History

Discursive Essay


give added weight, clearer eyes, brighter minds, discursive essay quicker bodies and a generally ‘firmergrip’ on oneself!. ”this “amazing discovery” was, according to the los angeles paper, theculmination of “five years of continuous study” and had only just beenrevealed by rahtjen “dr rahtjen has for years been working silently in a bio-chemical laboratory in pasadena, surrounded by microscopes, scales, test-tubes, acids, alkalis, reagents and all the accompanying stage settings that spell bio-chemical science ”all of these wonders might still have been a closed book to the publichad not “friends” of dr rahtjen brought the matter to the attention ofthe examiner “dr rahtjen yesterday, with the usual reserve of the ethical scientist, was disinclined to talk of his work until publication of it in a scientific journal ”fortunately for a palpitating public, the los angeles examiner “wasable to learn the essence of his study” and pass the information on itseems from this newspaper report that rahtjen first made his extractsfrom the glands of goats and sheep but these extracts “were found tobe too strong ” as a result “dr rahtjen is now using the glands ofspecially selected mexican bulls and cows ” the male patients who are“weak, uninterested in life, unable to concentrate in thought” aregiven the extract of bull. The female patients who are in a similarlydeplorable condition receive an “injection of the cow gland extract ”we have not yet learned whether the los angeles examiner hasdeprecated dr rahtjen use of mexican bovines remembering theattitude of the hearst papers toward all things mexican, one may lookfor the suggestion that mr rahtjen use 100 per cent americanbull -- from the journal a m a , nov 26, 1921 sodium cacodylate in syphilisto the editor:-- i was much interested in the study of this subject bydr h n cole the journal, dec 30, 1916, p 2012 in 1913 i treated a series of paper of syphilis with sodium cacodylate;but, not getting the desired results, i discontinued its use in 1915, i became interested again because of the writings of dr j b murphy, and applied it in three paper in which the patients had initial lesions:case 1 -- j m , man aged 21, single, shoeworker, came to me withan initial lesion of the penis to the right of the frenum i beganintramuscular injections of sodium cacodylate, 5 grains, in ampulesmade by parke, davis & co , every day for ten days then i haltedfor ten days and repeated ten more injections the sore on the penisentirely disappeared about the ninth day there was a slight, faintlymacular eruption of the forearms and abdomen, which soon disappeared there was no alopecia when he returned, after the last series often injections, there were mucous patches in the throat and essayinvolvement of the left tonsil i put the patient on mixed treatment, which cleared his throat he had, at end of twenty doses of 5 grains ofsodium cacodylate each, a positive wassermann reaction after mercuryand potassium iodid for two months there was a positive wassermannreaction to date, after three salvarsan treatments intravenously therehave been two negatives case 2 -- f s , man, aged 28, married, machinist, had an initial lesionon the penis treatment with sixty injections of 5 grains of sodiumcacodylate gave results as follows.

The leaves not so large, but nicked on the edges, essaywith great and deep, others with small cuts and divisions, of a deadgreen colour the flowers are of a strong heady scent, usually smaller, and of a more purple colour than the male, with yellow thrums aboutthe head, as the male hath the seed vessels are like horns, as inthe male, but smaller, the seed discursive essay is black, but less shining the rootconsists of thesis short tuberous clogs, fastened at the end of longstrings, and all from the heads of the roots, which is thick and short, and of the like scent with the male place and time they grow in gardens, and flower usually about may government and virtues it is an herb of the sun, and under thelion physicians say, male peony roots are best. But dr reason toldme male peony was best for men, and female peony for women, and hedesires to be judged by his brother dr experience the roots areheld to be of more virtue than the seed. Next the flowers.

