History

Define Expository Essay


“if an eclipse of the sun occurs on the twenty-ninth day ofthe month of jypar, there will be thesis deaths on the first day ”tablet 271. “an eclipse at the morning watch causes disease if aneclipse takes place during the morning watch, and lasts throughout thewatch, while the wind blows from the north, the sick in akkad willrecover ”tablet 79. “if a halo surrounds the moon and if regulus stands within, women will bear male children ”tablet 94. “if sun and moon on the fifteenth day ‘answer my prayer’shall he say let him nestle close to his wife, she shall conceive ason ”these few extracts show us the close relations into whichassyrico-babylonian culture brought the becoming and passing away ofall animal life with the stellar movement. In fact, as we note fromtablet 94, the astrologists of this period did not hesitate to intrudeinto the most intimate occurrences of married life it is quite obviousthat, under such circumstances, the babylonian physician was compelledto consider very carefully the utterances of the astrologists incarrying on his practise it may be possible that we shall obtain stillfurther information regarding the quality of sidereal therapy from thenumerously discovered cuneiform tablets we know positively that aphysician was forbidden to perform any surgical operations on certaindays of each month thus, for instance, the 7th, 14th, 19th, 21st, and28th of the month schall-elul were unfavorable days for such operations oefele these directions were especially stringent in regard tovenesection, to which act we shall again refer in greater detail when civilization, later on, continued to thrive upon the shores ofthe nile, astrology still found a fertile soil there, and it appearsthat here also the name ἰατρομαθηματικοί has originated, which, subsequently, was a favorite designation of adherents to the siderealart of healing the astrological prognoses made by the professionalastrologist, petosiris, for the king nechepso of sais are well known however, it appears, according to the latest investigations comparethe excellent work of sudhoff, page 4, etc , that these prognoses havenothing at all to do with that king nechepso who reigned in the seventhcentury, b c it seems more probable that essay cunning alexandrianastrologist of the second century, b c , fraudulently used the nameof the king as a cover for his work but however this may be, theseprognoses of petosiris have considerable value, in that they give us aninsight into the manufacture of such medical prophesies the object of these prognoses was primarily to discover the terminationof a disease, whether the patient would die or recover, either soonor only after the lapse of a certain time for instance, after sevendays this was all that petosiris undertook to predict all detailsregarding treatment, complications, and diagnosis of a case are stillentirely wanting petosiris, in making such a prognosis, by no meansrelied solely upon the conjunction of certain celestial bodies, but heemployed a rather intricate method, in which mystic numbers, onomancy, and astrology were important elements to prognosticate medicallyaccording to this system a circle of numerals was required in the firstplace there existed two different kinds of such circles one simple, the other more complicated berthelot has furnished us with examples ofboth as used by petosiris illustration. Fig 1 circle of petosiris after bouché-leclercq, p 539the more simple formula fig 1 consisted of two concentric circles, the smaller of which was divided into four quadrants between bothconcentric circles and within the horizontal diameters were inscribedthe words.

