History

Debate Essay


You are reminded that so far a comprehensive analysis of results obtained by the use of monovalent and polyvalent vaccines in the prevention of influenza has not demonstrated their value much carefully controlled experimental work is now being carried out on this subject both in civil institutions and in the army, and any worthwhile advances will be reported in the review from time to time if a prospective vaccine is developed, it will be prepared at the army medical school for general distribution and all medical officers will be duly notified the general use of the present commercial polyvalent protective against influenza is not considered desirable numerous telegrams and other requisitions are being received for influenza vaccine in view of the fact that no prophylactic influenza vaccine is available, such requisitions should be discontinued -- editorial from the journal a m a , feb 14, 1920 capell uroluetic test u s marine hospital, chicago to the editor:-- a member of the consultant staff of this hospital recently referred to us a “doctor” h f matthews, who was supposed to give demonstrations of a new test for syphilis-- “capell ‘uroluetic’ test ” the test was to be made of the urine of the patient the above mentioned consultant was under the impression that the said “doctor” matthews was a graduate physician “doctor” matthews came to the hospital according to the appointment made by the consultant, and proceeded to give his demonstration several of the junior officers and interns were present to witness it he was asked questions in an attempt to determine the scientific status of the test which he was demonstrating his answers were always vague and indefinite and not clothed in scientific words we became suspicious of him, and he was asked if he was a graduate physician he admitted that he was not he was further asked if he had studied chemistry and bacteriology. He stated that he had in 1888 inquiry was made as to where. He replied that it was at the university of illinois he was further asked if he was familiar with the wassermann reaction he stated that he was not this man is going around representing himself as a physician who has a new test which he claims is superior to, and more delicate than, the wassermann test. Yet he knows nothing whatever of the technic of the wassermann reaction in one case, we gave him the same specimen of urine in four different containers he read a different degree of reaction for each of them in other words, in a specimen from the same patient, his four different tests showed, respectively, a , a , a and a reaction it occurred to me that it might be well to inform you of this man methods, as he told us that he had been to a good thesis institutions, and i am sure he will soon start a plan to systematically force his pseudoscientific test on credulous physicians everywhere j o cobb, m d , senior surgeon in charge the propaganda dewritingment has in its files a business card reading:“capell laboratories, room 1510 masonic temple, chicago dr h f matthews, special representative ” capell laboratory has itsheadquarters in omaha, and is apparently conducted by dr w l capell, who, for thesis years, seems to have been more or less interested inproprietary medicines essay years ago he was connected with a concernknown as “acneine pharmacal company, ” which, apparently, was dissolvedessay time in 1910. And soon thereafter a new company was organizedknown as the leroy drug company in 1917 w l capell was connectedwith the capell, cameron co , inc , of lincoln, neb , which wasselling “capell uroluetic test”, “capell treatment for syphilis”and other remedies the “treatment for syphilis” was said to be “painless, pleasant, harmless, efficacious, and requires usually from 30 to 90 days only to eradicate the disease ”the name of the treatment is “mercarodin”-- earlier it was called“camit”-- and it is now being sold from “capell laboratory, ” omaha in addition, capell laboratory sells acneine, which apparently isthe same product that was sold in 1906 and 1907 under the name of“sambu-co” by the holtman-stringer co of omaha and later was put outby the acneine pharmacal company of omaha while capell laboratory sells proprietary remedies, it is the“uroluetic test” which the concern now seems to be featuring theclaims made for this are. “this test requires no expert knowledge, is inexpensive, and can be made in a few minutes, and is so plain that it cannot be mistaken ”the idea of being able to determine the absence or presence of syphilisby a simple color test of the urine is a fascinating one the presentreliable diagnostic tests are, as capell laboratory so plausiblyemphasizes, essaywhat involved, and call for rather delicate technic but there are no short-cuts to knowledge a physician who ordered capell uroluetic test essay weeks ago receivedwith the bill the letter that follows. It is given not so much for whatit says, as for how it says it it is copied verbatim et literatim.

