college take white poppy seeds twenty four drams, sweet almondsblanched in rose water, pine-nuts cleansed, gum arabick and tragacanth, of each ten drams, juice of liquorice an ounce, starch three drams, theseeds of lettuce, purslain, quinces, of each half an ounce, saffron adram, penids four ounces, syrup of meconium three pounds, make it intoa lohoch according to art culpeper it helps salt, sharp and thin distillations upon thelungs, it allays the fury of such sharp humours, which occasion bothroughness of the throat, want of sleep, and fevers. It is excellent forsuch as are troubled with pleurises to take now and then a little ofit lohoch e passulis or lohoch of raisins college take of male peony roots, liquorice, of each half an ounce, hyssop, bawm, hart-tongue, or cetrach, of each half a handful, boilthem in spring water, and press them strongly, and by adding a pound ofraisins bruised, boil it again, pressing it through a linen cloth, thenwith a pound of white sugar, make it into a lohoch according to art culpeper it is very good against coughs, consumptions of the lungs, and other vices of the breast, and is usually given to children forsuch diseases, as also for convulsions, and falling-sickness lohoch e pino or lohoch of pinenuts college take of pine-nuts, fifteen drams, sweet almonds, hazelnuts gently roasted, gum arabick and tragacanth, powder and juice ofliquorice, white starch, maiden-hair, orris roots, of each two drams, the pulp of dates seventeen drams, bitter almonds one dram and an half, honey of raisins, white sugar-candy, fresh butter, of each two ounces, honey one pound and an half, dissolve the gums in so much decoction ofmaiden-hair as is sufficient. Let the rest be mixed over a gentle fire, and stirred, that so it may be made into a lohoch culpeper the medicine is excellent for continual coughs, anddifficulty of breathing, it succours such as are asthmatic, for it cutsand atenuates tough humours in the breast lohoch de portulaca or lohoch of purslain college take of the strained juice of purslain two pounds, troches of terra lemnia two drams, troches of amber, gum arabic, dragon-blood of each one dram, lapis hematilis, the wool of ahare toasted, of each two scruples, white sugar one pound, mix themtogether, that so you may make a lohoch of them culpeper the medicine is so binding that it is better let alonethan taken, unless in inward bruises when men spit blood, then you maysafely take a little of it lohoch e pulmone vulpis or lohoch of fox lungs college take of fox lungs rightly prepared, juice of liquorice, maiden-hair, annis-seeds, sweet fennel seeds, of each equal writings, sugar dissolved in colt-foot, and scabious water, and boiled into asyrup, three times their weight. The rest being in fine powder, letthem be put to it and strongly stirred together, that it may be madeinto a lohoch according to art culpeper it cleanses and unites ulcers in the lungs and breast, andis a present remedy in phthisicks lohoch sanum et expertum or a sound and well experienced lohoch college take of dried hyssop and calaminth, of each half an ounce, jujubes, sebestens, the stones being taken out, fifteen raisins of thesun stoned, fat figs, dates, of each two ounces, linseed, fenugreekseed, of each five drams, maiden-hair one handful, annis-seeds, sweetfennel seeds, orris roots cut, liquorice, cinnamon, of each an ounce, boil them according to art in four pounds of clear water till halfbe consumed, and with two pounds of penids boil it into a syrup, afterwards cut and bruise very small pine-nuts five drams, sweetalmonds blanched, liquorice, gum tragacanth and arabick, white starchof each three drams, let these be put into the syrup when it is off thefire, and stir it about swiftly with a wooden pestle till it look white culpeper it succors the breast, lungs, throat, oppressed by cold, it restores the voice lost by reason of cold, and attenuates thick andgross humours in the breast and lungs lohoch scilliticum or lohoch of squils college take three drams of a squil baked in paste, orris roots twodrams, hyssop, hore-hound, of each one dram, saffron, myrrh, of eachhalf a dram, honey two ounces and an half, bruise the squil, after itis baked, in a stone mortar, and after it hath boiled a walm or twowith the honey, put in the rest of the things in powder, diligentlystirring it, and make it into a lohoch according to art eclegma of squils mesue college take of the juice of squils and honey, both of themclarified, of each two pounds, boil them together according to art tothe consistence of honey culpeper for the virtues of it see vinegar of squils, and oximelof squils, only this is more mild, and not so harsh to the throat, because it hath no vinegar in it, and therefore is far more fitting forasthmaes, and such as are troubled with difficulty of breathing, itcuts and carries away humours from the breast, be they thick or thin, and wonderfully helps indigestion of victuals, and eases pains in thebreast, and for this, i quote the authority of galen lohoch of coleworts