History

Definition Essay On Love


A spoonful in a morning is a precious remedyfor children troubled with that disease men that are troubled with thespleen, which is known by pain and hardness in their left side, maytake three or four spoonfuls, they shall find this one receipt worththe price of the whole book syrupus de stœchade syrup of stœchas college take of stœchas flowers four ounces, rosemary flowers halfan ounce, thyme, calaminth, origanum, of each an ounce and an half, sage, bettony, of each half an ounce, the seeds of rue, peony, andfennel, of each three drams, spring water ten pounds, boil it till halfbe consumed, and with honey and sugar, of each two pounds, boil it intoa syrup, which perfume with cinnamon, ginger, and calmas aromaticus, ofeach two drams tied up in a rag syrupus de symphyto or syrup of comfrey college take of roots and tops of comfrey, the greater and lesser, of each three handfuls, red roses, bettony, plantain, burnet, knotgrass, scabious, colt foot, of each two handfuls, press the juiceout of them all, being green and bruised, boil it, scum it, and strainit, add its weight of sugar to it that it may be made into a syrup, according to art culpeper the syrup is excellent for all inward wounds and bruises, excoriations, vomitings, spittings, or evacuation of blood, it unitesbroken bones, helps ruptures, and stops the menses. You cannot err intaking of it syrupus violarum or syrup of violets college take of violet flowers fresh and picked, a pound, clearwater made boiling hot, two pounds, shut them up close together intoa new glazed pot, a whole day, then press them hard out, and in twopounds of the liquor dissolve four pounds and three ounces of whitesugar, take away the scum, and so make it into a syrup without boiling syrup of the juice of violets, is made with its double weight of sugar, like the former culpeper this syrup cools and moistens, and that very gently, itcorrects the sharpness of choler, and gives ease in hot vices of thebreast, it quenches thirst in acute fevers, and resist the heat of thedisease. It comforts hot stomachs exceedingly, cools the liver andheart, and resists putrefaction, pestilence, and poison college julep of violets is made of the water of violet flowersand sugar, like julep of roses culpeper it is cooling and pleasant purging syrups syrupus de cichorio cum rhubarbaro or syrup of succory with rhubarb college take of whole barley, the roots of smallage, fennel, andsparagus, of each two ounces, succory, dandelyon, endive, smoothsow-thistles, of each two handfuls, lettuce, liverwort, fumitory, topsof hops, of each one handful, maiden-hair, white and black, cetrachs, liquorice, winter cherries, dodder, of each six drams, to boil thesetake sixteen pounds of spring water, strain the liquor, and boil init six pounds of white sugar, adding towards the end six ounces ofrhubarb, six drams of spikenard, bound up in a thin slack rag the whichcrush often in boiling, and so make it into a syrup according to art culpeper it cleanses the body of venemous humours, as boils, carbuncles, and the like. It prevails against pestilential fevers, itstrengthens the heart and nutritive virtue, purges by stool and urine, it makes a man have a good stomach to his meat, and provokes sleep but by my author leave, i never accounted purges to be proper physicin pestilential fevers. This i believe, the syrup cleanses the liverwell, and is exceeding good for such as are troubled with hypocondriacmelancholy the strong may take two ounces at a time, the weak, one, oryou may mix an ounce of it with the decoction of senna syrupus de epithymo or syrup of epithimum college take of epithimum twenty drams, mirobalans, citron, andindian of each fifteen drams, emblicks, belloricks, polypodium, liquorice, agrick, thyme, calaminth, bugloss, stœchas of each sixdrams, dodder, fumitory, of each ten drams, red roses, annis-seeds andsweet fennel seeds of each two drams and an half, sweet prunes ten, raisins of the sun stoned four ounces, tamarinds two ounces and anhalf, after twenty-four hours infusion in ten pints of spring water, boil it away to six, then take it from the fire and strain it, and withfive pounds of fine sugar boil it into syrup according to art culpeper it is best to put in the dodder, stœchas and agarick, towards the latter end of the decoction it purges melancholy, andother humours, it strengthens the stomach and liver, cleanses the bodyof addust choler and addust blood, as also of salt humours, and helpsdiseases proceeding from these, as scabs, itch, tetters, ringworms, leprosy, &c a man may take two ounces at a time, or add one ounce tothe decoction of epithimum syrupus e floribus persicorum or syrup of peach-flowers college take of fresh peach-flowers a pound, steep them a whole dayin three pounds of warm water, then boil a little and strain it out, repeat this infusion five times in the same liquor, in three pounds ofwhich dissolve two pounds and an half of sugar and boil it into a syrup culpeper it is a gentle purger of choler, and may be given even infevers to draw away the sharp choleric humours syrupus de pomis purgans or syrup of apples purging college take of the juice of sweet smelling apples two pounds, thejuice of borrage and bugloss of each one pound and an half, senna twoounces, annis seeds half an ounce, saffron one dram, let the senna besteeped in the juices twenty-four hours, and after a boil or two strainit, and with two pounds of white sugar boil it to a syrup accordingto art, the saffron being tied up in a rag, and often crushed in theboiling culpeper the syrup is a cooling purge, and tends to rectify thedistempers of the blood, it purges choler and melancholy, and thereforemust needs be effectual both in yellow and black jaundice, madness, scurf, leprosy, and scabs, it is very gentle the dose is from oneounce to three, according as the body is in age and strength an ounceof it in the morning is excellent for such children as break out inscabs syrupus de pomis magistralis or syrup of apples magisterial college take of the juice and water of apples of each a poundand an half, the juice and water of borrage and bugloss of each nineounces, senna half a pound, annis seeds, and sweet fennel seeds, ofeach three drams, epithimum of crete, two ounces, agarick, rhubarb, ofeach half an ounce, ginger, mace, of each four scruples, cinnamon twoscruples, saffron half a dram, infuse the rhubarb and cinnamon awritingby itself, in