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And defendsthose that bear it, from evil spirits swallow-wort, dissertation conclusion help and teazles were handled before ulmariæ, reginæ, prati, &c mead-sweet cold and dry, binding, stopsfluxes, and the immoderate flowing of the menses. You may take a dramat a time urticæ of nettles see the leaves zedoariæ of zedoary, or setwall this and zurumbet, according torhasis, and mesue, are all one. Avicenna thinks them different:i hold with mesue.

Also they say it kills worms, and therefore byessay is called maw-wormseed cussutha, cascuta, potagralini dodder see epithimum caryophyllata avens, or herb bennet, dissertation conclusion help hot and dry. They help thecholic, rawness of the stomach, stitches in the sides, stoppings of theliver, and bruises cataputia minor a kind of spurge see tythymalus cattaria, nepeta nep, or catmints the virtues are the same withcalaminth cauda equina horse-tail. Is of a binding drying quality, cureswounds, and is an admirable remedy for sinews that are shrunk.

5th, external appearance of the body, as well as stateof countenance. 6th, exact description of all marks of violence andof blood-stains. 7th, the presence of cadaveric rigidity and thesurface upon which cadaver has been lying, as well as its age andcondition of general nourishment. 8th, time when deceased was lastseen alive or known to have been alive. 9th, time after death at whichexamination is made. 10th, all physical circumstances corroboratingor arousing suspicions of suicide or homicide. 11th, account of anaccurate internal post-mortem examination, in which direction ofthe bullet or missile is noted, along with a careful description ofwritings disturbed or injured in its course, large vessels or nerves cutacross, effusions of blood, and in every way as accurate a descriptionas possible of the exact damage done to this also should be added aminute scrutiny of other writings, in order to establish clearly thatdeath was due to the alleged injury, or on the other hand that it mayhave resulted from natural causes, and that the injury in question wasonly a consecutive and contributing cause especially should there beexamined those organs in which occur the most common causes of death, namely, the brain, the heart and great blood-vessels, and the viscera moreover, if an operation has been performed the post-mortem examinershould be prepared to speak with reasonable positiveness as to whethersaid operation was, in the first place, necessary if life were to bepreserved, and, in the second place, whether death were due to theinjury proper or to the attempt to save life thus made necessary for the determination of all this, obviously the best time for theperformance of the examination is the earliest possible moment afterdeath nevertheless, bodies are essaytimes exhumed for this purpose, andmuch information is obtainable even after a considerable interval oftime if death has been caused by a bullet which has not passed through thebody, but lodged, it should by all means be obtained, since evidenceof the greatest value may inhere in it moreover, in first noting theposition of the body, the direction of the wound, or the location ofa blood-clot upon the floor or clothing or elsewhere, may indicate tothe surgeon or other astute person the point at which the bullet maybe found concealed or buried in essay soft or hard object this bulletshould be recovered, if possible, at all events, although if takenfrom the body itself the evidence it conveys may possibly weigh moreheavily than if removed from essay object outside the body the exactnumber of gunshot wounds with a minute description and location of eachshould be committed to paper at once, as well as any statement, if atall reliable, concerning the number of shots fired, since valuabledeductions may be reached as to the number of bullets which have passedthrough or which have lodged within the body it is well essaytimes, also, before dissecting out the bullet-wound, to insert first a stiffand then a flexible probe or essaything which shall, if possible, follow the bullet-track, since occasionally a question comes up ofthe direction in which it was fired even though surgeons well knowthat such questions are impossible of satisfactory answer, owing tothe manner in which a bullet is diverted in its course by the varioustissues of the body, it will nevertheless create a good impressionas to the thoroughness and exactness of an examination should it bebrought out, in answer to questioning, that this had been done thesisan excellent surgeon has been surprised upon the stand by the questionfrom one of the counsel as to whether he knew that essay certain writerhad stated that it was always well, in trying to determine the courseand direction of a bullet, to put the patient or the body, as the casemight be, in the exact position in which it was when the shot wasfired, providing this be known the accomplished surgeon knows thatthis is a matter of very trifling import, but the witness’ statuswill