gordonius college take one pound of the juice of coleworts, clarified saffronthree drams, clarified honey, and sugar, of each half a pound, make ofthem a lohoch according to art culpeper it helps hoarseness, and loss of voice, eases surfeits andhead-ache coming of drunkenness, and opens obstructions of the liverand spleen, and therefore is good for that disease in children calledthe rickets preserved roots, stalks, barks, flowers, fruits college take of eringo roots as thesis as you will, cleanse themwithout and within, the pith being taken out, steep them two days inclear water, shifting the water essaytimes, then dry them with a cloth, then take their equal weight in white sugar, and as much rose-wateras will make it into a syrup, which being almost boiled, put in theroots, and let them boil until the moisture be consumed, and let itbe brought to the due body of a syrup not much unlike to this arepreserved the roots of acorus, angelica, borrage, bugloss, succory, elecampane, burnet, satyrion, sicers, comfrey the greater, ginger, zedoary take of the stalks of artichokes, not too ripe, as thesis as youwill, and contrary to the roots take only the pith of these, andpreserve them with their equal weight in sugar, like the former so isprepared the stalks of angelica, burs, lettuce, &c before they be tooripe take of fresh orange pills as thesis as you will, take away theexterior yellowness, and steep them in spring water three days at theleast, often renewing the water, then preserve them like the former in like manner are lemon and citron pills preserved preserve theflowers of citrons, oranges, borrage, primroses, with sugar, accordingto art take of apricots as thesis as you will, take away the outer skinand the stones, and mix them with their like weight in sugar, afterfour hours take them out, and boil the sugar without any other liquor, then put them in again, and boil them a little other fruits may bepreserved in the same manner, or at least not much unlike to it, aswhole barberries, cherries, cornels, citrons, quinces, peaches, commonapples, the five sorts of myrobalans, hazel nuts, walnuts, nutmegs, raisins of the sun, pepper brought green from india, plums, gardenand wild pears, grapes pulps are also preserved, as barberries, cassia fistula, citrons, cinosbatus, quinces, and sloes, &c take ofbarberries as thesis as you will, boil them in spring water till theyare tender, then having pulped them through a sieve, that they arefree from the stones, boil it again in an earthen vessel over a gentlefire, often stirring them for fear of burning, till the watery humourbe consumed, then mix ten pounds of sugar with six pounds of this pulp, boil it to its due thickness broom buds are also preserved, but withbrine and vinegar, and so are olives and capers lastly, amongst thebarks, cinnamon, amongst the flowers, roses, and marigolds, amongst thefruits, almonds, cloves, pine-nuts, and fistick-nuts, are said to bepreserved but with this difference, they are encrusted with dry sugar, and are more called confects than preserves conserves and sugars college conserves of the herbs of wormwood, sorrel, wood-sorrel, the flowers of oranges, borrage, bugloss, bettony, marigolds, the topsof carduus, the flowers of centaury the less, clove-gilliflowers, germander, succory, the leaves of scurvy-grass, the flowers of comfreythe greater citratiæ, cinosbati, the roots of spurge, herbs andflowers of eye-bright, the tops of fumitory, goat-rue, the flowersof broom not quite open, hyssop, lavender, white lilies, lilies of thevalley, marjoram, mallows, the tops of bawm, the leaves of mints, theflowers of water lilies, red poppies, peony, peaches, primroses, roses, the leaves of rue, the flowers of sage, elder scabious, the leaves ofscordium, the flowers of limetree, coltsfoot, violets, with all theseare conserves made with their treble proportion of white sugar. Yetnote, that all of them must not be mixed alike, essay of them must becut, beaten, and gently boiled, essay neither cut, beaten nor boiled, and essay admit but one of them, which every artist in his trade mayfind out by this premonition and avoid error sugars diacodium solidum, sive tabulatum college take of white poppy heads, meanly ripe, and newly gathered, twenty, steep them in three pounds of warm spring water, and the nextday boil them until the virtue is out, then strain out the liquor, andwith a sufficient quantity of good sugar, boil it according to art, that you may make it up into lozenges culpeper the virtues are the same with the common diacodium, viz to provoke sleep, and help thin rheums in the head, coughs, androughness of the throat, and may easily be carried about in onepocket saccharum tabulatum simplex, et perlatum or lozenges of sugar both simple and pearled college the first is made by pouring the sugar upon a marble, aftera sufficient boiling in half its weight in damask rose water. And thelatter by adding to every pound of the former towards the latter end ofthe decoction, pearls, prepared and bruised, half an