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One bottle was found which contained a littlesecretin, but it was necessary to administer by intravenous injection, of course the entire contents of the bottle 100 tablets to obtain “asmall but unmistakable secretin reaction ”in these studies the methods employed were those by which secretin wasdiscovered it is only by the use of such methods that the presence orabsence of secretin can be determined apparently the manufacturers whoplace so-called secretin preparations on the market do not make use ofthese methods, by which alone even the composition of their productscan be determined carlson and his collaborators conclude:“there is as yet no reliable evidence that lack of secretin is aprimary or important factor in any disease even should this beestablished, secretin therapy, to be effective, must be intravenous secretin has not yet been prepared in sufficiently pure state to renderpossible intravenous injection in man without injurious effects andeven when this is attained, the very fleeting action of secretinwill in all probability render secretin therapy as futile in all thediseases in which it is theoretically indicated as epinephrin therapyis in addison disease ”in short, secretin is as ineffective taken by mouth as it would berubbed on the skin the referee recommends that the work of professor carlson beendorsed -- from the journal a m a , jan 15, 1916 has secretin a therapeutic value?. B a j carlson, ph d , j e lebensohn, m s , and s j pearlman, b s chicagob from the hull physiological laboratory of the university of chicago b this investigation was undertaken at the request of the council onpharmacy and chemistry the following report, having been submittedto the council, received its endorsement see preceding report of thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, “so-called secretin preparations” it is well established that acid chyme in the duodenum is the normalstimulus to the secretion of pancreatic juice 31 interaction ofthe acid with the duodenal mucosa liberates into the blood stream asubstance which, circulating through the pancreas, excites the latterto activity this exciting substance has been termed “secretin ” itcan be prepared artificially by macerating duodenojejunal mucosa in0 4 per cent hydrochloric acid, neutralizing the boiling mixture, andfiltering a few cubic centimeters of the filtrate injected into avein produce invariably a powerful secretion of pancreatic juice 32that a “chemical messenger” is at the basis of the duodenal acidreflex has been proved by even more crucial experiments-- transfusion wertheimer, 33 enriquez and hallion34, cross circulation fleig, 35 matuso36, and perfusion of the isolated pancreas huston37 31 pawlow. The work of the digestive glands, 1912 32 bayliss and starling. Jour physiol 28:325, 1902 33 wertheimer. Compt rend soc de biol 54:475, 1902 34 enriquez and hallion. Compt rend soc de biol 55:233, 363, 1903 35 fleig. Arch internat de physiol , 10:206, 1910 36 matuso. Jour physiol 45:477, 1913 37 huston. Ann et bull soc roy de sc méd et nat 70:178, 1912 properties of secretinprosecretin -- secretin is soluble in water, yet a watery extract ofintestinal scrapings is without action, 32 even after being submittedto acid treatment 38 starling therefore holds that secretin existsin the intestinal mucosa in an inactive form, as “prosecretin ” thecontent of the intestine in prosecretin decreases from the duodenumdown, so that one is unable to demonstrate any prosecretin in the last2-1/2 feet of the ileum prosecretin is insoluble in water, acetone, absolute alcohol or ether secretin, on the other hand, is readilysoluble in water, normal salt solution and diluted alcohol 70 percent , but likewise insoluble in absolute alcohol and ether 38 starling. Lancet, london 2:433, 1905 preparation -- all of the more dissociated acids liberate secretinfrom intestinal mucosa on boiling their action is dependent onthe degree of dissociation, 39 carbonic and boric acids beinginactive 40 secretin can also be prepared with strong soaps from10 to 30 per cent sodium oleate, alcohol 70 per cent , 41 0 6 percent sodium chlorid36 the acid and soap in the duodenum producesecretion.