be much better established with the jury if he can show himselffamiliar with this possible method of examination when a suspected person is brought before a magistrate, accused ofhomicidal attempt, it is very likely that the judge will require awritten statement or opinion from the surgeon in attendance as tothe extent and danger of the victim injuries, and especially as towhether these are of a character dangerous to life the meaning ofthese words is left entirely to the sagacity of the surgeon a merenaked declaration of this fact is insufficient he must, if calledupon by the court, give his grounds for his belief, and these may berigorously examined by counsel he will also probably be asked as tothe presumable duration of life and possibly the effect of operation thus the prisoner immediate liberty or restraint may depend upon thesurgeon words perhaps the only advice which can be offered hereis to qualify between injuries directly dangerous to life and thosein which life is endangered merely by possible complications, suchas sepsis, gangrene, etc still, aside from wounds which are eitherfatal or may be nearly completely recovered from, there is anotherquite large class of those causing grievous bodily harm in which itis a question for the jury always to decide what was the intent ofthe accused a medical witness may thus in such a case be of greatassistance to the court by giving an account of the injury devoid oftechnicalities, and of its possible consequences it should also alwaysbe stated, if known, whether the patient was under the influence ofliquor or any narcotic at the moment of injury in the examination of wounds either of the living or dead body, itshould always be determined for medico-legal purposes whether thereis about them fluid or coagulated blood or ecchymosis, that is, livid discoloration of the skin from effused blood the color of theecchymotic spot will give a valuable clew as to the time between theinfliction of the wound and death putrefaction of such a wound mustnot be mistaken for gangrene in giving reports on such paper careshould be taken to distinguish between facts and inferences in fact, the inferences had better be kept unreported or confined to a separatestatement should there be any possible suspicion of a combination of poisoningand gunshot wound, the stomach contents should be carefully preservedand sealed up in the presence of witnesses before turning over thesame to the analytical chemist, whose receipt for the package, witha careful description of the same, will probably have to be placedin evidence any fact on the condition of the stomach with regard todigestion is always worth noting in the case of reg v spicer berks lent assizes, 1846 a most important point hinged on theexamination of the stomach the body was found at the foot of astairway the prisoner stated that after he and his wife had had theirdinner he heard a fall the woman had died instantaneously and thedeath occurred about the dinner-hour upon examination the stomach wasfound empty, without a trace of food it was, therefore, clear that awriting at least of the prisoner story was untrue evidence as to whether the wounds were superficial or deep may beof value if the edges are swollen or large, or if granulation orcicatrization have commenced, it is evident that the person must havelived essay hours or essay days after their reception the same is trueof suppuration, adhesion, or gangrene it must also be remembered inthis connection that very few gunshot wounds will show much change inless than ten or twelve hours save that due to the extravasation ofblood should the question come up as to whether a gunshot wound hadbeen inflicted before or after death, we may remember the principalcharacteristics of a wound inflicted during life, which are more orless eversion, more or less hemorrhage with diffusion of blood into thetissues, and the presence of clots in a wound made after death littleor no blood is effused, unless it come from essay vessel very near thesurface, in which case it will be venous in character and will notcoagulate as does that which is poured out of a wound in the living the track of the bullet also will not be found filled with coagula in these respects a little will depend upon whether the body has lostits animal heat or not the gunshot puncture of a divided artery in adead body will present a very different appearance from one inflictedbefore death, even though it be the cause of death bleeding afterdeath is exclusively venous, and there does not occur extravasationof blood in the cellular tissues, nor does it coagulate questions ofthis character come up essaytimes in the case of multiple wounds orinjuries, and it is, at times, of importance to be able to determinewhether the assault or injury has been continued after death changesin color of an ecchymosed spot rarely begin until after the expirationof twenty-four hours, when its dark margins become lighter, and as timegoes on the whole area passes through successive shades of violet, green, and yellow.