ounce, with eightor ten leaves of gold culpeper it is naturally cooling, appropriated to the heart, it restores lost strength, takes away burning fevers, and falseimaginations, i mean that with pearls, for that without pearls isridiculous it hath the same virtues pearls have saccharum tabulatum compositum or lozenges of sugar compound college take of choice rhubarb four scruples, agarick trochiscated, corallins, burnt hart-horn, dittany of crete, wormseed and sorrelseed, of each a scruple, cinnamon, zedoary, cloves, saffron, of eachhalf a scruple, white sugar a pound, dissolved in four ounces ofwormwood water, wormwood wine, an ounce, cinnamon water a spoonful, with the forenamed powders make it into lozenges according to art culpeper the title shews you the virtues of it saccharum penidium, or sugar penidscollege are prepared of sugar dissolved in spring water by a gentlefire, and the whites of eggs diligently beaten, and clarified once, andagain whilst it is boiling, then strain it and boil it gently again, till it rise up in great bubbles, and being chewed it stick not to yourteeth, then pour it upon a marble, anointed with oil of almonds, letthe bubbles first sink, after it is removed from the fire bring backthe outsides of it to the middle till it look like larch rosin, then, your hands being rubbed with white starch, you may draw it into threadseither short or long, thick or thin, and let it cool in what form youplease culpeper i remember country people were wont to take them forcoughs, and they are essaytimes used in other compositions confectio de thure or confection of frankincense college take coriander seeds prepared half an ounce, nutmegs, whitefrankincense, of each three drams, liquorice, mastich, of each twodrams, cubebs, hart-horn prepared, of each one dram, conserve of redroses an ounce, white sugar as much as is sufficient to make it intomean bits culpeper i cannot boast much of the rarity nor virtues of thisreceipt saccharum rosatum or sugar of roses college take of red rose leaves, the whites being cut off, andspeedily dried in the sun an ounce, white sugar a pound, melt thesugar in rose-water and juice of roses of each two ounces which beingconsumed by degrees, put in the rose leaves in powder, mix them, put itupon a marble, and make it into lozenges according to art culpeper as for the virtues of this, it strengthens weak stomachs, weak hearts, and weak brains, restores such as are in consumptions, restores lost strength, stays fluxes, eases pains in the head, earsand eyes, helps spitting, vomiting, and urining of blood. It is a finecommodity for a man in a consumption to carry about with him, and eatnow and then a bit species, or powders aromaticum caryophyllatum college take of cloves seven drams, mace, zedoary, galanga theless, yellow sanders, troches, diarrhodon, cinnamon, wood of aloes, indian spikenard, long pepper, cardamoms the less, of each a dram, redroses four ounces, gallia moschata, liquorice, of each two drams, ofindian leaf, cubebs of each two scruples, beat them all diligently intopowder culpeper this powder strengthens the heart and stomach, helpsdigestion, expels wind, stays vomiting, and cleanses the stomach ofputrified humors aromaticum rosatum college take of red roses exungulated fifteen drams, liquoriceseven drams, wood of aloes, yellow sanders, of each three drams, cinnamon five drams, cloves, mace, of each two drams and an half, gumarabic and tragacanth, of each eight scruples, nutmegs, cardamoms theless, galanga of each one dram, indian spikenard two scruples, make itinto a powder to be kept in a glass for use culpeper it strengthens the brain, heart and stomach, and allsuch internal members as help towards decoction, it helps digestion, consumes the watery excrements of the bowels, strengthens such as arepined away by reason of the violence of a disease, and restores such asare in consumption pulvus ex chelus cancrorum compositus or powder of crab claws compound college take of pearls prepared, crab eyes, red coral, whiteamber, hart-horn, oriential bezoar, of each half an ounce, powder ofthe black tops of crab claws, the weight of them all, beat them intopowder, which may be made into balls with jelly, and the skins whichour vipers have cast off, warily dried and kept for use culpeper this is that powder they ordinarily call gascoignspowder, there are divers receipts of it, of which this is none of theworst, four, or five, or six grains is excellently good in a fever tobe taken in any cordial, for it cheers the heart and vital spiritsexceedingly, and makes them impregnable species cordiales temperatæ college take of wood of aloes, spodium of each a dram, cinnamon, cloves, bone of a stag-heart, the roots of angelica, avens, andtormentil, of each a dram and an half, pearls prepared six drams, rawsilk toasted, both sorts of coral of each two drams, jacinth, emerald, samphire, of each half a dram, saffron a scruple, the leaves of goldand silver, of each ten, make them into powder according to art culpeper it is a great cordial, a