white wine and juice of apples, of each two ounces, letall the rest, the saffron excepted, be steeped in the waters abovementioned, and the next day put in the juices, which being boiled, scummed, and strained, then with four ounces of white sugar boil itinto a syrup, crushing the saffron in it being tied up in a linen rag, the infusion of the rhubarb being added at the latter end culpeper out of doubt this is a gallant syrup to purge choler andmelancholy, and to resist madness syrupus de rhubarbaro or syrup of rhubarb college take of the best rhubarb and senna of each two ounces andan half, violet flowers a handful, cinnamon one dram and an half, ginger half a dram, bettony, succory and bugloss water of each onepound and an half, let them be mixed together warm all night, and inthe morning strained and boiled into a syrup, with two pounds of whitesugar, adding towards the end four ounces of syrup of roses culpeper it cleanses choler and melancholy very gently, and istherefore fit for children, old people, and weak bodies you may add anounce of it to the decoction of epithimum or to the decoction of senna syrupus rosaceus solutivus or syrup of roses solutive college take of spring water boiling hot four pounds, damask roseleaves fresh, as thesis as the water will contain. Let them remain twelvehours in infusion, close stopped. Then press them out and put in freshrose leaves. Do so nine times in the same liquor, encreasing thequantity of the roses as the liquor encreases, which will be almost bythe third writing every time.

This herb and ruewill not grow together, no, nor near one another. And we know rue is asgreat an enemy to poison as any that grows to conclude. It expels both birth and after-birth. And as it helpsthe deficiency of venus in one kind, so it spoils all her actions inanother i dare write no more of it the bay tree this is so well known that it needs no description. I shall thereforeonly write the virtues thereof, which are thesis government and virtues i shall but only add a word or two to whatmy friend has written, viz , that it is a tree of the sun, and underthe celestial sign leo, and resists witchcraft very potently, as alsoall the evils old saturn can do to the body of man, and they are nota few. For it is the speech of one, and i am mistaken if it were notmizaldus, that neither witch nor devil, thunder nor lightning, willhurt a man in the place where a bay-tree is galen said, that theleaves or bark do dry and heal very much, and the berries more than theleaves. The bark of the root is less sharp and hot, but more bitter, and hath essay astriction withal whereby it is effectual to break thestone, and good to open obstructions of the liver, spleen, and otherinward writings, which bring the jaundice, dropsy, &c the berries arevery effectual against all poison of venomous creatures, and the stingof wasps and bees. As also against the pestilence, or other infectiousdiseases, and therefore put into sundry treacles for that purpose. Theylikewise procure women courses, and seven of them given to woman insore travail of child-birth, do cause a speedy delivery, and expel theafter-birth, and therefore not to be taken by such as have not gone outtheir time, lest they procure abortion, or cause labour too soon theywonderfully help all cold and rheumatic distillations from the brainto the eyes, lungs or other writings. And being made into an electuarywith honey, do help the consumption, old coughs, shortness of breath, and thin rheums. As also the megrim they mightily expel the wind, andprovoke urine. Help the mother, and kill the worms the leaves alsowork the like effect a bath of the decoction of leaves and berries, issingularly good for women to sit in, that are troubled with the mother, or the diseases thereof, or the stoppings of their courses, or for thediseases of the bladder, pains in the bowels by wind and stoppage ofthe urine a decoction likewise of equal writings of bay-berries, cumminseed, hyssop, origanum, and euphorbium, with essay honey, and the headbathed therewith, wonderfully helps distillations and rheums, andsettles the pallate of the mouth into its place the oil made of theberries is very comfortable in all cold griefs of the joints, nerves, arteries, stomach, belly, or womb, and helps palsies, convulsions, cramp, aches, tremblings, and numbness in any writing, weariness also, andpains that come by sore travelling all griefs and pains proceedingfrom wind, either in the head, stomach, back, belly, or womb, byanointing the writings affected therewith. And pains in the ears are alsocured by dropping in essay of the oil, or by receiving into the earsthe fume of the decoction of the berries through a funnel the oiltakes away the marks of the skin and flesh by bruises, falls, &c anddissolves the congealed blood in them it helps also the itch, scabs, and weals in the skin beans both the garden and field beans are so well known, that it saves me thelabour of writing any description of them the virtues follow government and virtues they are plants of venus, and the distilledwater of the flower of garden beans is good to clean the face andskin from spots and wrinkles, and the meal or flour of them, or thesmall beans doth the same the water distilled from the green husk, is held to be very effectual against the stone, and to provoke urine bean flour is used in poultices to assuage inflammations arising fromwounds, and the swelling of women breasts caused by the curdling oftheir milk, and represses their milk. Flour of beans and fenugreekmixed with honey, and applied to felons, boils, bruises, or blue marksby blows, or the imposthumes in the kernels of the ears, helps themall, and with rose leaves, frankincense and the white of an egg, beingapplied to the eyes, helps them that are swollen or do water, or havereceived any blow upon them, if used with wine if a bean be writinged intwo, the skin being taken away, and laid on the place where the leechhath been set that bleeds too much, stays the bleeding bean flourboiled to a poultice with wine and vinegar, and essay oil put thereto, eases both pains and swelling of the privities the husk boiled inwater to the consumption of a third writing thereof, stays a lask. And theashes of the husks, made up with old hog grease, helps the old pains, contusions, and wounds of the sinews, the sciatica and gout the fieldbeans have all the aforementioned virtues as the garden beans beans eaten are extremely windy meat.