Writingicularly when, as in this case, neither the label nor the advertising matter gives thenecessary information regarding the composition of the preparationsfurther than that, in accordance with the requirements of the federalfood and drugs act, the amount of chloral is declared rule 10 the council declared l o compound no 1 and l o compound no 2inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies for conflict with rules 1, 4, 6, 8 and 10 the council consideration of tri-arsenole, l o compound no 1 andl o compound no 2 was based on information received from the medicalsupply company, the correspondence being signed “medical supply co , per dr h e pontius ” the findings having been sent debate essay to the medicalsupply company, the following reply was received. june 27, 1917 “replying to your registered letter of this a m relative to the medical supply company products, will state that the writingy furnishing you with such information as you have in hand was misinformed he is no longer with this company and whereabouts unknown respectfully, medical supply company, signed w b lingo, president ”the medical supply company then was asked to point out any statementsoccurring in the report, as submitted, which the company consideredto be inaccurate. But no reply has been received to this request theadvertising sent out by the medical supply company during the lastwriting of august contained essentially the same statements and claims asthose to which reference is made in the preceding report a qualitativeexamination of tri-arsenole made in the a m a chemical laboratoryindicated the presence of sodium, mercury, arsenic, chlorid, benzoateand a hydrastis preparation quantitative determinations were not madeas there was no guarantee that an analysis of the present supply wouldindicate the composition of that marketed later on in view of the statement of the president of the company, that theinformation submitted in the letters from the medical supply companywas inaccurate, tri-arsenole and l o compound must definitely beplaced with preparations, the composition of which is not divulged bytheir owners. Hence tri-arsenole as well as l o compound no 1 andl o compound no 2 are in conflict with rule 1 -- from reports ofcouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, 1917, p 156 unctol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryunctol, sold by the r r rogers chemical company, san francisco, is a paste stated to contain approximately 40 per cent of metallicmercury in a soap base it is claimed that a writing of the mercury is“precipitated mercury” and a writing “mechanically comminuted mercury ”unctol is sold as a substitute for mercurial ointment and is to berubbed into the skin with the aid of water the claim is made forunctol that “it is more active than blue ointment because the mercuryin it 40 per cent is more finely divided and the lathering stillfurther subdivides the mercury writingicles and hence promotes absorption ”no evidence was presented to the council in support of the claimedsuperior efficacy of mercury soap paste over the official mercurialointment on the other hand, a consultant of the council who hasstudied the absorption of mercury and mercury compounds, when appliedto the skin, reported that he had used mercury preparations in whichsoap was the base, and that in his opinion unctol could have noadvantage over the official mercurial ointment from the standpoint oftherapeutic effect moreover, the council is advised that essay trialswith unctol at the skin clinic of leland stanford university juniorschool of medicine did not confirm the claim that unctol is more activethan mercurial ointment the council declared unctol inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies because. 1 the claim of superiority over mercurial ointmentis not substantiated, and constitutes an unwarranted therapeuticclaim rule 6 2 the name does not indicate the composition of thispharmaceutical mixture rule 8 3 the circular wrapped with the tradepackage advertises proprietary preparations not accepted by the council rule 4 -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1917, p 162 v-e-m schoonmaker laboratories, inc report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrybecause of inquiry received, the schoonmaker laboratories, inc , newyork, were requested to submit information in regard to the “v-e-m”products according to information received, these products have the followingcomposition. V-e-m unguentum eucalyptol compound menthol 5 grs eucalyptol sander 15 gtts white vaseline 1 oz v-e-m with ichthyol menthol 2-1/2 grs eucalyptol sander 15 gtts ichthyol 10 grs white vaseline 1 oz v-e-m with stearate of zinc menthol 2-1/2 grs eucalyptol sander 15 gtts stearate of zinc 1 drm white vaseline 1 oz v-e-m with camphor camphor 15 grs eucalyptol sander 15 gtts white vaseline 1 oz v-e-m with boric acid pulv boric acid 1/2 drm eucalyptol sander 15 gtts white vaseline 1 oz in an advertising circular this claim is made. “v-e-m unguentum eucalyptol compound combining, in well-balanced proportions, the cooling, soothing and healing virtues of menthol with the antiseptic and deodorizing properties of eucalyptol, in a base of pure, neutral white vaseline furnished in five formulas as follows. “v-e-m unguentum eucalyptol compound. Menthol, eucalyptol sander, white vaseline “v-e-m with ichthyol. Menthol, eucalyptol sander, ichthyol, white vaseline “v-e-m with stearate of zinc. Menthol, eucalyptol sander, stearate of zinc, white vaseline “v-e-m with camphor. Camphor, eucalyptol sander, white vaseline “v-e-m with boric acid. Pulv boric acid, eucalyptol sander, white vaseline “for local application in the treatment of affections of the nose and throat “the efficacy of these combinations of remedial agents is so well established as to preclude the necessity of more than passing mention what is obvious is that in acute coryza, in chronic and acute nasal catarrh, in dry catarrhal conditions especially, in both forms of chronic rhinitis-- atrophic and hypertrophic-- in the latter stages of the prevailing grippe colds, and even in hay fever, v-e-m unguentum eucalyptol compound affords pronounced relief and proves a most grateful application ”though the identity and purity of eucalyptol are provided for by thestandards of the u s pharmacopeia, the claim is made that the productcontained in these preparations “transcends in purity and efficiencyall other brands ”a package of v-e-m unguentum eucalyptol compound, recently sent to aphysician, contains the following.