great strengthener of the heart, and brain diacalaminthe simple college take of mountain calaminth, pennyroyal, origanum, the seedsof macedonian parsley, common parsley, and hartwort, of each two drams, the seeds of smallage, the tops of thyme of each half an ounce, theseeds of lovage, black pepper, of each an ounce, make them into powderaccording to art culpeper it heats and comforts cold bodies, cuts thick and grossflegm, provokes urine and the menses i confess this differs essaythingfrom galen, but is better for our bodies in my opinion than his itexpels wind exceedingly, you may take half a dram of the powder at atime there is nothing surer than that all their powders will keepbetter in electuaries than they will in powders, and into such a body, you may make it with two pound and an half of white sugar dissolved inrose water diacalamintha compound college take of diacalamintha simple, half an ounce, the leavesof horehound, marjoram, bawm, mugwort, savin dried, of each a dram, cypress roots, the seeds of maddir and rue, mace, cinnamon, of each twoscruples, beat them and mix them diligently into a powder according toart culpeper this seems to be more appropriated to the feminine genderthan the former, viz to bring down the terms, to bring away the birth, and after-birth, to purge them after labour, yet it is dangerous forpregnant women dianisum college take of annis seeds two ounces and an half, liquorice, mastich, of each an ounce, the seeds of caraway, fennel, galanga, mace, ginger, cinnamon, of each five drams, the three sorts of pepper, cassialignea, mountain calaminth, pellitory of spain, of each two drams, cardamoms the greater, cloves, cubebs, indian spikenard, saffron, ofeach a dram and an half, make them into powder culpeper it is chiefly appropriated to the stomach, and helps thecold infirmities thereof, raw, flegm, wind, continual coughs, andother such diseases coming of cold you may safely take a dram of theelectuary at a time you may make an electuary of it with its trebleweight of clarified honey pulvis radicum ari compositus or powder of aron roots compound college take of aron roots two ounces, of common water flag, andburnet, of each one ounce, crab eyes, half an ounce, cinnamon threedrams, salt of wormwood, and juniper, of each one dram, make them intopowder culpeper and when you have done tell me what it is good for diaireos simple college take of orris roots half an ounce, sugar-candy, diatragacanthum frigidum, of each two drams, make them into powder culpeper i do not mean the diatragacanthum frigidum, for that isin powder before it comforts the breast, is good in colds, coughs, and hoarseness you may mix it with any pectoral syrups which areappropriated to the same diseases, and so take it with a liquoricestick dialacca college take of gum-lacca, prepared rhubarb, schænanth, of eachthree drams, indian spikenard, mastich, the juice of wormwood andagrimony, made thick, the seeds of smallage, annis, fennel, ammi, savin, bitter almonds, myrrh, costus, or zedoary, the roots of maddir, asarabacca, birthwort long and round, gentian, saffron, cinnamon, driedhyssop, cassia lignea, bdellium, of each a dram and an half, blackpepper, ginger, of each a dram, make them into powder according to art culpeper it strengthens the stomach and liver, opens obstructions, helps dropsies, yellow jaundice, provokes urine, breaks the stone inthe reins and bladder half a dram is a moderate dose, if the patientbe strong they may take a dram in white wine let pregnant womenforbear it pulvis cardiacus magistralis college take of east bezoar, bone of a stag-heart, of each adram and an half, magisterium, of white and red coral, white amber, magisterium of pearl, hart-horn, ivory, bole-amoniac, earth ofgerthesis, samos and lemnos, elk-claw, tormentil roots, of each a dram, wood of aloes, citron peels, the roots of angelica and zedoary, of eachtwo scruples, leaves of gold twenty, ambergris one scruple, musk sixgrains, mix them and make them into powder culpeper it is too dear for a vulgar purse, yet a mighty cordialand great strengthener of the heart and vitals in fevers diamargariton frigidum college take of the four greater cold seeds, the seeds of purslain, white poppies, endive, sorrel, citrons, the three sanders, wood ofaloes, ginger, red roses exungulated, the flowers of water-lilies, bugloss, violets, the berries of mirtles, bone in a stag heart, ivory, contra yerva, cinnamon of each one dram, both sorts of coral, ofeach half a dram, pearls three drams, camphire six grains, make theminto powder according to art observe that the four greater cold seeds, and the poppy seeds, are not to be added before the powder be requiredby physician for use do so by the other powder in the composition ofwhich these powders are used culpeper authors hold it to be restorative in consumptions, to helpsuch as are in hectic fevers, to restore strength lost, to help coughs, asthmaes, and consumptions of the lungs, and restore such as havelaboured long under languishing or pining diseases