And it is an easy matterto renew them yearly chapter iv of roots 1 of roots, chuse such as are neither rotten nor worm-eaten, butproper in their definition essay on love taste, colour, and smell. Such as exceed neither insoftness nor hardness 2 give me leave to be a little critical against the vulgar receivedopinion, which is, that the sap falls down into the roots in theautumn, and rises again in the spring, as men go to bed at night, andrise in the morning. And this idle talk of untruth is so grounded inthe heads, not only of the vulgar, but also of the learned, that aman cannot drive it out by reason i pray let such sapmongers answerme this argument. If the sap falls into the roots in the fall of theleaf, and lies there all the winter, then must the root grow only inthe winter but the root grows not at all in the winter, as experienceteaches, but only in the summer. Therefore, if you set an apple-kernelin the spring, you shall find the root to grow to a pretty bigness inthe summer, and be not a whit bigger next spring what doth the sap doin the root all that while?. pick straws?. ’tis as rotten as a rottenpost the truth is, when the sun declines from the tropic of cancer, the sapbegins to congeal both in root and branch.

The order might be thereverse of this in a wound from before backward penetrating woundsof the thorax may involve the lungs, heart, or great blood-vessels of these, the lungs are most often injured, which is easily accountedfor by the greater size of the lungs in wounds of the lungs theimmediate danger is from hemorrhage the hemorrhage appears externallythrough the wound and from the mouth, being coughed up where thelungs are injured by a blow, fall, or crush without external injury, blood appears in the mouth only the blood coughed up from the lungsis bright red and frothy, and it may also be frothy at the externalwound hemorrhage from the external wound may be slight, especially ifthe wound is oblique and acts as a valve in wounds of the lungs mostof the blood may collect in the pleura or in the lungs, and thus, bycompression from without or by displacement by the blood within it, prevents air from entering the lungs and produces asphyxia, which maybe fatal more or less dyspnœa usually occurs at first emphysema isgenerally present in the cellular tissues, but this latter symptommay also occur at times with non-penetrating wounds of the chest ifdeath does not occur speedily from hemorrhage by compression of thelungs or heart, there are good hopes of saving the patient, but theprognosis should be reserved for even when the first effects of thewound of the lung are survived, the patient may die from the effectsof inflammation, recurring hemorrhage, or a too sudden relaxation ofregimen thus, for instance, if too much food, talking, or exertion areindulged in the case may on this account terminate fatally, and suchaggravating causes of death may mitigate the sentence wounds of the heart are among the most fatal although it was onceconsidered, and is usually thought now by laymen, that wounds ofthe heart must be necessarily and instantly fatal, the facts areotherwise if the wound is small and oblique life may be prolonged, and paper are recorded669 in which wounds of the heart were notdirectly fatal, and in essay of which recovery would have probablyresulted if not for other diseases paper in which the heart wallwas wounded but not penetrated, and in which healing took place, are not very rare 670 thus callender removed a needle from thesubstance of the heart but there is perhaps only one case671 onrecord in which a wound penetrating the cavities of the heart wasrecovered from it is the rule rather than the exception that woundsof the heart, penetrating or not, are not immediately fatal thusin a series of twenty-nine paper of penetrating wounds mentioned bydevergie, 672 as collected by ollivier and sanson, only two endedfatally within forty-eight hours, the rest in periods ranging fromfour to twenty-eight days this delay in the fatal result has beenattributed to the arrangement of the muscle fibres crossing one anotherand tending to close the wound, or at least to make it smaller as tothe various writings of the heart wounded, the right side, especiallythe ventricle, is most often wounded thus out of fifty-four paperof wounds of the heart, taylor673 states that the right ventriclewas wounded in twenty-nine paper, both ventricles in nine, the rightauricle in three, and the left auricle in one case this greaterfrequency of wounds of the right side of the heart is easily accountedfor by its more exposed position anteriorly, just beneath the chestwall in a writing of its extent the rapidity of death depends largelyupon the site and extent of the wound lutaud674 states that out oftwenty-four paper of wounds of the right ventricle only two were fatalwithin forty-eight hours, and out of twelve paper of wounds of the leftventricle three were not immediately fatal wounds of the auricles aregenerally fatal immediately, especially if the cavity is extensivelylaid open it is the general opinion that wounds of the auricles aremost rapidly fatal, next those of the right ventricle, and lastlythose of the left ventricle this difference is probably due to thecomparative thickness of the walls of these writings thus the wall ofthe left ventricle is so thick as to tend to close a wound unless itbe extensive in wounds of the heart death rarely occurs from externalhemorrhage, which may be quite slight or even altogether wanting wherethe wound is due to a crush or fracture of the ribs death is usuallydue to the compression of the heart by the blood in the pericardium this usually causes syncope, or a slighter pressure may be fatal bycausing cerebral or pulmonary anæmia or shock death may occur suddenlyin this manner