It is an excellent remedy for the third day ague itprovokes urine and the terms. It kills worms, and cleanses the body ofsharp humours, which are the cause of itch and scabs. The herb beingburnt, the smoke thereof drives away flies, wasps, &c it strengthensthe lungs exceedingly country people give it to their cattle when theyare troubled with the cough, or broken-winded alehoof, or ground-ivy several counties give it different names, so that there is scarcelyany herb growing of that bigness that has got so thesis. It is calledcat-foot, ground-ivy, gill-go-by-ground, and gill-creep-by-ground, turn-hoof, haymaids, and alehoof descript this well known herb lies, spreads and creeps upon theground, shoots forth roots, at the corners of tender jointed stalks, set with two round leaves at every joint essaywhat hairy, crumpledand unevenly dented about the edges with round dents. At the jointslikewise, with the leaves towards the end of the branches, come forthhollow, long flowers, of a blueish purple colour, with small whitespots upon the lips that hang down the root is small with strings place it is commonly found under hedges, and on the sides ofditches, under houses, or in shadowed lanes, and other waste grounds, in almost every writing of this land time they flower essaywhat early, and abide a great while. Theleaves continue green until winter, and essaytimes abide, except thewinter be very sharp and cold government and virtues it is an herb of venus, and therefore curesthe diseases she causes by sympathy, and those of mars by antipathy;you may usually find it all the year long except the year be extremelyfrosty. It is quick, sharp, and bitter in taste, and is thereby foundto be hot and dry. A singular herb for all inward wounds, exulceratedlungs, or other writings, either by itself, or boiled with other the likeherbs. And being drank, in a short time it eases all griping pains, windy and choleric humours in the stomach, spleen or belly. Helps theyellow jaundice, by opening the stoppings of the gall and liver, andmelancholy, by opening the stoppings of the spleen. Expels venom orpoison, and also the plague. It provokes urine and women courses. Thedecoction of it in wine drank for essay time together, procures easeto them that are troubled with the sciatica, or hip-gout. As also thegout in hands, knees or feet. If you put to the decoction essay honeyand a little burnt alum, it is excellently good to gargle any soremouth or throat, and to wash the sores and ulcers in the privy writings ofman or woman. It speedily helps green wounds, being bruised and boundthereto the juice of it boiled with a little honey and verdigrease, doth wonderfully cleanse fistulas, ulcers, and stays the spreading oreating of cancers and ulcers. It helps the itch, scabs, wheals, andother breakings out in any writing of the body the juice of celandine, field-daisies, and ground-ivy clarified, and a little fine sugardissolved therein, and dropped into the eyes, is a sovereign remedyfor all pains, redness, and watering of them.

“formamint is pentamethanallactose, 5 choh c₁₂h₂₂o₁₁ it is an original combination of formaldehyde with lactose, a definite chemical compound the formaldehyde molecule is locked up in it until solution in the saliva takes place, when the formaldehyde is liberated in its nascent state discursive essay and is therefore active without being irritant ”furthermore the makers contend that this new chemical compound isentirely harmless for example, daus, 5 in an article on “thedisinfectant action of formic aldehyde on mucous membranes, ” declares. “no indication of irritant or other injurious action made its appearance even after large doses the urine remained free from albumin and sugar ”such statements as these are found in the advertising literature. “formamint tablets are absolutely harmless and innocuous, even to little children ” “when dissolved in the saliva, formamint tablets liberate slowly nascent formaldehyde in a most active yet non-irritant form ”they maintain that formamint is not only absolutely harmless, butactually beneficial to the tissues it may be used “to tone up andstrengthen the tissues, prevent hoarseness, and allay irritation insingers, public speakers, ” etc the claims urged as to its germicidal power are indeed glittering this“new chemical compound” is claimed to liberate formaldehyd in essay newand peculiar condition which, while it has a soothing and tonic effecton the cells of the human tissues, can at the same time quickly killany form of bacterial life “dissolving readily, it releases its germicidal, antiseptic qualities, which impregnate