diamoschu dulce college take of saffron, galanga, zedoary, wood of aloes, mace, of each two drams, pearls, raw silk toasted, white amber, red coralprepared, gallia moschata, bazil, of each two drams and an half, ginger, cubebs, long pepper, of each a dram and an half, nutmegs, indian leaf or cinnamon, cloves, of each one dram, musk two scruples, make them into powder according to art culpeper it wonderfully helps cold afflictions of the brain, thatcome without a fever, melancholy and its attendants, viz sadnesswithout a cause, vertigo or diziness in the head, falling-sickness, palsies, resolution of the nerves, convulsions, heart-qualms, afflictions of the lungs, and difficulty of breathing the dose of thepowder is half a dram, or two scruples, or less. According to the ageor strength of him or her that takes it mesue appoints it to be madeinto an electuary with clarified honey, and of the electuary, twodrams is the dose. The time of taking it is, in the morning fasting diamoschu amarumcollege is prepared by adding to the forenamed wormwood, driedroses, of each three drams, aloes half an ounce, cinnamon two drams andan half, castorium and lovage, of each one dram, make them into powder culpeper besides the virtues of the former, it purges the stomachof putrified humours specia dianthus college take of rosemary flowers an ounce, red roses, violets, liquorice, of each six drams, cloves, indian spikenard, nutmegs, galanga, cinnamon, ginger, zedoary, mace, wood of aloes, cardamoms theless, the seeds of dill and anis, of each four scruples, make them intopowder according to art culpeper it strengthens the heart and helps the passions thereof, it causes a joyful and cheerful mind, and strengthens such as have beenweakened by long sickness, it strengthens cold stomachs, and helpsdigestion notably the dose is half a dram, you may make it into anelectuary with honey, and take two drams of that at a time diapendion college take of penides two ounces, pine-nuts, sweet almondsblanched, white poppy seeds, of each three drams and a scruple, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, which three being omitted, it is adiapendion without spices juice of liquorice, gum tragacanth andarabic, white starch, the four greater cold seeds husked, of each adram and an half, camphire seven grains, make them into powder culpeper it helps the vices of the breast, coughs, colds, hoarseness, and consumptions of the lungs, as also such as spit matter you may mix it with any pectoral syrup, and take it with a liquoricestick, if you fancy the powder best, but if the electuary, you maytake a dram of it upon a knife point at any time when the cough comes diarrhodon abbatis college take of sanders white and red, of each two drams and anhalf, gum tragacanth, arabic, ivory of each two scruples, asarabaccaroots, mastich, indian spikenard, cardamoms, liquorice, saffron, woodof aloes, cloves, gallia moschata, annis and sweet fennel seeds, cinnamon, rhubarb, bazil seeds, barberry seeds, the seeds of succory, purslain, the four greater cold seeds cleansed, white poppy seeds, ofeach a scruple, pearls, bone of a stag-heart of each half a scruple, red roses exungulated, one ounce and three drams, camphire sevengrains, make them into powder according to art culpeper it cools the violent heat of the heart and stomach, asalso of the liver, lungs, and spleen, eases pains in the body, andmost infirmities coming to the body by reason of heat the dose of thepowder is half a dram, and two ounces of the electuary, into which withsugar dissolved in rose-water you may make it diospoliticum college take of cummin seeds steeped in vinegar and dried, longpepper, rue leaves, of each an ounce, nitre half an ounce, make theminto powder culpeper it is an admirable remedy for such whose meat is putrifiedin their stomachs, it helps cold stomachs, cold belchings and windy you may take half a dram after meat, either in a spoonful of muskadel, or in a syrup of mirtles or quinces, or any cordial water whose effectsis the same species diatragacanthi frigidi college take of gum tragacanth two ounces, gum arabic an ounceand two drams, white starch half an ounce, liquorice, the seeds ofmelons and white poppies, of each three drams, the seeds of citruls, cucumbers and gourds, of each two drams, penids three ounces, camphirehalf a scruple, make of them a powder according to art also you maymake an electuary of them with a sufficient quantity of syrup ofviolets, but have a care of what was told you before of the seeds culpeper make up into an electuary it helps the faults of thebreast and lungs coming of heat and dryness, it helps consumptions, leanness, inflammations of the sides, pleurises, &c hot and drycoughs, roughness of the tongue and jaws diatrion piperion college take of the three sorts of peppers, of each six drams andfifteen grains, annis seeds, thyme, ginger, of each one dram, beat theminto gross powder culpeper it heats the stomach and expels wind half a dram inpowder, or two drams in electuary for so galen who was author of