History

Dissertation Help


On incision the vessels were engorged blood, fluid. Brain, congested there were no vesications from the burns and no sign ofinflammation 19 alguie. “étude méd and exp de l’homicide réel ou simulé parstrangulation, relativement aux attentats dont maurice roux a étél’objet, ” montpellier, 1864, p 121 - this essay contains the reportsof thesis interesting experiments on animals and the cadaver hisconclusions in this case were that the victim had first been struck onthe neck by a club. Then a ligature was placed on the neck, with thesisturns, tied tightly, but the knots did not remain tight the markswere visible four months afterward the assailant then tied the limbs the victim recovered with temporary loss of voice, memory, etc 20 gatscher. Mittheil d wien med doct colleg , 1878, iv , p 45 - a man found hanging the examiner declared that he had hunghimself eight years afterward, suspicion of violence a commissionappointed the protocol had shown the blood fluid. A red-brown dryfurrow around the neck. Ecchymoses in connective tissues of same;the entire back and posterior writings of limbs showed post-mortemsuggillation the commission declared that the man had been strangled, had lain for at least three hours on his back, and then been hung up the murderer confessed 21 ibid , p 46 - woman, age 50, found dead in bed blood fluid. Twoecchymoses size of beans in crico-thyroid muscles of each side. Patchof hepatization size of fist, in lung. Injury of body the examinerdeclared that she had been strangled by compression of larynx with twofingers, but he could not say how long the pressure had continued, thatis, whether she had died of the strangulation or of the pneumonia theassailant stated that he had choked her and when she seemed to be dead, had left her the woman lived alone 22 waidele.

The treatment of burns by paraffin, brit med jour , jan 13, 1917, p 37. The treatment of burns by paraffin, therapeutics, the journal a m a , feb 3, 1917, p 373 174 the “soft paraffin” of the british pharmacopeia resemblespetrolatum, u s p , queries and minor notes, the journal a m a , april 28, 1917, p 1281 175 the paraffin used in this formula was supplied by the standardoil company of indiana. The melting point given by the manufacturers isfrom 120 to 122 f , which, according to the american standard of takingmelting points, gives higher results than the method described in thepharmacopeia illustration. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - | inception | | | | where the dry wax poultice has been used | | | | thermozine known in france as l’ambrine, has been | | used in the following parisian hospitals, with | | 92% of cures. | | | | hospital de la pitie, services of drs lion, darier | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - photographic reproduction from a booklet on “thermozine” showing thatit is identical with “ambrine ”about 10 c c of “asphalt varnish” b asphaltum176 is placed ina beaker and heated on the steam bath for one-half hour from 3 to 5drops, delivered from a 1 c c pipet, are then placed in a casserole, and 1 5 c c of olive oil added the mixture is heated and stirredfor a few minutes until perfect solution is effected to this is thenadded, with stirring, the paraffin, which has been previously melted when it is cooled, a brown solid is obtained 177 the physical factorsof this paraffin mixture are, melting point 45 4 c u s p method;plasticity, 28 5. Ductility, 29. It is very pliable and strong at38 c , and adheres exceedingly well to the skin, although it detacheseasily this mixture, which is easy to prepare, is inexpensive, thecost of the materials being approximately 10 cents a pound 176 the “asphalt varnish” used was obtained from remien & kuhnertcompany, chicago 177 while needless, a color resembling “ambrine” may be obtained bythe addition of coloring agents both hull and sollmann noticed that tarlike substances and meltedparaffin do not mix well this is noticeable in “ambrine, ” which cannotbe called an “elegant” preparation the difficulty may be overcome byfirst mixing hot olive oil and asphalt. The asphalt will then go intosolution it is interesting to note that the suggested formula as wellas others which were also prepared is not as plastic as the paraffinitself 178 this is also true of “ambrine ” on the other hand, themelting point of the paraffin is higher the important point, however, in compounding all paraffin preparations, is to select a proper gradeof paraffin as elaborated below 178 in a personal communication dr sollmann expressed the opinionthat the synthetic preparation is inferior to the paraffin used in theformula, basing the view on the greater plasticity of the paraffin for practical purposes, the paraffin will most probably serve as wellas the mixture, especially when it is held in place by bandages, but ibelieve that the mixture is more adhesive examination of paraffins and paraffin preparationsillustration. Photographic reproduction greatly reduced of a fullpage magazine advertisement of “thermozine, ” the