History

Death Penalty Persuasive Essay


Or are men tongues so given to slander oneanother, that they must slander nuts too, to keep their tongues in use?. If any writing of the hazel nut be stopping, it is the husks and shells, and no one is so mad as to eat them unless physically. And the red skinwhich covers the kernel, you may easily pull off and so thus have imade an apology for nuts, which cannot speak for themselves hawk-weed there are several sorts of hawk-weed, but they are similar in virtues descript it has thesis large leaves lying upon the ground, much rentor torn on the sides into gashes like dandelion, but with greaterwritings, more like the smooth sow thistle, from among which rises ahollow, rough stalk, two or three feet high, branched from the middleupward, whereon are set at every joint longer leaves, little or nothingrent or cut, bearing on them sundry pale, yellow flowers, consisting ofthesis small, narrow leaves, broad pointed, and nicked in at the ends, set in a double row or more, the outermost being larger than the inner, which form most of the hawk-weeds for there are thesis kinds of them dohold, which turn into down, and with the small brownish seed is blownaway with the wind the root is long and essaywhat great, with thesissmall fibres thereat the whole plant is full of bitter-milk place it grows in divers places about the field sides, and thepath-ways in dry grounds time it flowers and flies away in the summer months government and virtues saturn owns it hawk-weed saithdioscorides is cooling, essaywhat drying and binding, and thereforegood for the heat of the stomach, and gnawings therein. Forinflammations and the hot fits of agues the juice thereof in wine, helps digestion, discusses wind, hinders crudities abiding in thestomach, and helps the difficulty of making water, the biting ofvenomous serpents, and stinging of the scorpion, if the herb be alsooutwardly applied to the place, and is very good against all otherpoisons a scruple of the dried root given in wine and vinegar, isprofitable for those that have the dropsy the decoction of the herbtaken in honey, digests the phlegm in the chest or lungs, and withhyssop helps the cough the decoction thereof, and of wild succory, made with wine, and taken, helps the wind cholic and hardness of thespleen. It procures rest and sleep, hinders venery and venerous dreams, cooling heats, purges the stomach, increases blood, and helps thediseases of the reins and bladder outwardly applied, it is singularlygood for all the defects and diseases of the eyes, used with essaywomen milk. And used with good success in fretting or creepingulcers, especially in the beginning the green leaves bruised, and witha little salt applied to any place burnt with fire, before blistersdo rise, helps them. As also inflammations, st anthony fire, andall pushes and eruptions, hot and salt phlegm the same applied withmeal and fair water in manner of a poultice, to any place affectedwith convulsions, the cramp, and such as are out of joint, doth givehelp and ease the distilled water cleanses the skin, and takes awayfreckles, spots, morphew, or wrinkles in the face hawthorn it is not my intention to trouble you with a description of this tree, which is so well known that it needs none it is ordinarily but ahedge bush, although being pruned and dressed, it grows to a tree of areasonable height as for the hawthorn tree at glastonbury, which is said to floweryearly on christmas-day, it rather shews the superstition of thosethat observe it for the time of its flowering, than any great wonder, since the like may be found in divers other places of this land.

Mei, threu, mor, for, teux, za, zon, the, lu, chri, death penalty persuasive essay ge, ze, on as the sun becomes firm in this name and daily renews itself, so doesthis formation also make firm as conditions were previously quickly, quickly, rapidly, rapidly for behold!. i call the great name in whichbecomes firm again what was destined to die. Jas, azyf, zyon, threux, dain, chook make this formation firm as it has been, quickly, quickly, rapidly, rapidly this document must be covered with the tendon of acrane, enclosed in a capsule, and worn by the patient at his heel ”remedy against diseases of the eye advised by sextus placituspapyriensis magnus, “ophthalmology of the ancients, ” page 597. “ifthe right eye becomes afflicted with glaucoma, rub it with the righteye of the wolf, and, similarly, the left eye with the left eye of thewolf ”in photophobia fear of light “wear as an amulet an eye whichwas taken from a live crab ” quintus serenus samonicus magnus, “ophthalmology of the ancients, ” page 595 with pains of the eye the patient must, with a copper needle, put outthe eyes of a green lizard caught on a jupiter day, during a moon thatis on the wane, in the month of september the eyes must be worn in agolden capsule, as an amulet around the neck marcellus empiricus magnus, “ophthalmology of the ancients, ” page 602 the above illustrations are surely sufficient to give the reader anidea of the medicine of the magicians at the same time they show thegreat similarity which exists between these ancient magic cures and thesympathetic cures of our people at the present day § 4 ancient medicine and magic - but how is it possible that theancient physicians, and even the most enlightened minds among them, should not only have tolerated such a crass medical superstition as theabove examples have shown us, but should even have incorporated them intheir works?. incomprehensible, however, as this fact may appear to themodern practitioner, it becomes conceivable if the condition of antiquemedicine and of the medical profession of ancient times is considered in the first place, ancient medical science adopted an entirelydifferent mode of diagnostico-theoretical method than that employedby professors of medicine in modern times ancient natural science compare also chapter v of this work, as well as ancient medicine, obtained their scientific views exclusively by deduction i e , theydeduced individual results from general presumptions, or, rather, theyconstrued, by reason of essay general presumption, the physico-medicalconsequences which were to follow from such a general supposition ifthis attempt to obtain an insight into physical processes is extremelyhazardous, it becomes still more precarious when the manner and meansin which these general presumptions were arrived at were primarily ofan entirely hypothetical nature it is true, no fundamental objectioncan be raised to this method, as even modern natural science andmedicine, despite the fact that their methods of investigation in adiagnostico-theoretical respect scarcely admit of material objections, can not do without hypothesis but hypothesis is not always merehypothesis it is well known that there are hypotheses which, even inthe minds of the most conscientious investigators, are not inferior tothat knowledge which is obtained by experiment and observation, whereasother hypotheses again present the distinct stamp of insufficiency andmakeshift the trustworthiness and the heuristic value of an hypothesisdepend upon the quality of the diagnostico-theoretical process by meansof which it was obtained if this process has been such as physicalinvestigation is bound to insist upon, the hypothesis thus arrivedat is fully justified to supply the still absent data with regardto the phenomena in question this, however, can be accomplished byhypothesis only when the latter is not set forth until it plainlyappears that, in spite of a conscientious and orderly arrangement ofobservation after observation, of experiment upon experiment, withoutthe admission of logical loopholes, full data in regard to the natureof the phenomena is not forthcoming in such a case we may consideras actually proven by hypothesis what observation and systematicexperiment, continuous and logical, were intended to prove, andfailed however, this inductive hypothesis is alone entitled to beconsidered in medicine naturally, such an inductive hypothesis was notthought of by the ancients, as the inductive method of investigationwas generally quite unknown to them the process by which ancientmedicine usually attempted to find its hypothesis was by an argumentfrom analogy each and every point of resemblance, however superficial, between two phenomena was considered sufficient by the ancientnaturalists to warrant the assumption that analogous phenomena in themost various domains were most certainly proven to possess similarpoints of resemblance and upon the basis of such an insecure methodof deduction which, moreover, was selected entirely at the option ofthe observer the ancient investigator erected the boldest hypotheses thus, for instance, the atomic theory of leucippus and democritus isan