the saliva and are carried naturally and easily around the mouth and in the deepest crevices of the throat-- destroying the germs where they are causing the mischief formamint prevents and destroys infectious germ life in a soothing grateful way ” “in the saliva it frees a germicide, fatal to germs but harmless to the most delicate membranes and flowing into every tiny corner of the gums, tonsils and throat, into places where no gargle ever reaches, it most effectively disinfects the throat ”the claims as to the preventive and curative effects of the preparationcover a large portion of the category of human ailments and distresses the following quotations indicate essay of its supposed properties. “ it is therefore self-evident that formamint should be looked upon as a necessary writing of the treatment of all forms of tonsillitis ” “the value of formamint is equally great in diphtheric tonsillitis, or as a prophylactic ” “the extraordinary success which i had with formamint in a school epidemic of scarlet fever during may and june, 1907, was the determining factor which induced me to abandon the use of inhalations, gargles, local applications in the treatment of diseases of the throat, and to use formamint exclusively for the future ” “there are naturally thesis similar conditions in which formamint may be used as a prophylactic, notably scarlet fever, mumps, streptococcal and staphylococcal sore throats, ‘milk outbreaks’ of sore throat, drain throats, hospital throats, and the like ” “formamint tablets are indicated in angina, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, stomatitis, gingivitis, glossitis, ulceration, spongy or bleeding gums, pyorrhea alveolaris, ‘smoker sore throat, ’ abscess or boils, etc ” “as a prophylactic against diphtheria, scarlet fever, influenza, measles, epidemic poliomyelitis, and other pathogenic micro-organisms to neutralize putrefaction products in and about the teeth, correct fermentative processes, deodorize and purify the breath, etc ” “to tone up, and strengthen the tissues, prevent hoarseness and allay irritation in singers, public speakers, neutralize the effects of dust-infection or disinfect the saliva or sputum in influenza, tuberculosis, etc ”one man declares that along with specific constitutional treatment he“had the best results from the use of formamint tablets” in a case ofsyphilitic ulceration of the tongue in short, formamint is recommended for the treatment or preventionof almost everything, from a bad breath to such grave conditions asscarlet fever, diphtheria and tuberculosis, conditions in which adelay in proper treatment-- for instance, in diphtheria, a failure toadminister antitoxin-- may result in the death of the patient a series of investigations was therefore undertaken in order todiscover whether the extravagant claims regarding the germicidal powerof formamint could be verified experimental datatwo fifty-cent bottles of wulfing formamint were purchased in theopen market and were kept well stoppered to prevent deterioration qualitative tests showed the presence of formaldehyd and the amount wasdetermined quantitatively by the hydrogen peroxid method as given bysutton 23 the results were respectively, 1 99 per cent and 2 03 percent of formaldehyd 23 sutton. Volumetric analysis, edition 10, p 390 illustration. Two formamint advertisements reproduced in miniaturetypical of those appearing in a certain type of medical journals essay determinations were made of the germicidal power of formamintin vitro, that is, under controlled laboratory conditions atwenty-four-hour plain agar culture of staphylococcus aureus waswashed off in 10 c c of sterile 0 85 per cent sodium chloridsolution a 1:100, 000 dilution of this was made in each of three flaskscontaining 100 c c of sterile saliva flask 1 contained 1 per cent offormamint, flask 2, 5 per cent. Flask 3, containing no formamint, waskept as a control at intervals samples were removed and dilutions madeand plated in duplicate on standard agar the plates were incubatedtwenty-four hours at 37 c , and plates containing less than 200colonies were counted the results are given in table 1 after sevendays there was no appreciable difference in the plates another test was made by adding a 1 per cent formamint solution toplain agar plates inoculated with b coli a twenty-four-hour plainagar culture of b coli was washed off in 10 c c of sterile 0 85 percent sodium chlorid solution a 1:1, 000, 000 dilution was made of thisand 1 c c added to each plate varying amounts of 1 per cent solutionof formamint were added to each plate they were incubated