They are of a bitterish debate essay taste, being chewed in the mouth. From among these rises up a stalk, green incolour, round in form, great and strong in magnitude, five or six feetin altitude, with thesis joints, and essay leaves thereat. Towards the topcome forth umbels of small yellow flowers, after which are passed away, you may find whitish, yellow, short, flat seeds, bitter also in taste place having given you a description of the herb from bottom totop, give me leave to tell you, that there are other herbs called bythis name. But because they are strangers in england, i give only thedescription of this, which is easily to be had in the gardens of diversplaces time although gerrard saith, that they flower from the beginningof may to the end of december, experience teaches them that keep it intheir gardens, that it flowers not till the latter end of the summer, and sheds its seeds presently after government and virtues it is under the dominion of mars, hot, biting, and choleric. And remedies what evils mars inflicts the bodyof man with, by sympathy, as vipers’ flesh attracts poison, andthe loadstone iron it kills the worms, helps the gout, cramp, andconvulsions, provokes urine, and helps all joint-aches it helps allcold griefs of the head, the vertigo, falling-sickness, the lethargy, the wind cholic, obstructions of the liver and spleen, stone in thekidneys and bladder it provokes the terms, expels the dead birth:it is excellent good for the griefs of the sinews, itch, stone, andtooth-ache, the biting of mad dogs and venomous beasts, and purgescholer very gently alkanet besides the common name, it is called orchanet, and spanish bugloss, and by apothecaries, enchusa descript of the thesis sorts of this herb, there is but one known togrow commonly in this nation. Of which one take this description. Ithath a great and thick root, of a reddish colour, long, narrow, hairyleaves, green like the leaves of bugloss, which lie very thick upon theground. The stalks rise up compassed round about, thick with leaves, which are less and narrower than the former. They are tender, andslender, the flowers are hollow, small, and of a reddish colour place it grows in kent near rochester, and in thesis places in thewest country, both in devonshire and cornwall time they flower in july and the beginning of august, and theseed is ripe soon after, but the root is in its prime, as carrots andparsnips are, before the herb runs up to stalk government and virtues it is an herb under the dominion of venus, and indeed one of her darlings, though essaywhat hard to come by ithelps old ulcers, hot inflammations, burnings by common fire, and st anthony fire, by antipathy to mars. For these uses, your best way isto make it into an ointment. Also, if you make a vinegar of it, as youmake vinegar of roses, it helps the morphew and leprosy. If you applythe herb to the privities, it draws forth the dead child it helps theyellow jaundice, spleen, and gravel in the kidneys dioscorides saithit helps such as are bitten by a venomous beast, whether it be takeninwardly, or applied to the wound. Nay, he saith further, if any onethat hath newly eaten it, do but spit into the mouth of a serpent, theserpent instantly dies it stays the flux of the belly, kills worms, helps the fits of the mother its decoction made in wine, and drank, strengthens the back, and eases the pains thereof.

Med chron , manchester, 1884-85, i , p 577 - woman, married, found dead bruise and ecchymosis beneath theear. Effusion of blood in underlying tissue other bruises on face, etc several bruises in mouth, on lips and tongue blood dark andfluid brain and membranes much congested no marks of injury onthroat lungs congested. Surfaces emphysematous heart contained darkfluid blood urine and fæces had been discharged 15 the gouffé case - murdered by eyraud and bompard in 1889 archivanthropologie criminelle, paris, 1890, v , pp 642-716. Vi , 1891, pp 17 and 179 reports by bernard, lacassagne, and others gouffé wasdecoyed into a room and strangled. Afterward his body was tied up, placed in a trunk, and taken essay distance away the murderers fledto america. But eventually bompard returned to france and eyraud wascaptured. Both confessed when found, the body was well advanced inputrefaction. After a very careful examination was identified he wasstrangled by the pressure of fingers. The head was afterward wrappedin a cloth which was held in place by five turns of a cord around theneck. Traces of the furrows made by these cords were found heartempty. No blood in muscles of neck. Hyoid bone intact but superiorthyroid cornua fractured at base 16 horteloup. Ann d’hygiène, 1873, xxxix , pp 408-416 - man founddead on essay leaves in a fountain at bottom of staircase. Skull andspine fractured the murderers stated that they had struck him on thehead with a crutch. Then, believing him to be dead, carried him andthrew him into the fountain when examined, his face was livid, tonguebetween teeth and bitten nearly in two. And three parallel abrasionson left side of neck and one on right. Slight wounds about the facein addition to the fractures mentioned no report of examination oflungs or larynx horteloup concluded that the man had been strangled todeath, and that when thrown into the fountain, alighting on his head, the jaws were brought together and tongue bitten 17 laennec. Journ de med l’ouest, 1878, xii , pp 68-71 - woman, age 53.

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Hemorrhage in connective tissue or muscle the direction of the mark is usually oblique, following the debate essay line ofthe lower jaw upward and backward behind the mastoid processes. Itmay, however, be horizontal if the ligature encircles the neck morethan once, one mark may be circular, the other oblique if a runningnoose is used the mark may be circular, and be seen all the way aroundthe neck, looking like the mark of a strangulation taylor836 statesthat if the noose should be in front, the mark may be circular, thejaw preventing the ligature from rising upward in front as much as itdoes behind if it encircles the neck but once, its continuity is aptto be broken by the prominence of the hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, sterno-mastoid muscles, etc in four-fifths of the paper 117 out of 143, tardieu the mark is foundbetween the chin and larynx. In nearly all the remaining fifth, overthe larynx. In a very few below the larynx. The last position is dueto the protection of the neck by a handkerchief or beard, or wherethere is essay anatomical or pathological peculiarity which prevents theligature from going higher hofmann837 had seen two paper of tumor of neck.