name under which“ambrine” was sold to the public the name “paraffin” generally applies to a colorless and tastelesswaxlike substance that is solid at ordinary temperature it is composedof saturated hydrocarbons, that is, they are unable to take up any morehydrogen, and thereby are quite stable. The hydrocarbons in paraffinhave the general formula of c↓{n}h↓{2n2}, ranging as high as c₂₄h₅₀ toc₂₇h₅₆ paraffin may be found in crude form in coal, from which sourcethe first paraffin candles were made it may be produced from thedistillation of brown coal, as in gerthesis, or from bituminous shale in america, it is obtained chiefly from the distillation of crudepetroleum, being in the residue after the distillation of such productsas naphtha gasoline, kerosene and the lubricating oils the residueis treated by one of a number of processes causing the unpurifiedsolid paraffin to be made available the crude paraffin is eithersold as such, or is refined paraffin or “paraffin waxes”179 aredesignated in the trade by their melting points which in the “americanstandard” is expressed in fahrenheit degrees, and as to their stateof refinement as “crude, ” “semirefined” and “fully refined” paraffin there are certain chemical and physical differences so that two refinedwaxes having the same melting point would not have the same plasticity the higher melting point varieties of paraffin are hard and tough atroom temperature. When melted, paraffin expands and forms a thin mobileliquid 179 paraffin is essaytimes spoken of as “white wax ” this isunfortunate, as “white wax” is an official name for “white beeswax, u s p ” the term “white wax” is also often applied to “chinese wax, ”which is formed from an insect living on the tree ligustrum lucidum illustration. Photographic reproduction from a booklet on “thermozine”giving the conditions in which the stuff was alleged to be “veryuseful ”the significant requirements of paraffin for surgical dressings arethat it should be solid at body temperature, at the same time havingflexibility and adhesiveness, together with a certain amount ofstrength a number of brands of paraffin are sold in the united states, so that it seemed advisable to examine essay of them and compare themwith certain paraffin-film preparations they were tested as to theirmelting points, plasticity, ductility, strength of film, etc melting point determination -- the melting point was determined bythe method of the u s pharmacopeia ix, p 596 the melting pointas obtained by this method is lower than the melting point used bymanufacturers of paraffin after conversion to fahrenheit pliability and ductility, limit temperature 180-- a little of themelted wax was poured from a teaspoon on the surface of the water atabout 40 c , in a tin pan bread mold this formed a fairly thin film the temperature of the water was then lowered by the addition of coldwater at each temperature the pliability and ductility were testedthus:180 i am indebted to dr torald sollmann for these methods pliability test -- the film, immersed in water, was doubled on itself, note being taken whether or not it broke ductility test -- the film was pulled under water, note being takenwhether it stretched on being pulled and broke with a ragged fracture;or whether it broke sharp without stretching it is desirable thatthe pliability and ductility be preserved at as low a temperature aspossible cotton films, adhesives and detachability 180-- the melted wax wasapplied as it would be for burns. Namely, a thin layer was painted onthe inner surface of the forearm with a camel hair brush, 181 atransverse strip about an inch wide being made this was covered witha very thin layer of absorbent cotton, and over this another layer ofmelted wax was painted as soon as this had cooled a little, it wascovered by a few layers of bandage and left on for at least an hour atthe end of that time, the bandage was removed the cotton film shouldbe found at the place at which it was applied, showing that it issufficiently adherent it should detach without “pulling” the skin 181 when painting a surface with a paraffin film, i found that thetemperature of the paraffin should not be too close to the meltingpoint, but several degrees above. Otherwise it does not “set” well illustration. Photographic reproduction greatly reduced of thecarton in which “ambrine” is now sold the results of these tests are given in the accompanying table it canbe seen that nearly all the paraffins examined have properties whichwould make them useful, the notable exceptions being nos 8, 15 and16 the more satisfactory products would be those having a meltingpoint about 47 c , ductility of 30 or below, and plasticity of 28 orbelow the paraffin described in the u s pharmacopeia is not sosatisfactory, the required melting point being between 50 and 57 c the use of paraffin bandages has been suggested by fisher182 andsollmann 183 in such paper, it may very likely be that a paraffin ofhigher melting point would be more satisfactory, owing to its greaterresistance and tougher fiber 182 fisher, h e.