3 enterotome for openingintestines dissertation help service and stomach. 4 costotome, or large bone forceps forcutting ribs. 5 scissors, large and small one blade blunt. 6saw. 7 chisel. 8 dissecting forceps. 9 probe. 10 blowpipe. 11curved needles and strong twine. 12 measuring and graduated glass. 13 small scales besides the above instruments, essay basins containing water. Sponges, bottle of flexible collodion, lugol solution of iodine for theamyloid test, will be needed post-mortem wounds - various plans have been proposed to protectthe operator hands from the post-mortem wounds which are often sodangerous, such as wearing rubber gloves, smearing the hands withcarbolized vaselin, both of which have their disadvantages. The glovesbeing too clumsy, and the vaselin rendering it almost impossible tohold the knife steady gloves should always be worn, however, where thebody has undergone much decomposition, or where the person may havedied from any septic disease a method which i have found satisfactoryis to cover all cuts and hangnails with flexible collodion, and thento have a basin of clean water at hand, and from time to time to rinseone hands in the water it is from bathing the hands in the cadavericfluids and not from cuts that most of the danger comes if possible anabsolutely new board, large enough upon which to examine the organs, should be at hand, for it may be claimed at a trial that the organs andtissues, if placed and examined on surrounding objects, have becomecontaminated toxicological - if a chemical analysis of the various organs andtissues is to be made, and it is impossible to have the chemistpresent, the medical examiner should obtain essay new glass jars ofsuitable size, with close-fitting glass covers these jars shouldbe rinsed with distilled water, and in them the various organs areto be placed. If possible with no preserving fluid on them but ifit is found impossible to deliver the jars to the chemist at once, alcohol may be poured over the organs in the jars, but it is speciallyimportant that a sample of this alcohol should be retained, that achemist may at a future date test the same for any impurities afterthe organs and tissues have been placed in the jars, the mouths shouldbe closed and sealed, and the seal remain in the custody of theexaminer until the jars are delivered to the chemist writings to be preserved for the chemist - in paper of suspectedpoisoning, it is not sufficient that the stomach and intestines aloneshould be preserved for the chemist as has been indicated, each writingby itself. For it should be remembered that the portion of poisonremaining in the alimentary tract is but the residue of the dosewhich had been sufficient to destroy life, and if the processes ofelimination have been rapid no trace of the poison will be found in thealimentary canal but can readily be detected in other organs again, the poison may not have been introduced by the mouth, in which casenone may be found in the digestive tract the chemist should receive, besides the stomach and entire intestinalcanal, the liver, one or both kidneys, the spleen, a piece of musclefrom the leg, the brain, and any urine found in the bladder when it is impossible for any reason to obtain the whole of any organ, the writing removed should be carefully weighed and its proportion to therest of the organ noted it is also of extreme importance to preserve in sealed and labelledjars those writings of a body which may show the evidence of disease, oron the appearance of which one evidence is founded order of autopsy in making the autopsy, the operator should stand on the right side ofthe body and make the incision by grasping the knife firmly in thehand, and cutting with the whole of the blade and not with the point the knife should be swept along from the shoulder rather than from thewrist, thus making a long, smooth, deep cut. Never a jagged one the method of examining the human body after death will vary essaywhataccording to the objects in view these objects may be threefold.

Themark may give the appearance of death by violence suicidal strangulation is rare the experiments of fleischman suprasuggest that one may commit suicide by compressing his throat with dissertation help service hisfingers see case 48 where a ligature of any kind has been used it is important to noticethe number and position of the knots in a general way a single knoteither in front or at the back of the neck might suggest suicide. Morethan one would suggest homicide there are, however, exceptions suicide has been committed by mere pressure of a cord fixed at bothends a short distance from the ground. By twisting a rope several timesaround the neck and then tying it the coils may continue to compresseven after death. By tightening the cord with a stick or other firmsubstance. By tightening the cords or knots by means of the hands orfeet or essay portion of the lower limbs. By the use of a woollen garterpassed twice around the neck and secured in front by two simple knots, strongly tied one to another it is difficult to simulate suicide. Requires great skill andpremeditation on the writing of a murderer “the attitude of the body, the condition of the dress, the means of strangulation, the presenceof marks of violence or of blood on the person of the deceased, on hisclothes or the furniture of the room, or both, rope or ligature, arecircumstances from which, if observed at the time, important medicalinferences may be drawn ” the assassin either does too little or toomuch taylor795 cites a number of paper of simulation strangulation is generally homicidal the marks of fingers or of aligature on the neck suggest homicide this is true even if the markis slight. Because infants and weakly persons may be strangled bythe pressure of the hands on the throat even a strong man, suddenlyassaulted, may lose his presence of mind and, with that, his power ofresistance. With approaching insensibility his strength still furtherdiminishes this is true even if his assailant is the less powerful itrequires more address to place a ligature on the neck than to stranglewith the hand a victim