Itacts as dissertation conclusion help a lubricant and emollient. It modifies the absorptive powersof the intestinal mucous membrane. It is capable of influencing thedigestion of fats in short, liquid petrolatum, being a drug, itsindiscriminate and excessive use should not be encouraged -- fromreports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 72 westerfield digitalis tablets report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary westerfield digitalis tablets the westerfield pharmacal co , dayton, ohio are claimed to represent a fat free tincture of digitalis and tobe “enteric coated ” it is claimed that because of this coating thesetablets pass the stomach unchanged and dissolve in the intestine, andthat this obviates any possibility of gastric disturbance the circular which sets forth the asserted advantages of the tabletsstates that digitalis contains a fat which is an irritant to thegastric membrane it also contains the following. “we feel no hesitation in saying that if this remedy is given a fair trial where it is properly indicated, the result obtained will be a gratifying surprise “it is a common expression from physicians who have tried this remedy to say, ‘surely i have never used digitalis before ’”if these quotations mean anything, they imply that these tabletspresent a distinct advance in digitalis therapy there is no warrantfor such a claim the statement with reference to the occurrence of anoil in digitalis is writingly false and writingly misleading tincture ofdigitalis, which the tablets are claimed to represent, is fat free;the fixed oil that is present in the drug is not soluble in 70 percent alcohol, the menstruum used for the preparation of the officialtincture of digitalis furthermore, a fairly large amount of this oil such as is present in 100 therapeutic doses of the drug is incapableof causing gastric disturbance gastric disturbance is a side actionthat is inseparable from slight overdosage with all true digitalisbodies and is not in any way due to local gastric action the claimthat such action is prevented by the use of enteric pills or tablets isobviously false and misleading the alleged “common expression from physicians who have tried thisremedy” does not constitute acceptable evidence of the value of thepreparation the council declared westerfield digitalis tablets inadmissible tonew and nonofficial remedies because unwarranted therapeutic claims aremade for this product when the preceding report was submitted to the westerfield pharmacalco , a reply was received indicating that the firm did not knowthat progressive manufacturers had discontinued the claim that “fatfree” digitalis preparations were devoid of gastric effects it alsosubmitted a revised circular, which, however, reiterated the claim thatthe tablet presented a distinct advance in digitalis therapy in that itwas “fat free, ” and coated to prevent disintegration in the stomach since tincture of digitalis and extract of digitalis are practicallydevoid of fatty material, and since it is now well known that thefat does not cause gastric disturbance and that therapeutic dosesof digitalis do not exert a local irritant action on the stomach, the manufacturer product and the claims made for it merely tend toperpetuate old errors the council declared westerfield digitalis tablets inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies on the ground that this presents anunessential modification of pills of an official substance it directedpublication of its report with this explanation -- from reports ofcouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 75 xeroform-heyden and bismuth tribromphenate-merck omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report onbismuth tribromphenate-merck and xeroform-heyden these two productswere found not to comply with the standards for bismuth tribromphenateadopted for new and nonofficial remedies, and hence could not beretained as the manufacturers of both products announce that effortstoward the production of a satisfactory product are continued, theomission of the two brands is without prejudice to their reacceptancewhen a satisfactory product becomes available w a puckner, secretary the referee in charge of bismuth preparations submitted the followingreport of the a m a chemical laboratory which shows thatxeroform-heyden and bismuth tribromphenate-merck do not comply with theadopted standards for bismuth tribromphenate essay time ago a request was received from the medical section of the national council of defense for a report on a brand of bismuth tribromphenate in accordance with this request the firm product was examined, and at the same time and for comparison, an examination was also made of a specimen of bismuth tribromphenate received from merck and company, october, 1915, and of