The juice of the leaves or roots or the decoction of them invinegar, is used as dissertation help the most effectual remedy to heal scabs and runningsores the bastard rhubarb hath all the properties of the monk rhubarb, butmore effectual for both inward and outward diseases the decoctionthereof without vinegar dropped into the ears, takes away the pains;gargled in the mouth, takes away the tooth ache. And being drank, healsthe jaundice the seed thereof taken, eases the gnawing and gripingpains of the stomach, and takes away the loathing thereof unto meat the root thereof helps the ruggedness of the nails, and being boiledin wine helps the swelling of the throat, commonly called the kingevil, as also the swellings of the kernels of the ears it helps themthat are troubled with the stone, provokes urine, and helps the dimnessof the sight the roots of this bastard rhubarb are used in openingand purging diet-drinks, with other things, to open the liver, and tocleanse and cool the blood the properties of that which is called the english rhubarb are the samewith the former, but much more effectual, and hath all the propertiesof the true italian rhubarbs, except the force in purging, wherein itis but of half the strength thereof, and therefore a double quantitymust be used. It likewise hath not that bitterness and astriction.

That they dissertation help induce a rapid tendency to putrefaction. That theblood is in a fluid state. That hemorrhages are seen in variouswritings. That the stomach and intestines show sloughing without anyinflammation essay of these conditions may and probably do occur, butthey are far from being invariable in their appearance experimentsmade by orfila on animals with narcotic poisons prove the abovestatement in conclusion, i would emphasize the fact that the narcoticpoisons produce no characteristic changes in the stomach that can bedetected the liver - the liver should be removed from the body and no attemptmade to examine the organ in situ after raising first one lobe andthen the other, the diaphragm should be cut on either side and thesuspensory and lateral ligaments divided, then the organ can easilybe removed the weight of the organ is ascertained, as also themeasurements of its size recorded the normal weight is from fifty tosixty ounces the organ is normally about twelve inches in length byseven inches in depth by three and one-half inches in thickness the gall bladder is first examined to determine the character andamount of the bile and the presence or absence of gall stones, inflammatory lesions, and tumors at autopsies the surface of the liver, especially along the freeborder, is generally seen to be of a greenish or dark-brown color this discoloration is due to the action of the gases developedby decomposition on the coloring matter of the blood, and has nopathological significance the character of the surface of the liveris now noted, whether smooth or rough the organ is opened by deepincisions in various directions, and the color, consistency, and bloodsupply of the liver tissue carefully recorded the presence of newconnective tissue, amyloid degeneration, abscesses, or tumors shouldnot be overlooked it should be remembered that, of all the poisons, phosphorus alone leaves characteristic appearances in the liver the pancreas - the pancreas is now easily removed, and its size andweight recorded normally it should weigh three ounces and measureeight inches in length by one and one-half inches in breadth by oneinch in thickness the organ should be opened by a longitudinal cut andexamined for evidences of acute or chronic inflammation, fat-necrosis, tumors, calculi, and amyloid degeneration genito-urinary organs - it is very important in medico-legal paperthat all the urine should be preserved and obtained uncontaminated;therefore before the bladder is opened a catheter should be introducedand the urine drawn off into a clean bottle which has previously beenrinsed with distilled water if more convenient the bladder itself canbe punctured at its upper portion, a pipette introduced, and the urinedrawn off in this manner the genito-urinary organs are removed together this is done in thefollowing manner the body of the penis is pushed backward within theskin and cut off just behind the glans penis. The remaining portion ofthe rectum is raised this with the prostate gland, bladder, and penisattached is removed by carrying the knife around the pelvis close tothe bone and separating the pubic attachments the organs are then laidon a clean board and the urethra is opened on a grooved director passedinto the bladder, and the incision prolonged so that the internalsurface of the bladder itself will be completely exposed examine theurethra for strictures, inflammatory lesions, and ulcers examinethe bladder for congestion, hemorrhages, inflammation, and ulcersof its mucous surface, and note the thickness of its walls open therectum and examine for ulcers, strictures, tumors, and the evidenceof hemorrhage the prostate gland is opened by a number of incisionsinto its substance examine for hypertrophies, tumors, and inflammatorylesions force the testicles through the inguinal canal, and cutthem off weigh, open, and examine them for evidence of inflammation, tuberculosis, and tumors female organs - before removing these organs, any abnormalities suchas adhesions, malpositions, and tumors should be noted dissect theorgans away from the pelvic bones by carrying the point of the knifearound the pelvis close to the bone cut through the vagina at itslower third, and the rectum just above the anus the organs can nowreadily be removed examine the vulva for ulcers, hypertrophies, andtumors open and examine the bladder open the vagina