may be made insensible by drugs or blows and then strangled bya small amount of compression. Or suffocation by gags and strangulationmay both be attempted the importance of considering the position and number of the knots in acord is mentioned under suicidal strangulation in homicide, in addition to the marks on the neck, there is likely tobe evidence of a struggle and marks of violence elsewhere on the body it is important, therefore, to notice any evidence of such a struggle the nature of the cord may assist in identifying the assailant it must be remembered that homicidal strangulation may be committedwithout disturbing noise even when other persons are near simulation - false accusations of homicidal strangulation are on record tardieu796 states that a distinguished young woman for essay political purpose was found one evening at the door of her room apparently in great trouble and unable to speak she first indicated by gestures and then by writing that she had been assaulted by a man who tried to strangle her with his hand, and also struck her twice in the breast with a dagger she was absolutely mute did not even attempt to speak quite contrary to what is always observed in unfinished homicidal strangulation on examination by tardieu, no sign of attempt to strangle was found, and the so-called dagger-openings in her dress and corset did not correspond in position she confessed that she had attempted deception the celebrated roux-armand797 case was another instance of attempted deception a servant named roux was found on the ground in the cellar of his employer armand. His hands and legs were tied and there was a cord around his neck he was writingly asphyxiated, but after removal of the ligature from his neck he rapidly recovered, except that he was weak and voiceless he stated by gestures that he had been struck by his employer on the back of the head with a stick and then bound as described the next day he could speak armand was imprisoned tardieu examined carefully into the case and the results may be stated as follows. The asphyxia was incipient, else he could not have so rapidly recovered the cord around his neck had not been tied simply wound around several times. The mark was slight and there was no ecchymosis although the legs and hands were tied, the hands behind the back, there was no doubt but that roux could and did tie them himself he had stated that he had been eleven hours in the cellar, in the situation in which he was found this could not be true, for a very much shorter time, an hour probably at the furthest, would have caused death, in view of the condition of asphyxia in which he was found again, if his limbs had been bound for so long, they would have been swollen and discolored. But they were not again, if the ligature had been around his neck so long as he said, the impression of it would have been more marked again, if his stertorous breathing had lasted long it would have been heard by neighbors the injury on the back of the head, said to be due to a blow, was believed by tardieu to be due to dragging him on the ground he further had stated that when he received the blow on the head he became unconscious, and yet he also described how armand bound him after knocking him down again, he had made no outcry. But if he had been strangled while writingly unconscious and afterward recovered his senses, he would have been unable to give an account of the matter.

Cricoid fractured on each dissertation help service side larynx, trachea, and bronchicontained pink frothy mucus. Mucous membrane congested lungs muchcongested. Pink frothy mucus in bronchi. No emphysema nor apoplexies right side of heart full of dark blood. Left side empty liver, spleen, and kidneys congested stomach and intestines normal bladder empty internal genitals normal brain congested 6 mackenzie. Ibid , august, 1888, p 232 - hindoo man, age about30 strangled by soft cloth cord necroscopy. Circular mark of cord, one-fourth inch diameter around lower writing of neck. Indistinct infront, but distinct at sides and back superficial abrasions of lipsand right cheek as from a gag faint marks of blisters on temples fingers not clinched face livid, swollen eyes closed. Conjunctivæcongested. Corneæ hazy. Pupils normal tongue protruding and bitten;not swollen fluid blood oozing from mouth and nose clotted bloodunder scalp of left temple skin beneath cord had the color andconsistence of parchment muscles not torn hyoid, thyroid, and cricoidnot injured larynx, trachea, and bronchi empty. Congested lungs muchcongested essay dark fluid blood in right side of heart. Left sideempty liver, spleen, and kidneys congested small patch of congestionin stomach intestines normal bladder normal, contained essay urine brain congested 7 ibid , p 234 - hindoo woman, age about 40 broad, circular, depressed “parchment” mark, one inch broad, around the neck, betweenhyoid bone and thyroid cartilage. Made by two pieces of cloth, eachthree feet seven inches long and one inch broad, twisted into a singlecord and tied tightly by three ordinary knots on right side of neck superficial wound on left side of head above ear face turgid, swollen eyes closed tongue between teeth and bitten. Not swollen muscles ofneck uninjured trachea uninjured lungs congested right side of heartfull of dark fluid blood. Left side empty liver and spleen congested other organs, including brain, normal 8 ibid , p 235 - hindoo woman, age about 25 piece of cloth twistedtightly twice around mouth double cord made of two twists of thin coirrope tied tightly around middle of neck just below thyroid cartilage;beneath the cord the skin was “parchment” like no injury to muscles ofneck nor windpipe eyes closed face not flushed tongue not rupturednor bitten hands not clinched larynx, trachea, and lungs congested right side of heart full of dark fluid blood. A little fluid blood inleft liver, spleen, and kidneys congested other organs, includingbrain, normal dr mackenzie considered death to be due to “asphyxia orsuffocation ”9 harvey. Ibid , january 1st, 1876, p 2 - hindoo woman, age 12or 13 faint mark on front of neck.