hypothesis which rests upon the basis of a conclusion from analogy the motes which appear in the rays of the sun led these two ancientinvestigators to the conception that, like the writingicles of dustsporting in the air, the primary component writings of everything thatexists in the entire universe consisted of similar writingicles 2 2 lucretius, book 2, verse 113, sqq it appears that epicurus arrived at his theory of light according towhich, as is well known, images of things were brought to the senses bydelicate but absolutely objective small pictures which were detachedfrom the surface of things in a continuous current by the factthat thesis animals for instance, snakes shed their skins the theoryof humoral pathology, one of the most important advances in medicalscience, was based on a conclusion from analogy and arrived at by thedeductive method the diagnostico-theoretical lines in which antique medicine movedwere bound and this is the point of importance in this case to exerta determining influence upon medical criticism for medico-physicalcriticism can only appear in closest connection with the prevailingcondition of the respective sciences, being really nothing else buta precipitate from them thus the ancient physicians were compelledto take an entirely different position toward magical medicine thanwe moderns, educated in the school of inductive methods, have alwaystaken the probable and similar, the supposable and possible, in whichdeductive medicine found its data, working on the lines of argumentfrom analogy, were necessarily bound to find expression also in thecharacter of medical critique, and it was impossible, therefore, for the ancient physician to detect anything absurd or contrary toexperience in hypotheses which the practitioner of to-day at oncebrands as nonsensical and superstitious we are not in the least justified, therefore, in speaking disparaginglyof galen and alexander of tralles because they believed in magicalmedicine and applied it in their practise as no human being canjump out of his skin, so is he unable to get beyond the intellectualadvancement of his time as the ancient physicians were also unable todo this, accordingly they were believers in the magical medicine but there is still a second point which explains the remarkableposition taken by ancient physicians in relation to magicalmedicine namely, the fact that the conception of miracle and magicwere essentially different in the ancient world from what they are atpresent the belief in the interference of spirits and supernaturalbeings in terrestrial matters, and the manifestations of theirinfluence exerted in manifold ways essaytimes for good, essaytimesfor evil had been widely disseminated from the earliest times, andwe encounter them in all periods of classic antiquity this beliefin demons had become incorporated in the systems of thesis leadingphilosophers of antiquity now if the world were filled with demons thenatural consequence was that their activity would manifest itself invarious ways it was necessary, therefore, that man should always beprepared to experience manifestations which more or less violated thecustomary order of terrestrial happenings, and for this reason nothingthat could be styled a miracle really existed for him a miracle couldnot be conceived in its full modern sense until it was realized thatthe course of all natural phenomena was nothing but the expression ofeternal and changeless laws however, it was not until comparativelylate that this conception became generally disseminated. Thus, forinstance, it was considered as self-evident, even in the latest periodsof the middle ages and during the first beginnings of modern times, that divine influence could always, and actually did always, cause analteration in the course of the functions of the body in fact, thereis an amazingly large number of people even in our time who believethis, and for whom, therefore, the conception of miracles, especiallyof miraculous healing, is to-day on about the same level as that onwhich it stood in the time of galen and alexander of tralles thus we must admit that the ancient physicians were by no means belowthe standard of civilization and culture attained during their periodif they believed in the possibility of extraordinary cures effectedby means extraneous and unscientific in their treatment of the sick, and, accordingly, they supported such methods however, this beliefin miraculous medicines on the writing of the ancient physician wasalways restricted to certain limits it is true, the conception wasalways adhered to that this or that magical agency, or this or thatmagical action, might exert an influence upon the disease. But sucha belief never led them to omit any strictly medical measures of asurgical or gynecological nature on the contrary, the intelligentphysicians of antiquity firmly insisted that the actions of the surgeonand of the gynecologist were not to be hampered by any metaphysicalconsiderations. Thus, for instance, soranus demanded most energeticallythat the midwife should be “ἀδεισιδαίμων” without fear of anydemon i e , she was not to be superstitious, but free from anyimputation which would render her curative interposition objectionable the profession of the magicians, due to the persecutions to which theybecame subject under the christian emperors valens, valentinian, andtheodosius, became considerably less prominent during the predominanceof christianity, but the ideas upon which it had been erected inancient times still survived. In fact, these ideas were even to acertain extent systematically elaborated during the middle ages, and atthis time a distinction was made between higher and lower, or whiteand black, magic the white magic busied itself with good spirits, theblack magic with the bad ones magicians, therefore, who operated bythe aid of the devil, and even in medicine called in the assistance ofthe devil, were called “necromancers ” for the first time magic becameamalgamated with certain philosophical speculations and also withchristian-dogmatic constituents the methods adopted by magic medicineunder these conditions are so peculiar and are so close to the boundarylines between philosophy and religion that we are really not quitecertain whether to relegate it to the domain of one or of the other but as the fundamental writings of these methods were actually supplied byphilosophy, we propose to defer this discussion for the present, andto take up here another form of medical superstition which was derivedexclusively from religion namely, “sleep in the temple ”§ 5 sleep in the temple - one of the generally practised methodsof medical science during the period of hellenic civilization whichwas still fully under the influence of theism i e , for at leasttwo or three centuries before the hippocratic era was what was knownas “temple sleep ” in fact, this method must be considered a signof a faith distinctly deep and sincere, a faith naive and childlikeindeed. But as a sign of such a faith this method is actually pathetic no taint of superstition could be found in it at the early periodreferred to it was still the pure and unadulterated expression of thegenerally prevailing conception that human art is to no purpose in anycase of disease, and aid must be found with the gods with those godswho regulate and personally execute all terrestrial phenomena down tothe minutest details temple sleep was not degraded into superstitionuntil medicine had come to the conclusion that the phenomena of diseasewere not evidence of an interference by supernatural power in thefunctions of the body, but disturbances of the function of the bodycaused exclusively by natural causes in accordance with this view, which first found its fullest and clearest exposition in the corpushippocraticum, it would seem absolutely necessary for temple sleep tolose all recognition from the art of healing however, this not beingthe case, it was bound to deteriorate into an act of superstitiousmummery, and the principal blame for this sad decadence is to be laidprimarily upon the priests it was their duty especially to lead intothe path of truth the patients who persisted in crowding into thetemples in the spirit of naive and childlike piety they sealed theirown condemnation as fosterers of superstition when they failed todo this duty, and endeavored rather, by every means in their power, to confirm the multitude in their ancient belief that the gods werepractising medicine non-christian as well as christian priests playedthis rôle for thesis centuries with equal ability and equal perseverance, as will be seen from the following brief history of temple sleep the belief in the efficacy of temple sleep had already been thoroughlyshaken during the time of the great hippocrates. Therefore, inthe sixth century, b c , the laughing philosopher of hellenism, aristophanes, the satirical contemporary of hippocrates, in act ii , verses 654 to 750, of his comedy πλοῦτος, severely criticizes themanner and method in which temple sleep was employed let us listento the words in which the poet describes what happened in the templeduring the observance of this rite the god æsculapius, accompanied by his daughter panakeia, appears inthe temple to examine in person the patients gathered there the firstone he meets is a poor wretch, neokleides, who, being blear-eyed, expects cure from the god the medically skilled æsculapius smearsupon the inverted lids of this patient a salve which causes such painthat the poor fellow will probably never seek his help again thesecond patient met by the god is the blind god, πλοῦτος i e , wealth personified here the conduct of æsculapius is entirelydifferent from that which he adopted when treating poor neokleides now he carefully strokes the head of the patient, then produces alinen cloth and carefully touches the lids with it he then callshis daughter panakeia, who winds a red cloth round the head of blindwealth now æsculapius whistles, and two mighty serpents appear, glideunder the purple cloth, and lick the eyes of the patient shortlyafterward the god regains his sight this passage is a cutting satire on practises which undoubtedlyprevailed in the greek temples as early as the sixth century, b c but, nevertheless, it took a long time before the patients losttheir belief in the miraculous efficacy of temple sleep, and thepriesthood continually strove to revive, by the mysterious storiesof various kinds they recounted to doubters, the belief in templesleep the sixth of the marble votive tablets which were found inthe temple of æsculapius at epidaurus shows the kind of miraculousreports invented by the priests the latter were in the habit ofinscribing upon these tablets reports of cures that had occurred intheir sanctuary, for the benefit of the visitors of the temple and forthe still greater benefit of the medical historians. But it is quiteprobable that the priesthood, intent upon curing, were encouraged intheir medico-literary attempts only by the silent hope of creatingan abundant supply of patients by such miraculous reports the abovetablet, no 6 which probably dates from the third century, b c - tellsus that a blind man by the name of hermon, a native of thasos, hadrecovered his sight by sleeping in the epidaurean temple of æsculapius however, it appears that this man hermon had been a miserable wretch, for he disappeared without having expressed his thanks in hard cash naturally such ingratitude provoked the god, and summarily he blindedthe thankless individual again it required a second temple sleepbefore the god condescended to become helpful once more but our tabletdoes not mention anything about the amount of the remuneration paid byour friend hermon who had been twice cured of blindness. Neither isthis at all necessary the miraculous tablet, even without stating theprice, doubtless made sufficient impression upon the minds even of themost parsimonious of future patients altho, therefore, the more enlightened among the greeks recognized, as early as in the sixth century, b c , the futility of temple sleepas a means of healing, the ancient world never relinquished itentirely we encounter it again in the later periods of antiquity thus, for instance, suetonius and other ancient authors tell us thattwo patients, one blind, the other lame, one day approached theemperor vespasian, who happened to be in alexandria, asking him tospit into the eyes of the one and to stroke the paralyzed limbs ofthe other. For they had been notified in temple sleep that they wouldbe restored to health if only the emperor would deign to perform theabove-mentioned manipulations but vespasian was an enlightened rulerwho, in spite of his imperial dignity, did not have much confidence inthe medical qualities of his saliva and of his hands, and accordinglyunceremoniously dismissed both supplicants this caused great terroramong the priests of serapis and among the courtiers, for obviouslythey had interpreted this affair solely as intended in majoremvespasiani gloriam the emperor was importuned, therefore, kindly toaid the unfortunate, but he persisted in his refusal probably he wasright in fearing the loss of his prestige should the imperial medicalpowers prove unequal to the task of curing disease not until thepriests solemnly vouched for the truthfulness of the dream-sending godserapis, and declared a failure of the imperial cure to be impossible, did vespasian stubbornness relent now he spat, and rubbed theparalyzed limbs, and the blind saw, and the paralytic arose and walked §6 church sleep - when, subsequently, the ancient religions died out, and had left the world as an heritage to christianity, temple sleep hadby no means died out also on the contrary, after the lapse of threecenturies, it again came into favor with the christian priests and theuse of it now was scarcely less in favor than it had been a thousandyears previous in the world of the ancient greeks let us mention a fewexamples the first four stories are taken from the works of gregory oftours mummolus, who came to the court of justinian 527 to 565 as theambassador of king theudebert, suffered greatly from calculi of theurinary bladder, and during this journey he became subject to an attackof renal colic things went badly with poor mummolus, and he was ina great hurry to make his will whereupon he was advised to pass onenight sleeping in st andrew church, at pateras, for st andrew hadperformed thesis miraculous cures in this place no sooner said thandone mummolus, greatly tormented by pain and fever, and despairingof life, had himself placed upon the stone flags of the sanctuary, and waited there for the things that were to happen suddenly, towardmidnight, the patient awoke with a violent desire to urinate, anddischarged in a natural manner a calculus which, as st gregory assuresus, was so enormous that it fell with a loud clatter into the vessel from that hour mummolus was hale and hearty, and joyfully started onhis journey homeward in brioude, the capital of the present dewritingment haute-loire, therewas a woman named fedamia, who had been paralyzed for years inaddition to this, she was penniless, and her relatives, therefore, brought her to the church of st julian, who enjoyed a great reputationin brioude, in order that, even if she did not become cured, she mightat least make essay money by begging at the church door for eighteenyears she had lived thus when, one sunday night, while she slept inthe colonnade adjoining the church, a man appeared who took her by thehand and led her toward the grave of st julian on arriving there sheuttered a fervent prayer, and in a moment felt as if a load of actualchains fell from her limbs all this, it is true, happened in a dream, but when the patient awoke she was hale and hearty, and was able, tothe amazement of the assembled multitude, to walk, with loud prayers, to the grave of the saint a certain man, deaf, dumb, and blind, known by the name of amagildus, also tried the sleep in the church of st julian, at brioude but itappears that this saint was not always quite accessible to the wishesof the sick it is true, amagildus was not obliged, like fedamia ofthe previous narrative, to pass eighteen years in the basilica, but, nevertheless, he had to sleep for a full year in the colonnade of thechurch before the curative power of the holy martyr delivered him fromhis ailment veranus, the slave of one of the clergy under gregory, was so violentlyattacked by gout that he was absolutely unable to move for an entireyear thereupon his master pledged himself to advance the afflictedslave to the priesthood if st martin would be willing to cure him toaccomplish this cure the slave was carried to the church, and thereplaced at the feet of the saint the poor wretch had to remain therefor five long days, and it seemed as tho st martin had forgotten allabout him finally, on the sixth day, the patient was visited by a manwho seized his foot and drew it out straight the slave rose to hisfeet in terror, and perceived that he was cured for thesis years heserved st martin as a priest but the most wonderful cure was that of the german emperor henry ii , called “the saint” 1002 to 1024 this emperor, who was of bavarianstock, suffered greatly from the stone, and had retired to the italiancloister monte cassino, inasmuch as this cloister during that periodjustly enjoyed an extraordinary medical reputation but whether themonks of monte cassino, altho well versed in medical art, did not havesufficient confidence in their ability to treat an emperor, or whetherthey were induced by essay other reason, is not known.