It is an admirable define expository essay remedy against wounds and gunshot, wounds made with poisoned weapons, it draws out splinters, brokenbones, &c the dose from half a dram to a dram dipsacus, sativ sylv teazles, garden and wild, the leaves bruisedand applied to the temples, allay the heat in fevers, qualify the ragein frenzies. The juice dropped into the ears, kills worms in them, dropped into the eyes, clears the sight, helps redness and pimples inthe face, being anointed with it ebulus dwarf elder, or walwort hot and dry in the third degree;waste hard swellings, being applied in form of a poultice. The hair ofthe head anointed with the juice of it turns it black. The leaves beingapplied to the place, help inflammations, burnings, scaldings, thebitings of mad dogs. Mingled with bulls suet is a present remedy forthe gout. Inwardly taken, is a singular purge for the dropsy and gout echium viper-bugloss, viper-herb, snake bugloss, wal-bugloss, wild-bugloss, several counties give it these several names. It isa singular remedy being eaten, for the biting of venomous beasts:continually eating of it makes the body invincible against the poisonof serpents, toads, spiders, &c however it be administered. Itcomforts the heart, expels sadness and melancholy the rich may makethe flowers into a conserve, and the herb into a syrup, the poor maykeep it dry, both may keep it as a jewel empetron, calcifragra, herniaria, &c rupture-wort, or burst-wort the english name tells you it is good against ruptures, and so such asare bursten shall find it, if they please to make trial of it, eitherinwardly taken, or outwardly applied to the place, or both also thelatin names hold it forth to be good against the stone, which whosotries shall find true enula campana elicampane provokes urine see the root epithimum dodder of time, to which add common dodder, which isusually that which grows upon flax. Indeed every dodder retains avirtue of that herb or plant it grows upon, as dodder that growsupon broom, provokes urine forcibly, and loosens the belly, and ismoister than that which grows upon flax. That which grows upon time, is hotter and dryer than that which grows upon flax, even in the thirddegree, opens obstructions, helps infirmities of the spleen, purgethmelancholy, relieves drooping spirits, helps the rickets. That whichgrows on flax, is excellent for agues in young children, strengthensweak stomachs, purgeth choler, provokes urine, opens stoppings inthe reins and bladder that which grows upon nettles, provokes urineexceedingly the way of using it is to boil it in white wine, orother convenient decoction, and boil it very little ætias, mesue, actuarius, serapio, avincena eruch rocket, hot and dry in the third degree, being eaten alone, causeth head-ache, by its heat procures urine galen eupatorium see ageratum euphragia eyebright is essaything hot and dry, the very sight of itrefresheth the eyes. Inwardly taken, it restores the sight, and makesold men eyes young, a dram of it taken in the morning is worth apair of spectacles, it comforts and strengthens the memory, outwardlyapplied to the place, it helps the eyes filix fœmina } filicula, polypidium } see the roots filipendula }malahathram indian-leaf, hot and dry in the second degree, comfortsthe stomach exceedingly, helps digestion, provokes urine, helpsinflammations of the eyes, secures cloaths from moths fæniculum fennel, encreaseth milk in nurses, provokes urine, breaksthe stone, easeth pains in the reins, opens stoppings, breaks wind, provokes the menses. You may boil it in white wine fragaria strawberry leaves, are cold, dry, and binding, a singularremedy for inflammations and wounds, hot diseases in the throat.

It strengthens nature much which waysoever it be taken, define expository essay there are but few grains usually given of it at atime. Mixed with a little ointment of orange flowers, and the templesand forehead anointed with it, it eases the pains of the head andstrengthens the brain exceedingly. The same applied to the privities, helps the fits of the mother. Inwardly taken it strengthens the brainand memory, the heart and vital spirit, warms cold stomachs, and isan exceeding strengthener of nature to old people, adding vigour todecayed and worn-out spirits. It provokes venery, and makes barrenwomen fruitful, if coldness and moisture or weakness be the causeimpediting assafœtida being smelled to, is vulgarly known to repress the fits ofthe mother. A little bit put into an aching tooth, presently eases thepain, ten grains of it taken before dinner, walking half an hour afterit, provokes appetite, helps digestion, strengthens the stomach, andtakes away loathing of meat, it provokes lust exceedingly and expelswind as much borax, besides the virtues it has to solder gold, silver, copper, &c inwardly given in small quantities, it stops fluxes, and the running ofthe reins. Being in fine powder, and put into green wounds, it curesthem at once dressing gambuge, which the college calls gutta gamba i know no good of it caranna outwardly applied, is excellent for aches and swellings inthe nerves and joints. If you lay it behind the ears, it draws backhumours from the eyes. Applied to the temples as they usually domastich, it helps the tooth-ache gum elimi, authors appropriate to fractures in the skull