along itsanterior border and carefully examine its mucous surface for evidencesof inflammation the uterus - before opening the uterus, its size and shape should berecorded the average normal weight of the organ is about one andone-quarter ounces. Its length three inches, breadth two inches, andthickness one inch open the organ along its anterior surface by ablunt-pointed scissors passed through the cervix, and the incisioncarried as far as the fundus note the thickness of its walls and anyabnormalities of its mucous membrane during menstruation, the mucousmembrane of the body is thickened, softened, and covered with bloodand detritus retention cysts are found in the mucous membrane of thecervix and are not generally of pathological significance remove, measure, and weigh the ovaries their normal weight is aboutone drachm each. Their size, one and one-half, by three-quarters, byone-half inch open the organs by a single incision and examine forthe evidences of acute and chronic inflammations, tumors, and cysts the corpora lutea in various stages can be easily recognized in thesubstance of the organ open the fallopian tubes and examine theircontents and the condition of their membranes see disputed pregnancyand delivery, vol ii the spinal cord to remove the cord, the body should be placed on its face with a blockbeneath the thorax an incision is made through the skin and musclesalong the entire length of the vertebral column and the soft writingsdissected away so as to expose the transverse process of the vertebræ the lamina are divided with a saw through the articulate process adouble-bladed saw specially adapted for this work can be obtained after the lamina have been completely severed, these together with thespinous process can now be readily torn away with a stout hook and thecord exposed a long chisel with a wooden mallet will often greatlyfacilitate this work great care should be exercised not to injurethe cord the roots of the spinal nerves are now severed, and thecord removed within its membrane it should be remembered that serousfluid within the membranes of the cord, as also intense congestion, especially along its posterior aspect, is often seen as the result ofpost-mortem change the cord is laid on a clean board and the duramater opened with a blunt-pointed scissors along its anterior aspect, and an examination made for the presence of hemorrhage, inflammatorylesions, and tumors softening of the cord can generally be detected bythe finger passed along it this, however, is not a perfectly accuratetest, especially if the body has been dead essay time the cord isnow cut by transverse incisions about half an inch awriting throughoutits entire length, and the cut surface examined for the evidences ofdisease such as hemorrhages, softening, and inflammatory lesions after the cord has been removed, examine the vertebral column for theevidences of fractures and displacements late autopsies late autopsies are those performed after writingial or completedestruction of the soft writings of the body, through the naturalprocesses of decomposition, or the examination of bones exhumed longafter interment the term may be employed also to mean the inspectionof an embalmed body, dead for essay time the object of late autopsies is to determine identity, or to establishthe guilt or innocence of suspected persons an examination of theskeleton even thesis years after death may give important information asto the manner in which the deceased came to his end this cannot betterbe illustrated than by the citation of one or two paper in the celebrated case of “eugene aram, ” the bones of his victim werediscovered thirteen years after the crime had been committed a man whoafterward proved to be aram accomplice was arrested on suspicion heconfessed the crime, and the opinion formed by the medical witnesseswas confirmed by his statements the skull presented evidence offracture and indentation of a temporal bone aram argued the case inhis own behalf, but the testimony was too strong against him. He wasconvicted and executed taylor records the case of a man, guerin, who was convicted of themurder of his brother from evidence obtained from an examination of theskeleton three years after interment here, again, blows upon the headwere the cause of death, and the fractures were plainly perceptibleupon the exhumed skull an autopsy upon a body before the soft writings have been entirelydestroyed, or upon an embalmed body, should be conducted in muchthe same manner as ordinary autopsies in these paper the method ofburial should be noted if it be a case of murder, and the body hasbeen hurriedly put into the ground, it is not likely that the customof christian nations has been observed that of laying the body fulllength, with the head to the west in the case of writingially destroyed bodies, the remaining soft writingswill give little evidence of the mode of death unless the violence hasbeen very extensive, and even then it may be impossible to determinewhether a wound was inflicted prior to or after death recourse mustbe had to the skeleton, and the only evidence it can furnish is offractures, unless, as happened in one case, a rope be found about thecervical vertebræ when the skeleton only is found, taylor lays stress upon the followingpoints. 