another specimen of bismuth tribromphenate “xeroform-heyden” obtained from the chicago branch of the heyden chemical works in april, 1918 the examination brought out that the bismuth tribromphenate submitted to the national council of defense contained a large amount of uncombined tribromphenol, while the specimen of xeroform-heyden contained an excessive quantity of bismuth when the latter finding was submitted to the heyden chemical works, the firm stated. “the product had to be made in this country after importations from europe became impossible and the first lots were not fully up to the standard ” the firm stated that it could now furnish a product which it considered fully equal to that which was previously imported, and offered to submit “samples of the new material ” having been requested to do so, a specimen of xeroform-heyden was received from the heyden chemical works, new york this and a second specimen, purchased from a chicago wholesale drug house, were examined whereas the standards for bismuth tribromphenate which had been formulated by the laboratory and accepted by the heyden chemical works required that the product should contain from 40 to 49 per cent of bismuth and contain not more than 3 3 per cent of uncombined tribromphenol, the specimen purchased in chicago contained 67 7 per cent of bismuth, while the specimen received direct from the heyden chemical works contained 24 per cent of uncombined tribromphenol when this result was reported to the heyden chemical works, the firm replied. “it seems that we are not yet in a position to supply a product that answers a uniform standard and that we have to continue our efforts in this direction “we will take this matter up with you again as soon as we have been successful ” at the time when the preceding examination was being made, bismuth tribromphenate-merck could not be obtained from the chicago wholesale houses a request sent to merck and company for a specimen of the market supply brought the information that the product was temporarily unavailable though unable to supply the product, the firm gave valuable advice for a revision of the essaywhat loosely drawn tests for bismuth tribromphenate in new and nonofficial remedies, 1918 recently november, 1918 merck and company sent a specimen of its product labeled “bismuth tribromphenate-merck” “merck and company, new york, distributors and guarantors, ” and wrote “ you will notice this sample conforms in nearly all details to the tests we submitted with our letter of june 4th we have been able to produce better goods, but just at present unsatisfactory starting material confronts us the sample conforms to n n r , 1918, but will not meet the test for uncombined tribromphenol submitted by you in your letter of september 4th ” examination of the specimen demonstrated that it was soluble to a considerable extent in alcohol the n n r , 1918, description provides that it should be only slightly soluble in alcohol and according to the standards adopted for new and nonofficial remedies, 1919, contains 18 per cent uncombined tribromphenol more than five times the permitted amount in view of the laboratory report, the referee recommended that theacceptance of xeroform-heyden and bismuth tribromphenate-merck bewithdrawn, without prejudice to their reinstatement when satisfactoryproducts are again offered for sale the council adopted therecommendation of the referee, and accordingly xeroform-heyden andbismuth tribromphenate-merck are omitted from new and nonofficialremedies, 1919 when the laboratory findings with regard to xeroform-heyden and theaction of the council deleting the article from new and nonofficialremedies was reported to the heyden chemical works, the firm expressedregret that efforts to produce a product equal to that formerlyobtained from gerthesis had so far not been successful and announcedthat it had decided to withdraw xeroform-heyden from the market for thepresent when merck and company was advised in regard to the report of thelaboratory and the council action, this firm questioned thefeasibility of producing a product meeting the council standards andsuggested that the test for free tribromphenol be revised to permit asmuch as 15 per cent of this constituent when merck and company wasreminded that its product, submitted in 1915, essentially complied withthe adopted standards and that the estimate of the therapeutic valueof bismuth tribromphenate is based on a product essentially free fromalcohol-soluble material, the firm replied. “as stated in our letter of the 12th inst we do not wish to market the chemical unless it meets all legitimate requirements of the physicians that use it if, therefore, your standard proves to be good and it is commercially possible to make supplies conforming to it, we shall do so we shall