it, appoints it to be made with clarified honey, a sufficient quantity ifage and strength permit, if not, half so much, is a sufficient dose, tobe taken before meat, if to heat the stomach and help digestion. Aftermeat, if to expel wind diatrion santalon college take of all the sorts of sanders, red roses, of each threedrams, rhubarb, ivory, juice of liquorice, purslain seeds, of each twodrams and fifteen grains, white starch, gum arabic, tragacanth, theseeds of melons, cucumbers, citruls, gourds, endive, of each a dram andan half, camphire a scruple, make them into powder according to art culpeper it is very profitable against the heat of the stomach andliver, besides, it wonderfully helps such as have the yellow jaundice, and consumptions of the lungs you may safely take a dram of thepowder, or two drams of the electuary in the morning fasting, for mostof these powders will keep better by half in electuaries pulvis haly college take of white poppy seeds ten drams, white starch, gumarabic and tragacanth, of each three drams, the seeds of purslain, marsh-mallows, mallows, of each five drams, cucumbers, melons, gourds, citruls, quinces of each seven drams, ivory, liquorice, of each threedrams, penids the weight of them all, make them into powder accordingto art culpeper it is a gallant cool powder, fit for all hot imperfectionsof the breast and lungs, as consumptions, pleurisies, &c your best wayis to make it into a soft electuary with syrups of violets, and take itas diatragacanthum frigidum lætificans college take the flowers of clove-bazil, or the seeds thereof, saffron, zedoary, wood of aloes, cloves, citron pills, galanga, mace, nutmegs, styrax calamitis, of each two drams and an half, ivory, annisseeds, thyme, epithimum, of each one dram, bone of a stag heart, pearls, camphire, of each half a dram, leaves of gold and silver, ofeach half a scruple, make it into powder according to art culpeper it causes a merry heart, a good colour, helps digestion, and keeps back old age you may mix half a dram of it to take at onetime, or less if you please, in any cordial syrup, or cordial electuaryappropriated to the same uses pulvis saxonicus college take of the roots of both sorts of angelica, swallow-wort, garden valerian, polipodium of the oak, marsh-mallows, nettles, of eachhalf an ounce, the bark of german mezereon, two drams, twenty grains ofherb true-love, the leaves of the same, roots and all, thirty six, theroots being steeped in vinegar and dried, beat it all into powder culpeper it seems to be as great an expeller of poison, and asgreat a preservative against it, and the pestilence, as one shallusually read of rosate novelle college take of red roses, liquorice, of each one ounce, one dram, two scruples and an half, cinnamon two drams, two scruples, and twograins, cloves, indian spikenard, ginger, galanga, nutmegs, zedoary, styrax, calamitis, cardamoms, parsley seeds, of each one scruple eightgrains, beat them into powder culpeper it quenches thirst, and stays vomiting, and the authorsaith it helps hot and dry stomachs, as also heat and dryness of theheart, liver, and lungs, yet is the powder itself hot, it strengthensthe vital spirits, takes away heart-qualms, it provokes sweat, andstrengthens such as have laboured under long chronical diseases youmay take a dram of the electuary every morning, if with clarified honeyyou please to make it into such a body pulvus thuraloes college take of frankincense one dram, aloes half a dram, beat theminto powder culpeper and when you have occasion to use it, mix so much of itwith the white of an egg, beat the white of the egg well first aswill make it of the thickness of honey, then dip the wool of a hare init, and apply it to the sore or writing that bleeds, binding it on pulvis hermidactylorum compositus or powder of hermodactils compound college take of men bones burnt, scammony, hermodactils, turbith, sena, sugar, of each equal writings, beat them into powder pulvis senæ compositus major or powder of sena the greater composition college take of the seeds of annis, carraway, fennel, cummin, spikenard, cinnamon, galanga, of each half an ounce, liquorice, gromwell, of each an ounce, sena, the weight of them all, beat it intopowder culpeper that this receipt is gallantly composed none can deny, andis an excellent purge for such whose bodies as are troubled with thewind cholic, or stoppage either of guts or kidneys, two drams taken inwhite wine will work sufficiently with any ordinary body let weak menand children take less, keeping within doors, and warm pulvis senæ compositus minor or powder of sena, the lesser composition college take of sena two ounces, cremor tartar half an ounce, macetwo scruples and an half, ginger, cinnamon, of each a dram and an half, salgem one dram, beat it into powder according to art culpeper this powder purges melancholy, and cleanses the head diasenæ college take of sena, cremor tartar, of each two ounces, cloves, cinnamon, galanga, ammi, of each two drams, diacridium half an ounce, beat it into