or not until after essay time thus in penetratingstab-wounds little or no blood probably escapes at first, in mostpaper, but it may ooze or, later on, suddenly burst out into thepericardium therefore after a wound of the heart the patient does not, as a rule, die immediately, as formerly and often at the present timeerroneously supposed this fact is of little importance as a rule insurgery, for the patients generally die sooner or later, but it is ofimportance in medical jurisprudence, for upon it may hang the solutionof questions of murder, suicide, or justifiable homicide it alsoaccounts for the fact that the injured person can exercise voluntarypower after the injury thus watson675 met with a case where a manran eighteen yards and died six hours after a stab-wound of the rightventricle the coronary artery was divided and the pericardium wasfilled with blood also boileau met with an accidental penetratingstab-wound through both ventricles in a soldier who ran two hundredyards, then fell and died in five minutes a boy admitted to guyhospital in 1879 lived forty-two hours with a bayonet-wound transfixingthe right auricle, the septum, the left ventricle, the mitral valve, and entering the left auricle minute wounds of the chest are essaytimes made by needles, etc , in theregion of the heart with the intention of killing infants or children taylor676 also mentions the case of a fatal wound of the heart froma needle, the result of accident we have already cited the case of aneedle lodged in the heart wall and removed by callender by operation that the puncture of the heart by a small instrument is not necessarilyserious is proved by the experiments of senn, 677 by which he foundthat “the heart can be punctured with a perfectly aseptic, medium-sizedaspirator needle without any great immediate or remote danger ”in paper of rupture of the heart the question may come up as to whetherit was the result of disease or violence we have already seen thatrupture of the heart may occur from falls or crushes without marks ofviolence to the chest in general, we may say that in rupture of theheart from violence the right side and base are most often involved, while in rupture from disease the left ventricle is generally ruptured, especially near the apex the exciting causes of rupture of a diseasedheart are often violent emotions or exertion, which may both be presentin a quarrel with another and cause rupture without direct violence the cause need be but slight if the heart is diseased, whether thecause is a natural one or outward violence rupture from disease maytherefore excite suspicions of murder, but those paper can usually besatisfactorily solved by examination of the organ post mortem a slightdegree of violence may cause rupture of a diseased heart about readyfor rupture from natural causes when a diseased heart ruptures duringa quarrel, the symptoms of rupture of the heart may be observed to comeon suddenly before and without the infliction of any violence wounds of arteries and veins, especially within the thorax - woundsof large trunks are generally speedily mortal in the chest we mayoccasionally meet with wounds of the intercostal or internal mammaryvessels or the vena azygos veins these wounds are often serious andmay be fatal we have already seen that blood in the large cavities ofthe body, like the chest, is commonly not coagulated, or at least thegreater writing of it we have already seen, too, that after wounds of thecarotid artery the victim may preserve the power of locomotion for ashort time, but not the power of struggling this fact may be importantto help distinguish between murder and suicide in such wounds of thecarotid the voice may be lost, as the trachea is often divided deathfrom wounds of large vessels may be due to loss of blood, and if thisdanger is passed the case may still terminate fatally, as in a casewhere the brachial was tied for injury and death occurred in three daysfrom gangrene the wounds of comparatively small vessels may provefatal from hemorrhage, etc in wounds of blood-vessels death may occur from the entrance of airinto them in essay paper where this is supposed to have occurred it isquite probable that death was really due to hemorrhage a considerablequantity of air may enter the circulation, especially the arterialcirculation, without a fatal result when death does occur it is owing 1 to “mechanical over-distention of the right ventricle of the heartand paralysis in the diastole, ” or 2 to “asphyxia from obstructionto the pulmonary circulation consequent upon embolism of the pulmonaryartery ”678 senn found that fatal air embolism could hardly occurspontaneously in a healthy jugular vein, as the walls collapse readilyfrom atmospheric pressure wounds and ruptures of the diaphragm - these may be due to weapons, fracture of the ribs, falls or crushes, and disease they also occuras the result of congenital malformation, though these paper seldomsurvive long these injuries are generally homicidal or accidental inorigin as a rule, the viscera are wounded at the same time, or, if notwounded, at least herniated, and may thus become strangulated it istherefore hard to estimate the danger in such paper, but the prognosisis at all times serious the most serious paper of such injury to thediaphragm are due to violent contusions or falls when the stomach andintestines are full the hemorrhage is usually slight, but hernia ofone or more of the abdominal viscera usually occurs in such paper, and is said to be more readily produced during inspiration when thefibres are on the stretch according to devergie, rupture of thediaphragm with hernia is more common on the left side in the centraltendon in front of the crura and at the junction of the left muscularleaflet also on either side of the ensiform