and head see arceus’ liniment gum lacca being well purified, and the quantity of half a dram takenin any convenient liquor, strengthens the stomach and liver, opensobstructions, helps the yellow jaundice and dropsy. Provokes urine, breaks the stone in the reins and bladder liquid amber is not much unlike liquid styrax. By unction it warmsand comforts a cold and moist brain, it eases all griefs coming ofa cold cause, it mightily comforts and strengthens a weak stomach, being anointed with it, and helps digestion exceedingly, it dissolvesswellings it is hot in the third degree, and moist in the first i think it would do the commonwealth no harm if i should speak a wordor two on manna here, although it be no gum. I confess authors makeessay flutter about it, what it is, essay holding it to be the juiceof a tree. I am confident it is the very same condensated that ourhoney-dews here are, only the contries whence it comes being farhotter, it falls in great abundance let him that desires reason forit, be pleased to read butler book of bees, a most excellentexperimental work, there he shall find reason enough to satisfy anyreasonable man choose the driest and whitest. It is a very gentlepurger of choler, quenches thirst, provokes appetite, eases theroughness of the throat, helps bitterness in the throat, and oftenproneness to vomit, it is very good for such as are subject to becostive to put it into their drink instead of sugar, it hath noobnoxious quality at all in it, but may be taken by a pregnant womanwithout any danger. A child of a year old may take an ounce of it ata time dissolved in milk, it will melt like sugar, neither will it beknown from it by the taste myrrh is hot and dry in the second degree, dangerous for pregnantwomen, it is bitter, and yet held to be good for the roughness ofthe throat and wind-pipe. Half a dram of it taken at a time helpsrheumatic distillations upon the lungs, pains in the sides. It stopsfluxes, provokes the menses, brings away both birth and after-birth, softens the hardness of the womb.

Being in fine powder, and put into green wounds, it curesthem at once dressing gambuge, which the college calls gutta gamba i know no good of define expository essay it caranna outwardly applied, is excellent for aches and swellings inthe nerves and joints. If you lay it behind the ears, it draws backhumours from the eyes. Applied to the temples as they usually domastich, it helps the tooth-ache gum elimi, authors appropriate to fractures in the skull and head see arceus’ liniment gum lacca being well purified, and the quantity of half a dram takenin any convenient liquor, strengthens the stomach and liver, opensobstructions, helps the yellow jaundice and dropsy. Provokes urine, breaks the stone in the reins and bladder liquid amber is not much unlike liquid styrax. By unction it warmsand comforts a cold and moist brain, it eases all griefs coming ofa cold cause, it mightily comforts and strengthens a weak stomach, being anointed with it, and helps digestion exceedingly, it dissolvesswellings it is hot in the third degree, and moist in the first i think it would do the commonwealth no harm if i should speak a wordor two on manna here, although it be no gum. I confess authors makeessay flutter about it, what it is, essay holding it to be the juiceof a tree. I am confident it is the very same condensated that ourhoney-dews here are, only the contries whence it comes being farhotter, it falls in great abundance let him that desires reason forit, be pleased to read butler book of bees, a most excellentexperimental work, there he shall find reason enough to satisfy anyreasonable man choose the driest and whitest. It is a very gentlepurger of choler, quenches thirst, provokes appetite, eases theroughness of the throat, helps bitterness in the throat, and oftenproneness to vomit, it is very good for such as are subject to becostive to put it into their drink instead of sugar, it hath noobnoxious quality at all in it, but may be taken by a pregnant womanwithout any danger. A child of a year old may take an ounce of it ata time dissolved in milk, it will melt like sugar, neither will it beknown from it by the taste myrrh is hot and dry in the second degree, dangerous for pregnantwomen, it is bitter, and yet held to be good for the roughness ofthe throat and wind-pipe. Half a dram of it taken at a time helpsrheumatic distillations upon the lungs, pains in the sides. It stopsfluxes, provokes the menses, brings away both birth and after-birth, softens the hardness of the womb. Being taken two hours before thefit comes, it helps agues mathiolus saith he seldom used any othermedicine for the quartan ague than a dram of myrrh given in muskadelan hour before the fit usually came. If you make it up into pills withtreacle, and take one of them every morning fasting, it is a sovereignpreservative against the pestilence, against the poison of serpents, and other venomous beasts. A singular remedy for a stinking breath ifit arise from putrefaction of the stomach, it fastens loose teeth, andstays the shedding off of the hair, outwardly used it breeds flesh indeep wounds, and covers the naked bones with flesh olibanum is hot in the second degree, and dry in the first, you maytake a dram of it at a time, it stops looseness and the running ofthe reins.