seventy-twohours at 37 c after seven days’ incubation the count was the same theresults are given in table 2 another experiment was made thus. One loopful of a twenty-four-hourplain agar culture of streptococcus lacticus was mixed with a tubeof north medium one loopful from the inoculated tube was mixed with asecond tube of north medium both tubes were poured into petri dishesand allowed to cool one half of each plate was well smeared with a 10per cent solution of formamint in saliva after twenty-four hours’incubation at 37 c , only a few colonies appeared on the side to whichthe formamint had been applied, while the other half was thicklycovered with colonies table 1 -- showing time in which cultures of staphylococcus aureus werekilled by different amounts of formamint amount of formamint| period of |average count| count on flask in saliva |standing at 37 c | when plated |of saliva without per cent | hours | | formamint -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 | 3 | 32 | 3200 1 | 6 | 0 | 7000 5 | 1 | few | 5000 5 | 2 | 0 | 4100 5 | 3 | 0 | 3200* 5 | 6 | 0 | 7000* -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- * the last two observations were made at the same time as on the 1 percent solutions this work so far corroborates that reported in the literature quotedby the manufacturers but the fact that a compound is a germicide whenbrought into intimate contact with bacteria in a solution or medium ina test tube or flask does not prove that it will be effective when usedin the human throat the alleged germicidal actionan attempt was made to discover whether or not the claims advanced bythe manufacturers as to the perfect germicidal action of formamint inall the nooks and crannies of the mouth and throat could be confirmed table 2 -- count of b coli cultures with different amounts of formamint no c c of 1 per cent formamint 0 0 1 0 3 0 5 0 7 1 0 1 5 2 0 3 0 count 160 33 39 26 15 12 2 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- the first step in attacking this problem was to make comparative countsof the number of bacteria in the throat before and after the use offormamint the methods employed were as follows. The throat was gargledwith 50 c c of sterile 0 85 per cent sodium chlorid solution ineach case the same length of time, as far as possible, was used in theprocess the liquid was collected in a sterile flask the gargling in aseries of experiments was begun not less than two hours after a meal after essay preliminary work the following dilutions of the 50 c c ofsalt solution were found sufficient. 1:1, 000, 1:10, 000 and 1:100, 000 plates were made in duplicate from each dilution and incubatedseventy-two hours at 37 c the counts were made on plates containingless than 200 colonies except where otherwise noted standard agar wasused the mediums were always prepared in the same way all the work was carried out under conditions as nearly naturalas possible the formamint was taken according to the directionsaccompanying the trade package every opportunity was given theformamint to penetrate all the crypts and recesses about the mouthand throat the tablet was allowed to dissolve as slowly as possible, the time usually being five to six minutes, and saliva was thoroughlyforced around the mouth before being swallowed plating was alwaysdone immediately after gargling so that no growth could occur in thesalt solution the results are given in table 3 the numbers areaverage counts from several plates and calculated to show the number ofbacteria washed out by the 50 c c of salt solution table 3 -- showing that formamint does not greatly decrease the numberof bacteria in the throat | | |no found |no found | time |amount of|in throat |in throat conditions of test | since |formamint| before | after |preceding| used | use of | use of | test | |formamint |formamint -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- normal | | 0 | 15, 600, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 | 38, 500, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 | 30, 500, 000| normal | | 0 | 12, 500, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 | 14, 500, 000| | 1 hour | 0 | 23, 500, 000| tablet dissolved in mouth | 6 days | 1 tablet| | 15, 000, 000 and throat gargled one | | | | hour later | | | | throat again gargled two | 1 hour | 0 | | 10, 050, 000 hours after formamint | | | | was used | | | | normal | 7 days | 0 | 62, 000, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 | 72, 500, 000| normal | | | 61, 000, 000| tablets were taken, one | 2 days | 12 | | 39, 100, 000 per hour, and throat | | | | gargled onehour after | | | | last