cartilage and especiallyon the left side there occurs an area of the diaphragm which may becongenitally weak or even absent, and here too rupture and hernia arelikely to occur phrenic or diaphragmatic hernia occurs especiallyafter lacerated wounds, even after the wounds have apparently healed if hernia occurs long after the injury was inflicted, it may be askedwhether the wound was the cause of the hernia, and so of death thiscan only be determined by examination definition essay on love almost any or all of the movableabdominal viscera may be found in a diaphragmatic hernia it was oncesupposed that this accident would be immediately fatal, but this isfar from the truth devergie relates the case where a person livednine months with the stomach and colon in the chest and died fromanother cause thus a person may have a phrenic hernia and die fromanother cause, or having had a rupture or wound of the diaphragm he maysuddenly acquire a diaphragmatic hernia by reason of a blow or suddenexertion, or the latter may strangulate an existing hernia a personwith a diaphragmatic hernia may have the power of moving or walking, but is more or less incapacitated owing to the compression of the lungswhich exists and the consequent dyspnœa, etc wounds and contused injuries of the abdominal wall and viscera such wounds and injuries of the abdominal wall may be incised, punctured, or due to blunt instruments, etc they are usually homicidalor accidental, seldom suicidal except in delirious patients orlunatics the cause of death in such paper may be due to hemorrhage, shock, etc , or to secondary inflammation, which is especially likelyto occur in penetrating wounds the kind of weapon used may oftenbe judged from the nature of the wound incised and non-penetratingpunctured wounds are usually simple and not grave, but may be otherwisefrom hemorrhage from the deep epigastric artery, or from inflammationin or between the muscles, or in the subperitoneal connective tissue in the latter case peritonitis may occur, but is rare a ventral herniamay, however, result later on, as also from a cicatrix, especially ifit is transverse in such paper the question arises whether the naturalresults of the wound were aggravated by unskilful or improper treatmentor even wilful neglect on the writing of the patient or practitioner contusions of the abdomen are more serious often than those of thechest, for there is less power of resistance we have already seenthat death may occur from a contusion of the abdomen too slight to showa mark of ecchymosis or a serious injury internally this has beenattributed by essay to an effect on the solar plexus or reflexly onthe cardiac plexus causing a fatal inhibition lutaud and others haveexpressed the doubt whether the paper reported by travers, allison, watson, cooper, vibert, and others were carefully examined, and haveinferred that essay visible organic change must have been present essaysuch paper, however, have been examined with especial reference to thispoint, and no physical injuries and no other cause of death elsewherehas been found there is no ground, therefore, for a jury to doubt thata contusion of the abdomen was the cause of death because there are novisible marks of injury again, it is a well-known fact that the blows severe enough to causerupture of the abdominal viscera may essaytimes leave no trace ofviolence in or on the abdominal wall on the other hand, it must beremembered that effusions of blood may be found post mortem in thesheaths of muscles without indicating violence, so that blood may befound effused in considerable quantity in and around the abdominalmuscles without violence having been done in such paper, therefore, weshould note whether abrasions or ecchymoses of the skin are absent ornot if they are absent and there is no other evidence of a blow, themedical witness should hesitate to attribute such an effusion of bloodbetween the muscles to an act of violence as in the case of the chest, so wounds of the abdomen are serious, asa rule, mainly as they involve the abdominal viscera the viscera maybe wounded by a penetrating wound or by rupture, and the fatal resultis due essaytimes to internal hemorrhage or to shock, but generally tosecondary septic peritonitis, which may be fatal in a few hours oronly after days or weeks occasionally wounds of the abdominal visceraundergo spontaneous cure without surgical interference and with orwithout medical treatment but as a rule they are fatal unless theyreceive proper surgical treatment a wound of the abdominal wall maybe penetrating without wounding any of the viscera such wounds may befatal if they are infected, otherwise they usually heal readily andwithout danger unless they are extensive and the abdominal contentsare exposed to the air the gravity of penetrating wounds variesessaywhat with the writingicular viscus or viscera injured it is well notto examine wounds of the abdomen by the finger or probe too freelyunless a laparotomy is anticipated. For a simple wound or penetratingwound without wounding of the viscera may thus be infected enoughexamination is necessary to diagnose between a simple and a penetratingwound of the abdominal wall rupture or wounds of the abdominal viscera the liver is most often wounded of any of the abdominal viscera, withthe possible exception of the intestines, because of its size, and itis most often ruptured writingly because of its size, but mostly owing toits friable consistence such injuries most often involve the rightlobe, as it is much the larger of the two principal lobes the anteriorsurface and inferior border is the most frequent site both of woundsand ruptures of the organ ruptures rarely pass entirely throughthe organ, but are generally not more than an inch or two in depth they are usually directed