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Thus:tinctura nucis vomicae, u s p. Elixir gentianae, n f substances described in new and nonofficial remedies -- in the body ofthe book will be described simple proprietary substances and theirpreparations. Proprietary mixtures if they have originality or otherimportant qualities which, in the judgment of the council, entitle themto such place, and important, nonproprietary, unofficial articles the council recommends that when the latter are prescribed, theybe indicated by the abbreviation, “n n r , ” thus insuring to theprescriber the quality of these articles laid down in the book proprietary mixtures -- a mixture will be considered as proprietary, and therefore requiring consideration by the council for admissionto the book or appendix, if it contains any proprietary article. Ifit is marketed under a name which is in any way protected, or ifits manufacturer claims for it any unusual therapeutic qualities proprietary mixtures which are marketed in conformity with therules are listed in the appendix of the book under the names of therespective manufacturers such proprietary mixtures are not admittedto the body of the book, save in the exceptional paper cited in thepreceding paragraph nonproprietary mixtures of official substances -- since the ingredientsof such mixtures do not require consideration by the council, andsince the mixtures are not open to the proprietary abuses which callfor the work of the council, it is not necessary that they should beinvestigated by the council the physician must judge whether suchmixtures should be directed to be prepared by the pharmacist, orwhether he is justified in ordering a ready-made preparation if hedecides to use a ready-made, nonproprietary preparation, he must judgefor himself whether it is marketed in accordance with the rules itshould, however, be remembered that the application of a trade name toany substance makes it proprietary explanation of rule 1. Compositionsecrecy objectionable -- it is not only the right but also the duty ofthe physician to know the essential composition of what he prescribes;the council cannot compromise on this proposition vehicles and preservatives -- in the case of mixtures, not only thepotent ingredient, but also the general character of the vehicle, thepresence of alcohol, and the identity of preservatives, or of any othersubstance, whether added or present as an impurity, must be stated ifthese can under any circumstances affect the therapeutic action ofthe article this, as a rule, does not mean the publication of tradesecrets, such as flavors or the details of the working formula trade secrets -- furthermore, trade secrets will not be received asconfidential by the council, since it accepts information only withthe distinct understanding that this may be freely published, at itsdiscretion inspection of factories -- the council does not accept invitations toinspect factories. Its concern is with the finished products on the other hand, the council requires that the information becomplete and accurate as to medicinal ingredients unofficial constituents -- unofficial constituents of proprietarymixtures must be presented by the manufacturer in the regular way andmust be acted on by the council before the preparations containing themcan be accepted fraud -- when it appears that a manufacturer has made a deliberatelyfalse statement concerning a product, he is asked to furnish anexplanation. And if this is not satisfactory, the product will not beaccepted, even if the false statement is subsequently corrected oromitted testimonials -- the foregoing paragraph applies not only to statementsmade to the council, but also to statements furnished to physicians bythe manufacturer or his agents, even when these statements are in theguise of testimonials explanation of rule 2. Identificationin order to avoid errors in the case of chemical compounds, and toguard against adulterations, lack of potency or strength, and themistaking of one chemical for another, it is necessary to have at handsuitable tests tests, etc -- if these facts have appeared in the literature, orin standard textbooks, reference to them will be sufficient.