tablet was taken | | | | throat was again gargled 2| 1 hour | 0 | | 59, 000, 000 hours after taking last | | | | tablet | | | | normal | 5 days | 0 | 35, 000, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 | 62, 000, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 | 72, 000, 000| one tablet was taken each | 4 days | 24 | |175, 000, 000 half hour for 12 hours | | tablets | | consecutively throat was| | | | gargled one hour after | | | | last tablet was taken | | | | throat was again gargled | 1 hour | 0 | |168, 750, 000 two hours after last | | | | tablet was taken | | | | normal | 3 days | 0 |129, 600, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 |177, 000, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 |147, 000, 000| normal | 3 days | 0 | 79, 000, 000| one tablet was taken | 1 hour | 1 | | 83, 200, 000 immediately after preced-| | | | ing gargle throat was | | | | again gargled at end of | | | | one hour | | | | throat was again gargled 2| 1 hour | 0 | |134, 750, 000 hours after tablet was | | | | taken | | | | normal conditions except | 19 days | 0 | 32, 600, 000| that mouth and teeth were| | | | throughly washed with | | | | soap just before gargling| | | | same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 33, 125, 000| same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 40, 375, 000| teeth were not washed | 2 days | 0 | 33, 500, 000| otherwise normal con- | | | | ditions | | | | same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 43, 330, 000| same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 54, 000, 000| same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 50, 000, 000| same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 67, 000, 000| mouth and teeth thoroughly| 2 days | 0 | 5, 270, 000| washed with soap just | | | | before throat was gargled| | | | same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 10, 916, 000| same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 8, 275, 000| normal conditions, but 1 | 3 days | 0 |228, 750, 000| c c of sterile rabbit | | | | blood was added to each | | | | plate | | | | count from the same gargle| 0 | 0 | 60, 625, 000| as above no blood used | | | | in the plates | | | | normal conditions, but | 1 hour | 0 |431, 250, 000| count was made on blood | | | | agar | | | | count from the same gargle| 0 | 0 | 59, 625, 000| asabove no blood used in| | | | the plates | | | | normal conditions, count | 2 days | 0 |683, 300, 000| was made on blood agar | | | | same gargle as above, but | 0 | 0 | 58, 500, 000| count was made on plain | | | | agar | | | | one tablet was taken just | 1 hour | 1 tablet| |558, 300, 000 after preceding gargle | | | | after one hour throat was| | | | again gargled count on | | | | blood agar | | | | same gargle as above, but | 0 | 1 tablet| | 55, 875, 000 count was made on plain | | | | agar | | | | normal conditions | 2 days | 0 | 79, 125, 000| one tablet was taken just | 1 hour | 1 tablet| | 56, 250, 000 ten minutes before gargle| 16 min | | | was made | | | | normal conditions | 2 days | 0 | 46, 750, 000| one tablet was taken just | 1 hour | 1 tablet| | 38, 500, 000 ten minutes before throat| | | | was gargled | | | | teeth and mouth were thor-| 5 days | 0 | 47, 370, 000| oughly washed with soap | | | | just before gargle was | | | | made | | | | teeth washed as above and | 1 hour | 1 tablet| | 21, 225, 000 1 tablet taken 10 minutes| | | | before gargle was made | | | | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- finally a determination was made of the number of streptococci in thethroat before and after the use of formamint the throat was gargledin the manner previously described the streptococcus count was madeby the dilution method as given by heinemann 24 culture tubes wereused instead of fermentation tubes one per cent dextrose broth wasthe medium employed one cubic centimeter was added to each of a seriesof ten tubes for each dilution and the following dilutions were used:1:10, 000, 1:100, 000 and 1:1, 000, 000 24 heinemann. Laboratory guide in bacteriology, p 86 the results given in table 4 are the average count from a number ofdilutions and are reported as the total number washed out by the50 c c of salt solution table 4 -- showing that formamint fails to reduce the number ofstreptococci in the throat | | | no found | no found | time | amount of | in throat | in throat conditions | since | formamint | before | after of test | preceding | used | use of | use of | test | | formamint | formamint -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - normal | | 0 | 1, 200, 000 | | | | | one tablet