antero-posteriorly or obliquely, rarelytransversely, and the lacerated granular edges are not much separatedas a rule see fig 21 rupture of the liver may be due to a blow, crush, or fall, or even to sudden muscular action if the organ is largeand fatty thus taylor679 relates the case of a woman who died afterchild-birth of uræmic convulsions, and in whom there was quite anextensive hemorrhage into the liver beneath its capsule, and apparentlydue to violent muscular contraction as we have already seen, the livermay be ruptured without the abdomen showing the marks of externalviolence rupture or wound of the liver is one of the causes of thefatality of wounds and injuries of the abdomen the fatal result maybe and often is due to hemorrhage. In other paper it is due to shockor the occurrence of peritonitis wounds of the liver heal readilyand hemorrhage is arrested at once, as a rule, by the approximationof the edges there may be little blood in and about the wound, butit collects in the right iliac region or in the pelvis and is notwholly coagulated unless the wound or rupture involves the vena cava, portal vein, or a large branch of either of these, the hemorrhage isapt to be slow and the victim may survive hours or even days, exceptfor active exertion or repeated violence two paper illustrating theslowness of the hemorrhage have occurred in guy hospital in one680the man, showing no urgent symptoms at the time, was sent away, anddied a few hours later in a police-station in this case the liver wasruptured nearly through its thickness, and a basinful of blood hadbeen effused, causing death in the other case, 681 which occurredto wilks, the patient survived the accident ten days, and taylor682cites a case which was reported to have ended fatally eight years afterthe accident as a rule the injury is fatal, without treatment, withinforty-eight hours not being immediately fatal as a rule, the victim ofa rupture or wound of the liver can walk about, and may be capable ofmore or less severe muscular exertion after the injury, though the factof such exertion has essaytimes been used by the defence to prove thatthe rupture was not due to the writingicular violence in question illustration. Fig 21 - ruptures of the liver from a fall from aconsiderable height, causing immediate death wounds and ruptures of the gall-bladder result in the effusionof bile while rupture of the liver is not necessarily followed byperitonitis, rupture of the gall-bladder with the effusion of bilegenerally causes peritonitis, and is fatal in this way and not fromhemorrhage rupture of the gall-bladder may be favored by the presenceof gall-stones, but the result is still attributable to the injury spleen - ruptures of the spleen may be due to a bruising violencein this region, and here too the skin may not show the marks of thecontusion, though this fact is still employed by the defence to tryto disprove the connection between the injury and the result it isimportant to remember, from a medico-legal point of view, that anenlarged and softened spleen may be ruptured from a comparativelyslight muscular exertion this might occur in a sudden movement toavoid a blow, and the charge of manslaughter might be affected bythe mode of the production of the injury and the previous abnormalcondition only direct violence is liable to rupture the healthy normalspleen rupture and wounds of the spleen may be and generally are fatalfrom hemorrhage, owing to the vascularity of the organ. More rarely arethey fatal from shock peritonitis is not a result to be expected the hemorrhage accumulates in the lower and left side of the abdomen orin the pelvis, and coagulation is imperfect if present at all kidneys - these are occasionally ruptured from violence, but more oftenfrom accident wounds of the kidney are rare, owing to the depth fromthe surface at which they lie they are more accessible from behind awound from behind is generally extra-peritoneal unless it perforatesthe organ. Not so a wound from in front accidents in which the lumbarregion is forcedly flexed are most apt to be followed by injury to thekidney the injury may cause no prominent symptoms, but usually lumbarpain and tenderness, frequent micturition and hematuria, and in severepaper the symptoms of hemorrhage and shock are present the injury maybe speedily fatal from hemorrhage or collapse, or more slowly fatalfrom peritonitis, when the peritoneum is involved, or from abscessand septic infection, or from uræmia if the other kidney is diseased slight injuries are generally recovered from as is the case with theliver and spleen, so after injuries of the kidney the victim may walkabout, etc , unless there is copious and immediate hemorrhage the bladder may be wounded directly through the hypogastrium, vagina, or rectum. It may be punctured by a broken fragment of the pelvis, especially the pubis, or it may frequently be ruptured from blows, crushes, or falls the latter accident occurs especially where thebladder is distended the bladder may also rupture spontaneously fromover-distention, which may or may not be favored by disease of thebladder wall, in which case rupture occurs more easily medico-legallythe question may arise whether the rupture was spontaneous or due toinjury in this connection it should be remembered that the injury mayleave no external mark of violence, and a case is recorded in which thebladder was ruptured by a fall in wrestling. But the question can bedetermined only by an examination of the bladder if the wall of thebladder is thinned by the pressure of a calculus or from other causes, or if it is weakened by tubercular, syphilitic, or carcinomatousdeposits or ulcerations, it may be spontaneously ruptured fromslight distention or a slight degree of violence may rupture it ifviolence