powder according to art diaturbith with rhubarb college take of turbith, hermodactils, of each an ounce, rhubarbten drams, diacrydium half an ounce, sanders red and white, violets, ginger, of each a dram and an half, mastich, annis seeds, cinnamon, saffron, of each half a dram, make it into powder culpeper this also purges flegm and choler once more let me desiresuch as are unskilful in the rules of physic, not to meddle with purgesof this nature unless prescribed by a skilful physician lest they dothemselves more mischief in half an hour, than they can remove in halfa year the lesser cordial powder fernelius college take of hart-horn, unicorn horn, pearls, ivory, of eachsix grains, beat them into fine powder if you mean to keep it, you mayencrease the quantity analogically the greater cordial powder fern college take of the roots of tormentil, dittany, clove-gilliflowers, scabious, the seed of sorrel, coriander prepared, citron, carduus benedictus, endive, rue, of each one dram, of the threesorts of sanders, white, red, and yellow, been, white and red or ifyou cannot get them, take the roots of avens and tormentil, in theirstead roman doronicum, a kind of wolf-bane cinnamon, cardamoms, saffron, the flowers of both sorts of bugloss, viz borrage andbugloss, red roses, and water-lilies, wood of aloes, mace, of each twoscruples, ivory, spodium, bone of a stag-heart, red coral, pearls, emerald, jacinth, granite of each one scruple, raw silk torrified, dried or roasted by the fire, bole-amoniac, earth of lemnos, of eachhalf a dram, camphire, ambergris, musk, of each six grains, beat theminto powder according to art, and with eight times their weight inwhite sugar, dissolved in rose-water, you may make them into lozenges, if you please culpeper both this and the former powder, are appropriated to theheart, as the title shew therefore they do strengthen that, and thevital spirit, and relieve languishing nature all these are cordialpowders, and seldom above half a dram of them given at a time a powder for such as are bruised by a fall the augustan physicians college take of terra sigillata, sanguis draconis, mummy of eachtwo drams, spermaceti one dram, beat them into powder according to art culpeper you must beat the rest into powder, and then add thespermaceti to them afterwards, for if you put the spermaceti and therest all together and go to beat them in that fashion, you may as soonbeat the mortar into powder, as the simples indeed your best wayis to beat them severally, and then mix them altogether, which beingdone, makes you a gallant medicine for the infirmities specified in thetitle, a dram of it taken in muskadel and sweating after it species electuarii dyacymini nicholaus college take of cummin seeds infused a natural day in vinegar, oneounce and one scruple, cinnamon, cloves, of each two drams and an half, galanga, savory, calaminth, of each one dram and two scruples, ginger, black pepper, of each two drams and five grains, the seeds of lovage, and ammi, bishop-weed, of each one dram and eighteen grains, longpepper one dram, spikenard, nutmegs, cardamoms, of each two scruplesand an half, beat them and keep them diligently in powder for your use culpeper it heats the stomach and bowels, expels wind exceedingly, helps the wind cholic, helps digestion hindered by cold or wind, is anadmirable remedy for wind in the bowels, and helps quartan agues thepowder is very hot, half a dram is enough to take at one time, and toomuch if the patient be feverish, you may take it in white wine it isin my opinion a fine composed powder species electuarii diagalangæ mesue college take of galanga, wood of aloes, of each six drams, cloves, mace, seeds of lovage of each two drams, ginger, long and white pepper, cinnamon, calamus aromaticus of each a dram and an half, calaminth, and mints dried, cardamoms the greater, indian spikenard, the seedsof smallage, annis, fennel, caraway, of each one dram, beat them intopowder according to art also it may be made into an electuary withwhite sugar dissolved in malaga wine, or twelve times the weight of itof clarified honey culpeper mesue quotes it only as an electuary, which he saithprevails against wind, sour belchings, and indigestion, gross humoursand cold afflictions of the stomach and liver you may take half adram of the powder at a time, or two of the electuary in the morningfasting, or an hour before meat it helps digestion exceedingly, expelswind, and heats a cold stomach species electuarii diamargariton calidi avicenna college take of pearls and pellitory of the wall, of each one dram, ginger, mastich, of each half an ounce, doronicum, zedoary, smallageseeds, both sorts of cardamoms, nutmegs, mace, of each two drams, beenof both sorts, if they cannot be procured take the roots of avens andtormentil black and long pepper of each three drams, beat them intopowder and keep them for your use culpeper this quoth avicenna is appropriated to women, and inthem to diseases incident to their matrix. But his reasons i know not it is cordial and heats