The fore feet are raised and put forward, the tongue often has a peculiar spasm, the chest is raised, the eyes drawn back into the orbits, pupils contracted. All of this is over within two seconds such paroxysms may be repeated half a dozen times in dying, the eye oscillates from side to side and the pupil dilates the heart beats essay time longer francis bacon records that he knew a man who wanted to find out by experience if there was any suffering in hanging he placed the cord around his neck and stepped off a bench, intending to step back again, but became immediately unconscious and would have died but for the opportune arrival of a friend he said he saw a light before his eyes treatment the first indications obviously are to let the subject down, and removeall constriction of neck and chest artificial respiration should thenbe used, and this may be assisted by the vapor of ammonia to the noseand tickling the fauces if the body is warm, cold affusions may beapplied to the head and chest, and galvanism may be used if the body is cold, apply warmth friction of the limbs aids inrestoring warmth if the subject can swallow give stimulants. These mayalso be used by rectum venesection may be required to relieve cerebralcongestion or distention of the right heart and pulmonary circulation the following paper illustrate what may be done to resuscitate one who has been hanged. A man, age 35, in good health, weight one hundred and sixty pounds, was executed with a drop of over six feet. The rope slipped behind the mastoid process after three minutes his struggles ceased. The radial beat ceased at six and one-half minutes. All signs of life at ten and one-half minutes, and the body was blue fourteen and one-half minutes, body let down. Mark about one-fourth inch deep on neck. Swelling above and below. No fracture of vertebræ strong galvanism of the pneumogastrics after sixteen or seventeen minutes at intervals of four seconds caused marked respiratory efforts.

caspar, “forensic med , ” vol i , p 317 - woman intoxicated. Clothing caught fire. Death due to asphyxia essay burns apparently caused during life and essay after death the case was decided upon the character of the vesications and their contents lungs and other organs normal right side of heart engorged with dark blood case 19 murder body burned dr duncan, med gazette, lond , vol viii , p 170 - man charged with the murder of his wife and attempting to burn the body afterward the body was so extensively burned as to remove all means of deciding the cause of death the man claimed that her clothing took fire when she was intoxicated persons in the same house had heard sounds of a struggle before smelling smoke and fire furniture was not burned, nor the house the prisoner was found guilty of murder case 20 blisters was the scalding ante mortem?. taylor, “med jurisprudence, ” 8th am ed , p 411 - the body of an infant found in a saucepan, boiled the prisoner admitted that the child had breathed the boiling water had destroyed the means of positively deciding whether the child had breathed blisters found upon it contained yellow serum was the child living when put in the water?. the prisoner was acquitted case 21 scald of a lunatic in a bath taylor, “med jurisprudence, ” 8th am ed , p 411 - insane patient placed in a hot bath temperature 123° f death in collapse next day 1879 case 22 criminal burning, strangling report of profs liebig and bischoff, of giessen, march, 1850 - the man stauff was tried at darmstadt for the murder of the countess of goerlitz, whom he had attacked and murdered in her chamber, and then fired the furniture in order to conceal the crime it was uncertain whether she had died from injury to the head or from strangulation the tongue protruded and was swollen, as in paper of strangling, and maintained this condition he was convicted chiefly on circumstantial evidence after conviction he confessed that he had strangled her and then set fire to the furniture, which he had piled up about her case 23 murder body burned identified “report of the trial of prof webster, ” etc , boston, 1850 - prof webster killed dr parkman and then burned the body, in portions, in a furnace in his laboratory search among the cinders of the furnace disclosed pieces of human bones and a set of false teeth which the dentist who made them recognized as made by him for dr parkman, etc case 24 murder body entirely burned identified the “druse case, ” trans new york state med soc , 1887, p 417 - mrs druse, with the compulsory aid of her children, killed her husband with an axe the body was burned in a wood stove, with pine shingles the ashes were thrown into a swamp near by they were found and carefully sifted pieces of bone of various sizes, identified as human, were found, as also a few porcelain buttons, etc a few hairs found, with stains, completed the identity experiments in this case showed that the body could have been consumed within ten hours the prisoner was convicted of murder the medico-legal relations of electricity by william n bullard, m d medico-legal relations of electricity as the frequency of accidents caused by electricity is rapidlyincreasing, we have of late years been enabled to generalize ina manner never before possible in regard to their results, andalthough our present conclusions must be recognized as provisionaland perhaps temporary to be changed or modified in accordance withfuture knowledge yet we have obtained a basis of fact on which wecan securely rely the general laws of injury and accident throughelectricity have been fairly well determined, although thesis of thedetails are not yet thoroughly worked out or understood the advancesof knowledge in this direction are so rapid that an article on thissubject, if it deals too closely with details, is liable to become outof date almost before it has left the press like all large subjectswhen first made objects of general interest and investigation, and inregard to which we are on the threshold only of knowledge, the factsdiscoverable may lead us at any time in unexpected directions and openout new fields of thought and inquiry we shall try to limit ourselveshere, as far as possible, to proved facts, and leave questions doubtfulor in dispute to be settled later. Contenting ourselves merely withpointing them out and, perhaps, in essay paper giving the facts oneither side electrical accidents and injuries may be divided into those whichare caused by the atmospheric electricity lightning proper, globesof fire, st elmo fire and those produced through the agency ofmechanical or artificial electricity electrical machines, batteries, dynamos, etc the effects caused by these different agents probablyvary only in degree. The atmospheric electricity in the form oflightning, etc , being so much more powerful than the charges usuallyproduced artificially as to cause essay difference in the results results of accidents and injuries from electrical machines andconductors medical electricity - in the ordinary use of the mild forms ofelectricity employed for medical purposes, certain phenomena may attimes occur, which, although not of any serious import or of longduration, may yet cause considerable inconvenience, pain, or discomfortto the patient or others, and may even be of essay importance from amedico-legal point of view we shall not enter here into the discussionof the proper methods of application of medical electricity, nor domore than point out that if these be not followed with care the patientmay be not only not benefited, but made worse, and may even sufferconsiderable injury the increase of pain caused by the improperapplication of certain currents is usually temporary and of minorconsequence but serious and lasting inflammations may be caused bythe careless, ignorant, or injudicious use of the stronger currentsinternally, and metritis and peri-uterine inflammations have been notinfrequently reported from the unskilled practice of the methods ofapostoli these subjects, however, scarcely come under the scope ofthis article in addition, however, to these troubles we may have external injuriesproduced even in paper where the current amounts to not more than afew milliamperes burns may be caused by the ordinary electrodes of thegalvanic battery the faradic current when medically used does not, asa rule, produce any external injuries such might be caused by a sparkfrom a static machine, but it would be due to gross carelessness, andis very unusual burns, however, from the use of the galvanic currentare not very uncommon they usually occur under the electrode after