has been employed it is responsible for the rupture, thoughthe diseased condition may act as a mitigating circumstance. Not soa distended bladder, as the latter is not abnormal in spontaneousrupture from over-distention without disease of the bladder wall, stricture, hypertrophied prostate, or essay such condition must bepresent to account for the over-distention spontaneous rupture ofthe bladder can, therefore, only occur when either disease of thebladder wall or obstruction of the urethra is present no conditionexcludes rupture from violence if there is an injury followed bythe symptoms of rupture of the bladder and death and the bladder andurethra are healthy, there can be little doubt that death was due tothe injury wounds or rupture of the bladder may be extra-peritonealor intra-peritoneal rupture from disease of the bladder wall occursat the site of the diseased and weakened spot, which is most often atthe base of the bladder rupture of the bladder from violence occursmost often on the postero-superior wall, running downward from theurachus, in which case the peritoneum would be involved a puncturedwound of the bladder wall may be so minute that the leakage is veryslow and the customary symptoms may be obscured, or the opening may bevalvular in character, perhaps allowing escape of urine only when thebladder is not distended the symptoms consist of pain, inabilityto micturate, and the presence of blood in the little fluid which canbe drawn by a catheter fluid injected is not all returned and thebladder cannot be distended after a time varying from a few hours toa few days, depending upon the size of the opening and the conditionof the urine, peritonitis or peri-vesical cellulitis is set up, theformer being generally fatal, the latter not necessarily so promptsurgical treatment may save the patient life by avoiding peritonitis extra-peritoneal ruptures are far less dangerous than intra-peritoneal, as in the former case cellulitis and abscess in the cellular tissuearound the bladder, which may subsequently be treated by operationand drainage, take the place of peritonitis in the latter case, forwhich prevention is the only safe treatment in extra-peritonealrupture death, if it occurs, is generally due to septicæmia. In theintra-peritoneal variety it is due to peritonitis these paper ofinjury to the bladder may die suddenly and speedily from shock or fromperitonitis in three to seven days, or not until fifteen days or so inpunctured and incised wounds the urine escapes more slowly, peritonitisdevelops less early, and death is longer delayed hemorrhage in injuryto the bladder is not usually serious. The blood is found writingly inthe bladder, writingly in the pelvis, where the fluid extravasated byperitonitis is also found the victim of a wound or rupture of thebladder may often walk about for essay time after the injury stomach and intestines - punctured wounds, or, more rarely, incisedwounds of the abdomen may involve these organs, or they may be rupturedby blows, crushes, and falls, or from disease stab-wounds of theseviscera may be multiple from a single stab, the instrument traversingone coil, perhaps, and then wounding others, though this is less oftenthe case than with gunshot wounds ruptures too may be multiple, though less often so than wounds the ileum is most liable to rupture, though several paper of rupture of the jejunum are on record likethe bladder, the stomach and, to a less extent, the intestines aremore liable to be ruptured when distended ruptures of the stomach orintestines are seldom attended with much hemorrhage, while wounds mayoccasionally cause a serious and fatal hemorrhage from the wounding ofa large blood-vessel the principal danger lies in the leakage of thecontents of the stomach and intestines, which almost always sets up aseptic peritonitis this may essaytimes become localized and go on tospontaneous cure, though as a rule it becomes general and is fatal insuch paper early operation may avoid the fatal peritonitis a puncturedwound may be so small as to be closed by the mucous membrane, avoidingthe escape of the contents of the gut or a wound may not entirelypenetrate the wall of the stomach or intestines, which only gives wayessay days, perhaps, after the injury, though the injury is entirelyresponsible for the delayed result these injuries are essaytimesfatal immediately or very speedily from shock, while in other paperof very extensive injury there may be almost no shock, and the victimis aware of no serious injury it is an important point to remembermedico-legally that spontaneous rupture of the stomach or intestinesmay occur owing to ulceration due to disease this can be determinedby a careful examination of the wall of the stomach or intestines atthe site of the rupture a slight injury may also cause rupture if thewall of the gut is weakened by disease, as the disease causes greaterliability to rupture here too it is to be remembered that a severeinjury causing rupture may leave no mark of violence on the abdominalwall the power of walking or other muscular exertion after suchinjuries of the stomach or intestines is not infrequently preserved, asrecorded in numerous paper 683 the prognosis in such injuries of thestomach and intestines is always extremely grave incised, punctured, and contused wounds of the genital organs these are not common as medico-legal paper self-castration ormutilation is essaytimes practised by lunatics, idiots, or evenintoxicated persons thus a man who, while intoxicated, cut off hisgenital organs and died the next day from the effects of hemorrhage wasseen by demarquay 684 circumcision in infants is also essaytimes fatalfrom phlegmonous inflammation 685incised, lacerated, or contused wounds of the female genitals may befatal from hemorrhage from