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“for store rooms, refrigerators, and closets, keep a sponge saturated with the pure liquid in a saucer on an upper shelf ”on the label of the 1919 specimen, the statement reads. “refrigerators and storerooms-- as a disinfectant wash regularly with one writing chlorides to eight of water as a deodorant, keep in an open vessel a sponge or cloth saturated with the chlorides full strength ”that the owner of platt chlorides really believes that the vapors ofthe preparation have disinfecting properties is seen from a letter overthe name of henry b platt printed in the new york tribune in 1916 this read, in writing. “ by keeping in a dish or saucer on radiators platt chlorides diluted one-half, the hot solution will evaporate and purify the air, thus destroying the grip germ which is the cause of all the trouble ”from the analysis of platt chlorides, it is evident that when thepreparation is evaporated, water vapor only escapes 133 whateverdisinfecting or germicidal action the preparation may possess isexercised only when the solution is brought in direct contact with thesubstance to be disinfected 133 it is well known that when a solution of mercuric chlorid inwater is evaporated, mercuric chlorid passes off with the water vapors, but under any condition the amount is but a fraction of the whole asin platt chlorides other metallic chlorids are present, the formationof complex mercuric compounds which is bound to have occurred, shouldretard or prevent the volatilization of mercuric chlorid that thisactually occurs was confirmed by the following experiment. When 1 gm mercuric chlorid was dissolved in 1 liter of water and the solutiondistilled, the distillate contained a very small amount of mercury then the experiment was repeated after adding sodium chlorid to thesolution to simulate the conditions in platt chlorides in this caseno mercury was found in the distillate even were all the mercury in abottle of platt chlorides volatilized in a room 10 by 12 by 9 feet, this would be equivalent to only about 1/500 grain mercuric chlorid percubic foot the aluminum and zinc salts present may be useful as deodorants butthey are not effective as germicides the presence of mercuric chloridin a concentration of 1 to 10, 000 is hardly to be considered asmaterially increasing the efficiency the directions recommend the useof a mixture of 1 writing of platt chlorides to 10 writings of water forrinsing the hands, and a mixture of 1 writing to 4 writings of water for thedisinfection of discharges it is further stated that 1 quart makes 2gallons sufficiently strong for general use it is evident that suchdilutions decrease considerably the feeble germicidal action of theoriginal fluid -- from the journal a m a , march 27, 1920 anti-tuberculous lymph compound sweeny and anti-syphilitic compound sweeny report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the reports which appearbelow, declaring anti-tuberculous lymph compound sweeny andanti-syphilitic compound sweeny ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies w a puckner, secretary anti-tuberculous lymph compound sweeny“anti-tuberculous lymph compound sweeny” is put out by the nationallaboratories of pittsburgh, dr gilliford b sweeny, “medicaldirector ” sweeny has claimed at different times that he becameinterested in the subject of von behring efforts to immunize cattleto tuberculosis at a time when he was an assistant in von behringlaboratory he claims to have conceived the idea while there oftransferring bovine immunity to tuberculosis to the human subject andlater to have evolved his “treatment” at the pasteur institute in paris just how anti-tuberculous lymph compound is made today is notstated-- at least so far as one is able to learn from recentadvertising essay years ago sweeny declared that his “anti-tubercularlymph” as it was then called was derived from a bullock which hadbeen immunized to tuberculosis then. “the immunized animal having been slaughtered, the contents of the lymph reservoirs are carefully collected and an aqueous extract is made from the grey cerebral substance, spinal cord and the lymph glands it is then filtered under high pressure and de-albuminized by succussion to this, the lymph, together with a definite proportion 50 per cent , of the naturally phosphorized brain fats is added, with a small amount of chloride of gold about 1-60 gr to the dose, the latter as a preservative ”it is a fair assumption that however the preparation may have beenmade originally, it is not now made in such a manner as to bring itunder the federal laws governing the preparation of serums and similarpreparations the claims made for anti-tuberculous lymph compound areof the usual uncritical and unscientific type mainly, of course, they are of the testimonial class the physician is told that thepreparation has been carefully tested by men whose judgment is worthyof consideration. That the verdict has been altogether favorable to the“compound ” thus.