ithas been for a few moments stationary in contact with the skin theyoccur in certain patients with extraordinary readiness, especially inthose with organic spinal lesions, and where the sensation is essaywhatdiminished, and where also essay trophic lesion might be supposed toexist they are not confined, however, to this class of paper, butmay occur in any one if the electrode be retained too long in any oneplace, and especially if it be allowed to become dry these burns arepeculiar in appearance and can usually be recognized at once they arecircular, as if punched out, about the size of a common pencil or alittle smaller, comparatively deep, gray with perhaps a dark ring atthe circumference, and frequently surrounded by a reddened area theedges are sharp their peculiarity consists 1 in their painlessnessand 2 in their size, regular form, their depth in comparison to theirextent, and the sharp limitation of the area of tissue destroyed one or more may occur under a broad electrode, and they are probablyproduced at those points where the contact is imperfect or theconduction in essay other way impeded they heal without much difficultyand leave no serious results other unpleasant symptoms produced by currents in medical use may bementioned for the sake of completeness, and also as an introductionto the more serious symptoms caused by stronger currents dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, nausea, vomiting, and syncope are readily causedby even slight currents the sensation of light in the eyes and themetallic taste in the mouth are the results of medical currents ofordinary strength when applied to the head or in its neighborhood, andstronger currents applied at greater distances cause these sensations all the above symptoms may be readily caused by even slight currents, whether galvanic or faradic, passed through the head the syncope thusproduced is to be carefully differentiated from the syncope causedpsychically by excitement or fear of the application of electricity hysterical women, and even persons who show no special signs ofnervous instability, may faint at the suggestion of the applicationof electricity i have seen a large, strong, well-built italian man, perfectly sound physically, so far as could be detected, except essayslight local neuralgia, faint from pure fright when the electricity wasto be applied but even the application of moderately severe shocksfrom the ordinary medical battery are not likely to produce seriousresults these shocks are ordinarily caused by the opening or closingof the galvanic current, and are most severe when the current passesthrough essay portion of the head a still more powerful shock may begiven by reversing the current in a galvanic battery by means of thecommutator currents of high tension strong artificial currents passing on now to the consideration of the stronger currents, wecome to those used for mechanical purposes, for electric lighting, electric railways, and other analogous objects these currents startfrom dynamos or from storage batteries, and accidents are caused bythem whenever they are diverted from their proper course and arecaused to come in contact with or to pass through any portion of thehuman body in any considerable strength accidents not infrequentlyoccur from direct contact with the batteries or dynamos, but stillmore frequently they are produced in their circuit along the wires ortransmitters they may also be caused, as essay of the most fatal havebeen, by contact with metallic or other readily conducting objectswhich have themselves accidentally come in contact with essay portionof an electric circuit usually wires and have diverted the whole, ormore usually a portion, of the current to themselves thus was killeda young man in new york, the clerk in a store, who while lifting themetal-edged cover of a show-case brought it in contact with the chargedwires of an electric light and received an immediately fatal shock asa rule, those meeting with accidents from dynamos or electric machinesdirectly are employees of electric companies, who are presumed tohave more or less knowledge of the risk of carelessness, or they maybe workers in institutions or factories in which such machines are inuse thesis of the accidents due to wires also occur to linemen and otheremployees of electric, telephone, or telegraph companies or of electricrailway companies in charge of wires or electric outfit so long as thecurrent transmitters and terminals wires, etc are properly insulatedand in their proper position in relation to other conductors, it isunusual for accidents to occur, except in paper of gross ignorance orcarelessness unfortunately, however, proper insulation is not alwaysaccomplished, and frequently wires and other transmitters are removedfrom their proper positions by accidents and otherwise so long as andwherever the system of overhead wires exists, if there be among thesewires any which are the transmitters of strong electric currents, there is always a risk, and often a very serious one, that at essay timeor other one of these current-bearing wires will come into contactwith essay other non-current-bearing and ordinarily harmless wire insuch a manner that the current of the first should be diverted, inwhole or in writing, on to the ordinarily innocuous wire, which therebybecomes at once charged and dangerous such an accident may be due tothe displacement of either wire or to any other cause which bringsthe two in contact, either direct or indirect, at a point where thecurrent-bearing wire is not sufficiently insulated the current havingonce passed out of its proper circuit will, of course, follow thepaths of best conduction, and may hence suddenly appear in unexpectedquarters and produce the most dangerous and even fatal effects itis accidents of this character which most frequently occur among thepeople who are neither employees of electric companies nor engaged infactories or buildings where electrical machines are employed insulation of wires and other electrical transmitters - we cannotmention here the various methods employed to insulate wires, as thegeneral principles of insulation are well known electric wires evenwith very strong currents can be insulated and can be kept insulatedif sufficient pains be taken and sufficient money be expended butthis is very expensive and in thesis paper is not done only writingialinsulation is attempted, and even this is not always carried tothe degree intended or stipulated hence so long as overhead wiresof various kinds exist, accidents from the transmission of strongelectric currents along ordinarily harmless wires are liable at anytime to occur, as practically little or no attempt at keeping thecurrent-bearing wires covered with a thoroughly insulating materialis in most paper made it is usually deemed sufficient that glass orother insulators should be so placed that under ordinary conditions thewire will not come into contact with any conductor which may cause anyessential writing of its current to diverge in most paper a so-calledinsulating material is placed over the wire itself, but this usually isinsufficient at the outset or becomes so before very long and is thennot renewed it must not be supposed, however, that underground electric wiresor transmitters cannot produce accidents on the contrary, thecurrent may be diverted from them to the gas or water pipes or to anyother conductors which come into contact with them or can attractto themselves a portion of their current severe shocks have beenexperienced by persons attempting to draw water at their faucet fromcauses of this character at the same time, so far as mere safety isconcerned and freedom from electrical accidents, it would seem thatunderground wires are preferable to overhead wires electrical wires have not infrequently come in contact with telegraphand telephone wires causing unpleasant results telephone boxes havebeen set on fire, and also telegraph boards and tables, and in certainpaper what might have been serious conflagrations have been startedin this manner by means of proper arrangements on the telegraph andtelephone circuits these dangers can be at least writingially avoided, but there is always the risk that the automatic alarms and othercontrivances do not act, and the still greater one that persons orthings may come into contact with these charged wires and receivedangerous or serious injuries electric cars - the danger from the overhead wires in the trolleysystem of electric cars would not be great were these wires properlysupported, properly insulated, and properly