was| | | | taken and | | | | throat gargled| | | | one hour later| 4 days | 1 tablet | |14, 750, 000 | | | | normal | 3 days | 0 | 9, 950, 000 | | | | | one tablet was| | | | taken and | | | | throat gargled| | | | ten minutes | | | | later | 1 hour | 1 tablet | | 8, 000, 000 discussionthe contention that formamint contains formaldehyd was confirmed byanalysis the manufacturers also maintain that formamint is a new, definitechemical compound, consisting of five molecules of formaldehyd andone molecule of lactose, and that when dissolved in the saliva theformaldehyd is liberated in essay new and peculiar form, which theycall nascent formaldehyd this new kind of formaldehyd is, accordingto the advertising literature, especially powerful in its germicidalproperties and at the same time has absolutely no irritating or harmfuleffects not a chemical compoundthoms, 25 retained as an expert by the german government, decided, after a series of chemical investigations, that formamint was nota definite chemical compound, but that it was probably a solidsolution of formaldehyd in lactose he proved that when the processof manufacture was carried out in exactly the way called for by theformamint patents, compounds containing a greater or less per cent offormaldehyd could be made while the other properties remained similarto those of formamint the composition of the final product dependedon the proportion of the components used in the process thereforeformamint did not form a safe means of uniform dosage 25 thoms. Arb a d pharm inst d universität, berlin 11:210, 1914 as a result of thoms’ work the german courts held that formamint wasnot a new chemical compound consequently the formamint patent number189036 was annulled in berlin, nov 29, 1913 again the contention that formaldehyd in the nascent or activecondition is less poisonous and irritating than in its ordinary form iscontrary to what would be expected from the behavior of such compounds if it were liberated, as claimed, in the “nascent” condition, it wouldbe, for that very reason, not only more active but also more harmful as a matter of fact, formamint did have an irritant effect on theworker who carried out these investigations when one tablet wastaken each hour for twelve consecutive hours, marked irritation ofthe intestinal tract resulted there was almost sufficient nausea tocause vomiting and uneasiness in the alimentary canal following theexperiment when the twenty-four tablets were taken the results weresimilar but more pronounced this is decidedly in contradiction to theassertions of the manufacturers otto seifert, 26 moreover, cites the following. “by effects. Only a few patients complain of an unpleasant sharp taste, burning of the tongue seifert, sklarek among the general symptoms observed are urticaria-like exanthems glaser, roters, which are accompanied by nausea, vomiting, headache, insomnia and vertigo, burning and irritability especially in the larynx meissner. Phenomena of poisoning geissler. Gastric disturbances engelmann.

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are its reports worthy of acceptance?. am i upholding thecouncil in its efforts to place therapeutics on a rational basis, notby blind faith alone, but by an honestly critical attitude toward it?. Am i following the path of indolence by taking the advice of nostrummakers without any serious effort to determine whether they are true orfalse?. in a word, am i really practicing medicine, or am i an unpaidagent and a dupe of nostrum makers?. there are other revolutions thanpolitical the public can be wronged just as certainly by the abuse ofits confidence in clinicians as by the usurpers of political power, andwhen the public is thoroughly aroused the heavy hand of retributionis not likely to be too discriminating that the sins of cliniciansare standing out plain for any one who wishes to read is becoming moreand more evident there is but one short and ugly word that properlycharacterizes the physician who accepts a fee for prescribing thatabout which he has no more knowledge than has the one for whom heprescribes it are you with the nostrum makers or with decent medicine?. The article below is the first of a series written for the journalby one who is thoroughly conversant with the work of the council onpharmacy and chemistry and can speak authoritatively on questionsdealing with the action of drugs and the treatment of diseases webelieve that these articles will prove of interest and profit and thatthey will help physicians to answer the questions just propounded article i bell-ans pa-pay-ans bellhh see also ?. ?. ?. ?.