thesis small vessels deeply incised woundsof the female genitals proves wilful and deliberate malice. Accidentis out of the question and suicide is improbable in such paper but weessaytimes have to determine between accidental, self-inflicted, andhomicidal wounds of these writings, as accidental wounds may occasionallyresemble those made by design and so may furnish more or lessdifficulty, unless all the circumstances are known thus taylor686relates the case of a child in whom a sharp-pointed stick entered andpassed through the posterior wall of the vagina as she fell from atree the stick was removed by a woman, and the child died in a littleover a day from peritonitis unless the circumstances were known, thiscase might have caused suspicion of homicide lunatics, idiots, and drunkards essaytimes inflict on themselves woundsunlike ordinary suicidal ones in other paper the various points wehave enumerated in a previous section to distinguish between suicide, homicide, and accident may be applied to solve the case contused wounds, such as kicks, etc , of the female genitals maybe fatal from hemorrhage due to the laceration of the writings 687like the wounds of the eyebrows, contused wounds of the vulva mayessaytimes resemble incised wounds owing to the sharp bony surfacesbeneath careful examination allows a discrimination to be made fromincised wounds if hemorrhage occurs a long time after the allegedviolence, it is probably due to natural causes, especially in paper ofmetrorrhagia, etc it may be alleged in defence that contused woundsof the female genitals were inflicted post mortem, but besides theother features which we have already seen help to distinguish betweenante-mortem and post-mortem wounds, we may add that kicks and othercontusions of the vulva, if fatal, are so from hemorrhage or effusionof blood, and no post-mortem hemorrhage is enough to cause death incised, punctured, and contused wounds of the extremities these may be fatal if a large blood vessel or vessels are opened, oressaytimes if a compound fracture or wound of a joint becomes infected they may also in essay paper be fatal from shock, from the severityof the injury as a rule they are the cause of civil suits, not ofcriminal ones the various injuries may cause disability for a longeror shorter time, or even permanently, and more or less deformity mayalso remain this may be the case with fractures, especially if theyoccur near the joints, in which case great caution should be exercisedin giving an opinion or prognosis it is a common mistaken idea of thelaity that a fractured or dislocated limb can be made in every case asgood as before the injury on the contrary, they not infrequently leavea slight deformity and impairment of function, essaytimes even under thebest treatment dislocations may also leave a lasting disability orweakness, often owing to the carelessness of the injured person wounds of an artery or vein, or both, may result in an aneurism oran arterio-venous aneurism wounds of nerves may cause paralysis andanæsthesia of the writings supplied wounds of muscles or tendons maycause weakness or complete loss of motion of writingicular joints woundsof the soft writings, if infected, may lead to cellulitis and phlegmonousinflammation, which may result in much injury wounds of joints, ifpenetrating, are serious, for without the proper treatment they mayresult in suppuration in the joint, disorganization of the joint, and final ankylosis before the use of antiseptic treatment suchwounds were not uncommonly fatal fractures, simple or compound, orcontusions of bone especially in young subjects, may be followed byosteo-periostitis and its consequences, which may require a long timefor recovery after the fracture is entirely recovered from, and a stilllonger time before the limb can be used these and thesis other of thevarious results of wounds and injuries of the extremities, causingdeformity or disability, or both, can often be cured or improved bysurgical treatment or operation the medico-legal consideration of gunshot wounds by roswell park, a m , m d , professor of surgery in the university of buffalo. Attending surgeon to the buffalo general hospital. Fellow of the german congress of surgeons. Of the american orthopædic association. Of the american genito-urinary surgeons’ association. Of the new york academy of medicine, etc , etc gunshot wounds general considerations few medical men there are who have long engaged in practice who havenot been compelled to take writing in essay medico-legal controversy inpaper of accidental or alleged homicidal gunshot wounds so soon asdeath occurs the surgeon ceases to work as such, but may continue towork as a medical jurist, and in preparation for this event must beready to answer any questions bearing upon the case which, thoughpossibly ridiculous in surgery, are or may be necessary in law hemay be called upon to testify as to the precise nature of a woundinflicted upon the body of a man seen before or after death. As to themeans by which it was inflicted. Whether the purport was suicidal orhomicidal.

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The other passed from thecircular mark behind, crossed it on either side under lower jaw, thenceup to chin appeared at first to be a case of strangulation followinghanging. But the two marks were finally explained, that after the bodywas taken down it was ordered up again until the police should arrive 4 ibid , p 5 - man, age 45. First cut his throat and then hunghimself “he had probably only just had time to hang himself beforedying ”5 ibid , p 30 - woman. Hung herself with a twisted cloth therewas much ecchymosis about the neck and upper writing of chest. Lungs muchcongested. Fibrin clot in left mitral orifice. Liver, spleen, andstomach congested.