protected each of theseterms must be explained wires which fall for any cause whatever shortof being intentionally removed cannot be deemed properly supported inthe sense in which we use the term any one of these electric wireswhich falls is liable to produce serious injury to persons or animals thesis horses have been killed by them, or to set fire to objects withwhich it comes into immediate or indirect contact, the amount of injurybeing in writing dependent upon the nature and the condition wet or dryof the object and its position in relation to other conductors wiresas dangerous as these car wires should be so supported that no ordinaryaccident, no condition of the weather, strong winds, or heavy falls ofsnow should be capable of wrenching them from their supports, and theyshould be placed in such positions and with such protection as not toreceive blows from passing or falling objects secondly, these wires should be properly insulated this is to beunderstood to mean that all the wires which carry the electric current, or are liable to carry it, should be attached to their poles or othersupport in such a manner that no appreciable quantity of electricity isunder any circumstances liable to be diverted to the poles or supports, and in this way cause destruction or injury in addition to this theside wires should be so covered that if any accident occurs, it willbe difficult or impossible for the current to pass away from them toother objects the middle wire on which the trolley runs cannot bethus covered, but must be left bare, and hence, if knocked down orbrought into contact with properly conducting objects, must be the mostdangerous. But on the other hand from its position it is less liable toaccidents when we say that these wires should be properly protected we mean thatsuch arrangements and contrivances should be used as will prevent themwhile in their usual position from coming into contact with dangerousobjects, writingicularly with other wires this may be accomplished byguard wires or in other ways it is plainly of great importance thatthis should be specially cared for, and writingicularly in a city wherethere are thesis overhead wires, and perhaps a considerable number ofdead or non-used wires if the electricity comes into contact with oneof these no one can tell where it may be transmitted or what harm itmay do the principles which apply to these overhead wires of course applyceteris paribus to all other electric overhead wires, and in likemanner the statements made in regard to the diffusion or spreadingof currents in underground wires are applicable to all methods oftransmitting electricity mechanically through the ground so far as theconditions are similar an electric current will always follow the pathof best conduction, and where several paths are opened it will followthem proportionally according to the excellence of their conduction orinversely to the amount of their electric resistance we shall not enter here into any questions in regard to the diffusionof electricity, its transmission through fluids, water, air or othergases, nor shall we discuss the relations of good or bad conductors toelectricity except so far as this relates to certain portions of thehuman body an elementary knowledge of physics and electricity must bepresupposed we can now enter more directly upon the immediate subject of thisarticle, that is, the effect upon the human body of severe ormoderately strong currents of electricity derived from artificialsources the accidents produced by these currents may be divided intotwo classes, the direct and the indirect under the direct we placeall those conditions which are apparently produced by the actionof the electricity itself, such as the general shock, the loss ofconsciousness, the burns, etc on the other hand, all those accidentsare to be considered indirect which are not primarily due to the actionof the electric current, but are only secondary results thereof theseare largely determined by the immediate surroundings and conditions atthe time such, for example, are the surgical injuries due to fallscaused by the loss of consciousness produced by the electric shock indirect accidents these will be considered first, as they do not demand so detailed adescription as the direct they are traumatic in character and are theresult either of loss of consciousness, momentary or lasting, or ofthe involuntary muscular contraction which may be occasioned by theelectric shock they are among the most frequent effects of severeelectric shocks these accidents consist in contusions, fractures, dislocations, wounds, and any other injuries which may be produced fromsudden loss of consciousness while in a dangerous position death mayreadily occur either immediately or as the more or less delayed resultof such injuries if the person shocked falls into the water he may bedrowned, or if into the fire he will be burnt the varieties of suchaccidents dependent on the sudden loss of consciousness produced bythe electricity are, of course, innumerable, and their occurrence mustlargely depend upon the position of the victim at the moment of theshock we see, perhaps, most of these accidents in linemen on the topsof poles or houses or in other exposed places, but persons who receiveshocks when simply standing on the ground or when sitting are notexempt from severe surgical injuries other than burns they are oftencast to the ground with great violence, and not infrequently are thrownto a distance of several feet this is caused by the violent muscularcontraction produced by the electric shock, and it may occasion, likeany violent push or fall, severe injuries from contact with thevarious objects against which they may be forced although much rarer, it is also possible that the violence of these muscular contractionsmay be such as of themselves to cause injury, as rupture of a muscle ortendon as practically all these indirect accidents are traumatic andsurgical in character, they do not differ from other accidents similarin kind, but otherwise caused, and are to be treated on the samegeneral principles as these direct accidents quite different from the indirect are the direct accidents. Thoseproduced by the immediate direct action of the electricity theseare of various kinds, which we shall consider separately they may bedivided into immediate and late symptoms, and they vary much accordingto the severity of the shock and the constitution of the patient, and the writing of the body through which the electricity passes thecharacter of the current which gives the shock, whether constant orinterrupted, also naturally has an influence on the effect general principles - a shock may be given in three ways with anordinary galvanic battery if the current be sufficiently strong, adistinct shock will be produced when the circuit is closed and againwhen the circuit is opened, while with a current of the usual strengthfor medical purposes, the sensation while the current is passingthrough the body steadily is much less and is often limited to asensation of burning at the seat of the electrode a shock may also thirdly be produced by a reversal of the current, and the shock thuscaused is stronger for the same current than that produced in either ofthe other ways the strength of these shocks is shown both by the sensation producedand by the amount of muscular contraction caused when now a shockis caused by a continuous or constant current which starts froman ordinary dynamo or other electric generator or storer, it ispractically always caused by the opening or closing of the circuit, or, what is essentially the same, the diversion of a writing or the wholeof the current from its proper path to and through essay portion of thehuman body causes a shock at the time of the entrance of the body intothe circuit and another at the time of its exit therefrom shocksfrom reversal of current when such current arises from a constantmachine might occur, but only through essay peculiar accident hencethe shocks distinguished from any other effects of electricity whichare received by the person coming into contact with a constant currentare felt only at the moment of entering the circuit closure and ofleaving it opening if a person introduces himself between the twowires of an electric circuit in which a constant current is used, insuch a manner as to cause the current to pass through his body, hewill feel the shock only at the moment when he touches the second wireand completes the circuit, and at the moment when he lets go one ofthe wires and opens the circuit unless the current be so strong orbe