1 whether the bones belong to a human being or one of the loweranimals 2 if a human being, whether male or female 3 the length of time they have probably remained in the ground 4 the probable age of the individual to whom they belonged if themaxillary bones be found, much information may be obtained from anexamination of the teeth 5 the probable stature of the individual during life 6 the race to which he belonged the conformation of the skull andthickness of the bones will give important information on this point 7 it should be determined whether solitary bones belong to the rightor left side, and whether they form writings of one or more than oneskeleton 8 whether they have been fractured, and if so, whether it occurredduring life, or by accident at the time of the exhumation if itoccurred during life, whether it be recent or of long standing 9 the presence or absence of personal deformities, of supernumeraryfingers or toes, of curvature of the spine, of ankylosis of one or morejoints 10 whether they have been calcined, as murderers essaytimes try tomake away with the bodies of their victims by burning especially isthis the case in infanticides see identity, vol i , p 408 et seq ;time of death, vol i , p 452 et seq autopsies of fragments these paper are usually paper of murder in the perpetration of whichthe criminal has mutilated the body with a view to destroying alltraces of identity the importance which attaches to autopsies of fragments rests uponthe fact that writings of a body may be found widely separated, and thatone portion may be found before the others in such paper it will benecessary to determine if they belong to one and the same body theexamination is conducted chiefly with a view to establishing this the examiner must note the manner in which the fragment has beenseparated. Whether it is clean cut, as by one who understood essaythingof anatomy, or, whether it has been separated roughly and by oneignorant of the body structure the determination of this point willbe one link in the chain of evidence which may lead to the detectionof the criminal, or the acquittal of one accused an anatomist ora butcher would be likely to cut through at a joint, and to do itneatly the exact point at which the severance has taken place shouldbe noted the place of finding, the circumstances under which found, the condition and general appearance of the fragment should all becarefully recorded the color of the skin will indicate with essayaccuracy the race to which the individual belonged the probablesex may be determined by the presence or absence of hair, and thegeneral conformation this, however, will not apply in the case ofchildren the probable age may be fixed upon from the size and degreeof development of the fragment the cut surface should be carefullydescribed, and if possible a drawing should be made of it there are special considerations which apply to certain writings of thebody the head - the exact point of severance should be recorded thenumber of vertebræ which remain attached to the head should be counted, and if the section pass through a vertebra, its number and the amountof it missing should be stated the sex will be apparent in allinstances.

  • great expectations essay
  • sat essay rubric
  • who will write my essay
  • essay contests for teens
  • someone to write my assignment
  • college essay generator
  • essay support services
  • best online writing service
  • i need help writing a research paper
  • buy homework
  • where to buy a business plan
  • uc application essay prompts
  • declaration of independence essay
  • how to write the name of an article in an essay
  • definition essay sample
  • essay conclusion help
  • a separate peace essay
  • free essay writing helper
  • autobiographical narrative essay
  • pay to write research paper
  • thematic essay example

That theseappearances are produced after death and often not until five or eighthours afterward, and that they may be made to shift their place andappear where the organ was previously healthy, merely by altering theposition of the stomach ulcers, or perforations of the dissertation help stomach as theresults of disease, as also the digestion of the stomach after death, have been mistaken for the effects of irritant poisons when perforation of the stomach is the result of caustic poisons, theedges of the opening are very irregular, and are of the same thicknessas the rest of the organ the writings not perforated are more or lessinflamed, and traces of the action of the caustic are found in themouth, pharynx, and œsophagus this is the opposite condition to thatseen in spontaneous perforation in considering perforation of the stomach the following points given bytaylor are well to remember. 1 a person may have died from perforation of the stomach and not frompoisoning 2 a person laboring under disease may be the subject of poison 3 a person laboring under disease may have received blows orinjuries on the abdomen, and it will be necessary to state whether theperforation did or did not result from the violence 4 the perforation of the stomach from post-mortem changes may bemistaken for perforations from poison corrosives, if they do not produce perforation of stomach, willgenerally cause intense inflammation accompanied by softening of theinner coat, essaytimes ending in gangrene the inflammation varies as toits extent and intensity, essaytimes affecting principally the mouth andœsophagus, but generally the changes are more pronounced in the stomachand duodenum, while in rare paper the inflammatory process may extendthrough the whole alimentary canal the mucous membranes are essaytimesbright red with longitudinal or transverse patches of a blackish color, formed by extravasated blood between the coats carbolic acid oftenproduces in the stomach and œsophagus white patches when these patchesare carefully examined, an ulcerated surface beneath them is generallyseen narcotic poisons - it is a common but mistaken idea that thesepoisons produce essay mark or characteristic effect upon the stomachwalls. That they induce a rapid tendency to putrefaction. That theblood is in a fluid state.