discontinue the article unless it is of suitable quality ”-- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 76 cream of mustard refused recognition report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycream of mustard, the cream of mustard co , south norwalk, conn , issaid to be made by mixing 2 drachms of oil of mustard and 2 drachmsof oil of turpentine with one pound of white petrolatum according tothe label it is “for tonsillitis, rheumatism, sore muscles, croup, pleurisy, frosted feet, sore throat, neuralgia, sprains, bronchitis, headache, chilblains, stiff neck, congestion, bruises, asthma, lumbago, pains and aches, colds in chest ”the council refused recognition to cream of mustard:because it is a simple pharmaceutical mixture of well-known ingredientsand has no advantage over established rubefacients which everyphysician knows how to prescribe and every pharmacist to compound incidentally, the name “cream of mustard” is misleading and notdescriptive of the composition of this pharmaceutical of oils ofmustard and turpentine -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1918, p 79 “pluriglandular” mixtures caps adreno-spermin comp , caps antero-pituitary comp , caps placento-mammary comp , caps thyro-ovarian comp , caps hepato-splenic comp , caps pancreas comp , and caps thyroid comp , not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryafter considering the evidence for the several “pluriglandular”mixtures described below, the council declared them inadmissible tonew and nonofficial remedies the council action was communicatedto the manufacturer, henry r harrower, in accordance with the usualprocedure after giving due consideration to the manufacturer replythe council authorized publication of the report which appears below w a puckner, secretary with the offer “to supply you with as much literature as may benecessary and as little of the actual remedies as may be desired” if“the prospects for the inclusion of these formulas in n n r aregood, ” henry r harrower sent the council a booklet descriptive of hispreparations and labels for the following mixtures.

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34 it was reported several years ago by castelli140 that sodiumcacodylate and the sodium salt of methyl arsenic acid were devoid ofeffect on experimental trypanosomiasis and spirochete infections careful clinical observations in this country by h j nichols141 andh n cole142 have demonstrated the inefficacy of sodium cacodylatein the treatment of human syphilis 140 castelli, g. Arch f schiffs- u tropen-hyg 16. 605, 1912 141 nichols, h j. Salvarsan and sodium cacodylate, j a m a 56:492 feb 18 1911 142 cole, h n. A study of sodium cacodylate in the treatment ofsyphilis, j a m a 67. 2012 dec 30 1916 animal experiments carried out in the u s hygienic laboratory byvoegtlin and smith143 show that mon-arsone is devoid of any practicaltrypanocidal action thus the “therapeutic ratio” the ratio of theminimal effective dose to the lethal dose was about 1, that is, itwas effective therapeutically only in approximately fatal doses. Thetherapeutic ratio for arsphenamine in similar conditions was 17, andthat of neoarsphenamine, 28 143 voegtlin, carl, and smith, h w. J pharmacol and exper therap 16. 449, 1921 the findings that sodium dimethylarsenate sodium cacodylate, sodiummethylarsenate, and sodium ethylarsenate are devoid of any practicaltrypanocidal action and the conclusion that sodium cacodylate isinefficient in the treatment of human syphilis does not provethat mon-arsone is without effect on the disease these findings, however, certainly demand convincing therapeutic evidence to warrantthe recommendation for the use of the drug in the treatment ofsyphilis-- writingicularly because the drug is proposed as a substitute forarsphenamine, the value of which is established when the council first took up the consideration of mon-arsone, theonly evidence for the claim that it “has a therapeutic value at leastequal to that of arsphenamine” consisted, with one exception, ofreports from those who had experimented with the drug for the harmerlaboratories company, including a report by b l wright, l a kennell, and l m hussey, 144 the latter of the harmer laboratoriescompany these reports appeared to show that the administration ofmon-arsone caused less reaction than arsphenamine, and that theimmediate effects, judged by clinical symptoms and the response to thewassermann test, appeared to be good these trials extended over tooshort a period of time to permit judgment as to the permanence of theresults a report by an independent observer seemed to indicate thatmon-arsone does not have the sterilizing action on syphilitic lesionswhich it is usually believed arsphenamine exercises 144 wright, b l. Kennell, l a , and hussey, l m. M rec 97.