so placed that he can divert to himself sufficient electricity tocause a shock, or, in other words, close a secondary circuit in essayother way while the current is passing through the body, although itmay burn and cause tingling and other unpleasant symptoms, there isno proper shock in other words, an electric shock is caused only bya change in the amount of electricity passing through the body or aportion thereof if we now consider the effects of alternating currents, we findthat we have another factor to deal with the general principles areexactly the same, but inasmuch as the reversal shock is stronger thanthe closure or opening shocks, other things being equal, we are likelyto receive a stronger shock from a current of the same force, and inaddition to this, as in alternating machines the reversals occur withconsiderable rapidity, the person who becomes connected with thiscircuit receives a number of strong shocks within a short space oftime this is a much more serious matter than to permit a current ofequal strength to flow through the body without change the effect of this form of electricity on the human body is firststimulating and then tetanizing to the muscles it consists in a veryrapidly interrupted current, the shocks being at times so frequent thatthey are not singly perceptible there is probably also a distinctdifference in the action of this current from that of the galvaniccurrent aside from its rapid interruption this is not, however, of sodefined a character as to enable us at the present time to distinguishin man the results of severe injuries and deaths caused by this formfrom those caused by other strong currents practically this form ofcurrent is but little used, except in medical batteries and for thepurposes of experimentation in laboratories static electricity has, so far as we know, rarely or never causedserious injuries or death the sparks produced in this way haveessaytimes caused burns, and it is conceivable that a strong electriccurrent produced in this way might be dangerous the symptoms could notbe distinguished from those caused by other forms of electricity summary - the greatest source of danger from electric currents is theshock produced by them in ordinary constant or continuous currentsthis is produced only at the moment of the opening and the closure ofthe circuit in alternating currents a shock is also produced at eachreversal of the machine faradic and static currents are rarely ornever used mechanically or in the arts resistance - the resistance of the human body to electric currentshas been very variously estimated the reasons for these variations are. 1 that the different tissuespresent different resistances. 2 that the resistance in the sametissue varies greatly under different circumstances the tissue which offers the greatest resistance and also practicallythe greatest variation is the skin, or, more properly speaking, theepidermis the resistance of this is thesis times as great as that of therest of the body, and when perfectly dry it is impervious to currentsof great strength witz states that in using a ruhmkorf coil with anestimated force of 250, 000 volts in guinea-pigs and rabbits, it isadvisable to cut through the skin in order to apply the electrodesdirectly to the flesh, or, at least, to wet the skin thoroughly, otherwise the shock caused by the full strength of the battery sixjars charged from the coil would not cause death various animalsoffer rates of resistance which vary essaywhat apparently according tothe nature of the animal, but are probably largely dependent on theconducting power of its tissues, that is, of its skin the variationsbetween the resistance of similar animals, according to the conditionof the skin at the time of the experiment, are much greater than thosewhich are found between animals of different species under similarconditions, or which are referable to specific susceptibility mr harold p brown testified in the kemmler case court of appeals, stateof new york state of new york ex rel william kemmler againstcharles f durston, agent and warden that he had in the course of hisexperiments seen a horse weighing 1, 320 pounds, with a resistance of11, 000 ohms, killed by an alternating current at 700 volts the resistance of the different cutaneous surfaces of the human bodyas measured by jolly in siemens’ units was from 400, 000 down to 15, 000in the male and to 8, 000 in the female siemens’ unit is to the ohm as1 06 to 1 00 tschirfew and watteville made the resistance from 80, 000 to 3, 000 ohms experiments made at the edison phonograph factory and edison laboratoryin july, 1889, on 259 males between the ages of eleven and fifty-one, showed a resistance, measured between the hands immersed to the wristsin a solution of caustic potash independent of polarization, averaging986 ohms and varying from 1, 970 to 550 ohms the resistance of 236 men employed at messrs bergmann & co electrical works in new york appears to have averaged 1, 184 ohms andto have varied from 1, 870 to 610 ohms these measurements were alsotaken between the hands, which were washed with soap and water and thendipped in jars containing a solution of caustic potash the batteryconsisted of four chromic-acid cells each having an e m f of 2 volts as shown in all the experiments on animals and more especially in thepaper of electrocution, the continuance or duration of the current hasmuch effect on the resistance as the current continues the resistancediminishes thus in the case of mcelvaine the resistance between theimmersed hands was at the beginning 800 ohms and at the end of thecontact of fifty seconds had decreased to 516 ohms in this case, whenthe current of 1, 500 volts was applied from the forehead to the leg, the resistance was practically steady at only 214 ohms of course thesmall resistance in these paper electrocutions depends largely on theperfect contact secured according to the amount of resistance offered do the effects of severeshocks of electricity differ this is shown especially well in theaction of lightning, but is also true of powerful currents producedmechanically if the resistance of the skin be slight at the moment ofentering the circuit of a strong current, the current will pass throughit with comparative ease and without causing much injury. But if on theother hand the resistance is great, the current will be, as it were, momentarily retarded or stored, heat will be developed, and there willensue a burning and charring of the tissue of a special kind theseburns occur principally at the places where the current is speciallyresisted, that is, at the point of entrance of the current to the bodyand at its point of exit this is the cause of the frequent burns inthe heel or sole of the foot in the case of those struck by lightningwhile standing, as the electricity passes away from the body into theground and finds a strong resistance at the point of leaving the body this is also the cause of the burns where the current leaves the bodyfrom any other cause, as from the contact or proximity of a metallicobject the greater the resistance so long as the current passes, otherthings being equal, the more severe is the burn it is for this reasonthat in medical electricity we usually use wet sponges on the skin orelectrodes moistened with salt and water or with other fluids whichwill assist in rendering the passage of the electricity through theskin more easy solutions of chlorid of sodium and of certain othersalts do this the mechanical effects of currents vary thus according to theresistance encountered they also vary according to the intensity orconcentration of the current if a current of moderate force be appliedthrough a small metallic point, it will burn, pain, and produce activeirritative symptoms, while if the same amount be applied over a largesurface simultaneously, it may have little or no irritating effect wehave, therefore, three factors in determining the mechanical effect ofany electric current on the body. 1 the condition of the body, thatis, the amount of resistance which the current will encounter at itsentrance and exit. 2 the amount and intensity of the current. And 3the character of the current for practical purposes of the more severecurrents we have only to deal with the continuous and alternating symptoms direct symptoms the direct symptoms produced by powerful mechanical currents ofelectricity may be divided into three classes. I the mechanical. Ii the essential or internal. Iii the mental or psychical these classes are fairly distinct, but they are not absolute, andcertain symptoms are on the