the stomach lithontribon nicholaus, according to fernelius college take of spikenard, ginger, cinnamon, black pepper, cardamoms, cloves, mace, of each half a dram, costus, liquorice, cypress, tragacanth, germander, of each two scruples, the seeds ofbishop-weed, ammi, smallage, sparagus, bazil, nettles, citrons, saxifrage, burnet, caraway, carrots, fennel, bruscus, parsley ofmacedonia, burs, seseli, or hartwort, asarabacca, of each one dram, lapis spongiæ, lyncis, cancri, judaici, of each one dram and an half, goat blood prepared an ounce and half, beat them all into powderaccording to art culpeper it heats the stomach, and helps want of digestion comingthrough cold, it eases pains in the belly and loins, the illiacpassion, powerfully breaks the stone in the reins and bladder, itspeedily helps the cholic, stranguary, and disury the dose is froma dram to half a dram, take it either in white wine, or decoction ofherbs tending to the same purposes pleres arconticon nicholaus college take of cinnamon, cloves, galanga, wood of aloes, indianspikenard, nutmegs, ginger, spodium, schœnanthus, cypress, roses, violets of each one dram, indian leaf or mace, liquorice, mastich, styrax calamitis, marjoram, costmary, or water-mints, bazil, cardamoms, long and white pepper, myrtle berries, and citron pills, of each halfa dram and six grains, pearls, been white and red, or, if they bewanting, take the roots of avens and tormentil in their stead redcoral, torrified silk, of each eighteen grains, musk six grains, camphire four grains, beat them into powder according to art, and withten times their weight in sugar dissolved in bawm water, you may makethem into an electuary culpeper it is exceedingly good for sad, melancholy, lumpish, pensive, grieving, vexing, pining, sighing, sobbing, fearful, carefulspirits, it strengthens weak stomachs exceedingly, and help such asare prone to faintings and swoonings, it strengthens such as areweakened by violence of sickness, it helps bad memories, quickensall the senses, strengthens the brain and animal spirits, helps thefalling-sickness, and succours such as are troubled with asthmas, orother cold afflictions of the lungs it will keep best in an electuary, of which you may take a dram in the morning, or more, as age andstrength requires a preservative powder against the pestilence montagnam college take of all the sanders, white, red, and yellow, theseeds of bazil, of each an ounce and an half, bole amoniac, cinnamon, of each an ounce, the roots of dittany, gentian, and tormentil, of eachtwo drams and an half, the seeds of citron and sorrel, of each twodrams, pearls, saphire, bone of a stag heart, of each one dram, beatthem into powder according to art culpeper the title tells you the virtue of it, besides, it cheersthe vital spirits, and strengthens the heart you may take half a dramevery morning either by itself, or mixed with any other convenientcomposition, whether syrup or electuary diaturbith the greater, without rhubarb college take of the best turbith an ounce, diagridium, ginger, ofeach half an ounce, cinnamon, cloves, of each two drams, galanga, longpepper, mace, of each one dram, beat them into powder, and with eightounces and five drams of white sugar dissolved in succory water, it maybe made into an electuary culpeper it purges flegm, being rightly administered by a skilfulhand i fancy it not a powder for the worms college take of wormseed, four ounces, sena, one ounce, corianderseeds prepared, hart-horn, of each half a dram, rhubarb half anounce, dried rue, two drams, beat them into powder culpeper i like this powder very well, the quantity or to writemore scholastically, the dose must be regulated according to the ageof the patient, even from ten grains to a dram, and the manner oftaking it by their palate it is essaything purging electuaries antidotus analeptica college take of red roses, liquorice of each two drams and fivegrains, gum arabic and tragacanth, of each two drams and two scruples, sanders white and red, each four scruples, juice of liquorice, whitestarch, the seeds of white poppies, purslain, lettuce, and endive, ofeach three drams, the four greater cold seeds husked, of quinces, mallows, cotton, violets, pine-nuts, fistic nuts, sweet almonds, pulpof sebestens, of each two drams, cloves, spodium, cinnamon, of each onedram, saffron five grains, penids half an ounce, being beaten, makethem all into a soft electuary with three times their weight in syrupof violets culpeper it restores consumptions, and hectic fevers, loststrength, it nourishes much, and restores radical moisture, opens thepores, resists choler, takes away coughs, quenches thirst, and resistsfevers you may take an ounce in a day, by a dram at a time, if youplease confectio alkermes college take of the juice of apples, damask rose-water, of eacha pound and an half, in which infuse for twenty-four hours, raw silkfour ounces, strain it strongly, and add syrup of the berries ofcherms brought over to us, two pounds, sugar one pound, boil it to thethickness of honey.