borders the most important mechanical symptoms produced by these currents areburns these occur at all points of strong resistance externally, hence especially at the points of entrance and dewritingure of thecurrent they vary from all grades, from the lightest possible, whereonly the fine hairs on the skin are singed, to those of extraordinarydepth and severity the characteristic burn from powerful currentsis, however, well distinguished it consists in a deep hole ofvarious shapes with clear-cut edges surrounded by an inflamed areaand containing in its cavity a mass of blackened tissue which onlyseparates from the portions below after several days, and causesa wound which, though not very painful, heals very slowly theseverity of electric burns is often at first sight underrated, andtheir duration, when severe, is unexpectedly long it occasionallyhappens that after a burn of this character appears nearly healed, thesurrounding and, in appearance, healthy tissue breaks down, perhapsunder a healthy skin, and a destructive process occurs which muchretards recovery this is evidently due to tissue destruction from astrong electric current of such a character as to produce necrobiosiswithout the external appearances of a burn these burns are, perhaps, oftenest seen on the hands, but this is only because these writings aremore likely to come into contact with the current they may occur inany portion of the body eyes - the injurious effect of electric light upon the eyes has beencarefully studied by several competent observers so far as known ithas been caused solely by the arc light the symptoms produced byexposure of the eyes for a considerable period to the electric lightmay be slight or severe in the slighter paper we find merely an acuteconjunctivitis with a slight central scotoma which passes off withintwenty-four to forty-eight hours the symptoms are those usual in acuteconjunctivitis photophobia, lachrymation, sensation of a foreign bodyunder the lids, discomfort in the eyes, and swelling of the lids inthe more severe paper all these symptoms are increased. The photophobiaand lachrymation may be intense there is essaytimes severe pain inthe supra-orbital nerve, and occasionally a tendency to somnolence in these paper we find an intense conjunctivitis with chymosis, acentral scotoma which may render the patient for the time practicallyblind, and on ophthalmoscopic examination a congestion of the vesselsof the retina and choroid, a neuro-retinitis, and essaytimes evenhemorrhages into the retina there is essaytimes peripapillary œdemaand infiltration around the optic nerve the pupil of the eye in thesepaper is usually much contracted there is essaytimes loss of epitheliumfrom the cornea in certain severe paper there is produced in addition to the eyesymptoms an erythema of the face bresse states that this erythema canbe produced on the face, arm, or hand by exposure to the voltaic arcat a distance of thirty to forty centimetres the blush grows deeperfor three or four hours, then remains stationary for a time, and endsin desquamation leaving a very durable pigmentation the erythema isaccompanied by a sensation of smarting the strength of the light and the length of time required to producethese effects probably vary essaywhat according to the color of thelight emrys jones states that he is informed that either excess ordefect of current gives a less injurious light than the normal current;the excess gives a more violet, the defect a more orange light on theother hand, charcot considered that the harmfulness of the electriclight was due at any rate in considerable writing to the chemical orviolet rays, and bresse found that when violet rays were added to anelectric light as by aluminium it was more injurious than before toanimals what writing the brilliancy of the light plays in determiningthe pathological results is not yet fully settled the heat, however, does not, as a rule, seem to have much effect unless in extraordinaryinstances where the cornea is burned muscular contractions - another effect of electricity which isexternally visible on the human system is muscular contraction slight muscular contractions are produced purposely in thesis paper inmedical treatment therapeutically or for the sake of diagnosis whenthe stimuli are sufficiently strong and follow each other with greatrapidity, or when a strong continuous current is passed through themuscles, they are brought into a state of continuous contraction ortetanus, and in this condition they will remain for a long periodor until the electric stimulus is removed in paper where a severeelectric shock is received as from an electric wire, the muscleswhich come in contact with the wire immediately contract and remaincontracted while the current continues to pass through them as aresult of this we often find that when a severe electric shock has beenreceived through the hands by means of a wire or other conductor thesufferer hands are involuntarily closed upon the wire or conductor, and cannot be unclosed by any voluntary effort until the current isstopped while thus holding the conductor the hands are often veryseverely burnt under these circumstances a strong force is required toremove a person from a charged wire if the current be not turned off, and it can only be done at a considerable risk unless by those expertand provided with special means not only the muscles immediately in contact with the conductor, butnearly all the voluntary muscles of the body may be thus affectedby a powerful current another effect of this involuntary muscularcontraction is the forcible muscular movements produced by the shock as previously stated, when a sufficiently strong shock occurs, thevoluntary muscles of the trunk and limbs may be thrown into suddencontraction in such a manner as to throw the person violently andforcibly on to the ground, or against essay object or objects in theneighborhood in this way one may be propelled several feet, and thesisvarieties of surgical injury may be caused rarely the force of thecontraction is such as of itself to rupture muscles or tendons, and itmight even fracture bones or dislocate joints already predisposed essential or internal symptoms we pass now to what we may consider the internal or essentialconditions of electric shock, leaving the mental or psychical resultsfor examination later when a person receives a severe electric shock, the symptoms areusually as follows.

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At the tops of thebranches grow thesis long tufts or branches of yellow flowers very thickset together, from the several joints which consist of four leaves apiece, which smell essaywhat strong, but not unpleasant the seed issmall and black like poppy seed, two for the most writing joined together:the root is reddish, with thesis small threads fastened to it, which takestrong hold of the ground, and creep a little. And the branches leaninga little down to the ground, take root at the joints thereof, wherebyit is easily increased there is another sort of ladies bedstraw growing frequently in england, which bears white flowers as the other doth yellow. But the branches ofthis are so weak, that unless it be sustained by the hedges, or otherthings near which it grows, it will lie down to the ground. The leavesa little bigger than the former, and the flowers not so plentiful asthese. And the root hereof is also thready and abiding place they grow in meadow and pastures both wet and dry, and by thehedges time they flower in may for the most writing, and the seed is ripe injuly and august government and virtues they are both herbs of venus, and thereforestrengthening the writings both internal and external, which she rules the decoction of the former of those being drank, is good to fret andbreak the stone, provoke the urine, stays inward bleeding, and healsinward wounds the herb or flower bruised and put into the nostrils, stays their bleeding likewise. The flowers and herbs being made intoan oil, by being set in the sun, and changed after it has stood ten ortwelve days. Or into an ointment being boiled in axunga, or salladoil, with essay wax melted therein, after it is strained. Either theoil made thereof, or the ointment, do help burnings with fire, orscalding with water the same also, or the decoction of the herb andflower, is good to bathe the feet of travellers and lacquies, whoselong running causes weariness and stiffness in the sinews and joints if the decoction be used warm, and the joints afterwards anointed withointment, it helps the dry scab, and the itch in children.