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Chlorlyptus exp 12 5% in 1 hour 1% in 1 hour eucalyptus oil no data no data phenol 5% almost at once 1% in 1 hour -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- infection experiments in vivodr rivas reports two series of experiments, in customize writing help each of which threeguinea-pigs received staphylococcus suspensions in the peritoneum one guinea-pig in each series was left untreated. The others receivedinjections of chlorlyptus into the peritoneum at various intervals the following results were obtained. Chlorlyptus results exp 19, no 1 none survived exp 20, no 1 none died exp 19, no 2 at once died exp 19, no 3 after 24 hours survived exp 20, no 2 after 18 hours died exp 20, no 3 after 24 hours died -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- this shows mortalities of. 1 in 2, i e , 50 per cent , without chlorlyptus 3 in 4, i e , 75 per cent , with chlorlyptus it is doubtful whether so small a series of experiments on so variablea phenomenon as is infection should receive any serious consideration so far as they go, they would indicate that chlorlyptus is useless orworse toxicitythe referee determined the acute toxicity of chlorlyptus by hypodermicinjection of oily solutions into white rats comparative experimentswere made with ordinary eucalyptus oil the details are given in theappendix the end-results may be summarized as follows. Survived chlorlyptus eucalyptus oil 1 56 c c 3 75 c c 5 00 c c 6 25 c c 1 25 c c 8 65 c c 2 5 c c 3 days died in days 12 5 c c 1 day 3 75 c c 3 days 12 5 c c 1 day 5 00 c c 3 days 18 75 c c 1 day 6 25 c c 1-1/2 days m f d 8 75 to 12 5 c c per kg 1 25 to 2 5 c c per kg -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- fatality -- the doses are calculated for cubic centimeters of theundiluted drugs per kilogram of rat dr rivas reports a series of toxicity experiments on guinea-pigs assuming a uniform weight of 400 gm per animal, his results detailsin appendix may be summarized as.

Inwardly taken they expel worms, they provoke urine, and themenses, help difficulty of breathing stavesacre, kills lice in the head, i hold it not fitting to be giveninwardly olibanum mixed with as much barrow grease beat the olibanum firstin powder and boiled together, make an ointment which will kill thelice in children heads, and such as are subject to breed them, willnever breed them a medicine cheap, safe, and sure, which breeds noannoyance to the brain the seeds of water-cresses, heat, yet trouble the stomach and belly;ease the pains of the spleen, are very dangerous for pregnant women, yet they provoke lust. Outwardly applied, they help leprosies, scaldheads, and the falling off of hair, as also carbuncles, and cold ulcersin the joints mustard seed, heats, extenuates, and draws moisture from the brain:the head being shaved and anointed with mustard, is a good remedy forthe lethargy, it helps filthy ulcers, and hard swellings in the mouth, it helps old aches coming of cold french barley, is cooling, nourishing, and breeds milk sorrel seeds, potently resist poison, help fluxes, and such stomachsas loath their meat succory seed, cools the heat of the blood, extinguishes lust, opensstoppings of the liver and bowels, it allays the heat of the body, andproduces a good colour, it strengthens the stomach, liver, and reins poppy seeds, ease pain, provoke sleep your best way is to make anemulsion of them with barley water mallow seeds, ease pains in the bladder chich-pease, are windy, provoke lust, encrease milk in nurses, provoke the menses, outwardly, they help scabs, itch, and inflammationsof the testicles, ulcers, &c white saxifrage seeds, provoke urine, expel wind, and break thestone boil them in white wine rue seeds, helps such as cannot hold their water lettice seed, cools the blood, restrains venery also gourds, citruls, cucumbers, melons, purslain, and endive seeds, cool the blood, as also the stomach, spleen, and reins, and allay theheat of fevers use them as you were taught to do poppy-seeds wormseed, expels wind, kills worms ash-tree keys, ease pains in the sides, help the dropsy, relieve menweary with labour, provoke venery, and make the body lean piony seeds, help the ephialtes, or the disease the vulgar call themare, as also the fits of the mother, and other such like infirmitiesof the womb, stop the menses, and help convulsions broom seed, potently provoke urine, break the stone citron seeds, strengthen the heart, cheer the vital spirit, resistpestilence and poison tears, liquors, and rozins laudanum, is of a heating, mollifying nature, it opens the mouth ofthe veins, stays the hair from falling off, helps pains in the ears, and hardness of the womb it is used only outwardly in plaisters assafœtida is commonly used to allay the fits of the mother bysmelling to it. They say, inwardly taken, it provokes lust, and expelswind benzoin, or benjamin, makes a good perfume sanguis draconis, cools and binds exceedingly aloes, purges choler and flegm, and with such deliberation that itis often given to withstand the violence of other purges, it preservesthe senses and betters the apprehension, it strengthens the liver, andhelps the yellow-jaundice yet is naught for such as are troubled withthe hemorrhoids, or have agues i do not like it taken raw see aloerosata, which is nothing but it washed with the juice of roses manna, is temperately hot, of a mighty dilative quality, windy, cleanses choler gently, also it cleanses the throat and stomach achild may take an ounce of it at a time melted in milk, and the drossstrained out, it is good for them when they are scabby scamony, or diagridium, call it by which name you please, is adesperate purge, hurtful to the body by reason of its heat, windiness, corroding, or gnawing, and violence of working i would advise mycountrymen to let it alone. It will gnaw their bodies as fast asdoctors gnaw their purses opopanax, is of a heating, molifying, digesting quality gum elemi, is exceeding good for fractures of the skull, as also inwounds, and therefore is put in plaisters for that end see arceushis liniment tragacanthum, commonly called gum traganth, and gum dragon, helpscoughs, hoarseness, and distillations on the lungs bdellium, heats and softens, helps hard swellings, ruptures, pains inthe sides, hardness of the sinews galbanum hot and dry, discussing. Applied to the womb, it hastensboth birth and after-birth, applied to the navel it stays thestrangling of the womb, commonly called the fits of the mother, helpspains in the sides, and difficulty of breathing, being applied to it, and the smell of it helps the vertigo or diziness in the head myrh, heats and dries, opens and softens the womb, provokes the birthand after-birth.

he recommendsthat a tablet customize writing help be crushed and wrapped in “butter cloth ” the ends of thecloth are to be tied with thread, the formamint is to be moistened, andthe packet is to be held in the mouth of the baby several times eachday 21 wingrave. Lancet, london 2:1067, 1906 young22 published the results of essay experiments by himself anddelépine on the human throat they dissolved a tablet in the mouth andmade swab cultures with the following results. Immediately after taking the tablet 0 colonies 10 minutes after taking the tablet 35 colonies 30 minutes after taking the tablet 150 colonies22 young. Lancet, london 1:975, 1908 they found no staphylococci at any time other results of swabbingvarious writings of the throat before and after the use of formamint, reported by these investigators, show enormous reductions in the count, claimed to be due to the action of formamint the count was made onagar at 37 c , but they fail to state the time elapsing between takingthe formamint and making the swab young also reports favorableclinical results in paper of scarlet fever, diphtheria, sore throat, and the like it must be noted, however, that they state that the mouthand fauces must first be thoroughly cleansed by swabbing and douchingbefore formamint is used the “chemical compound” claimthe claims made in the advertising literature of formamint are veryextravagant thesis are highly improbable these statements will bediscussed later the statement is made that formamint is a new chemical compound. “formamint is pentamethanallactose, 5 choh c₁₂h₂₂o₁₁ it is an original combination of formaldehyde with lactose, a definite chemical compound the formaldehyde molecule is locked up in it until solution in the saliva takes place, when the formaldehyde is liberated in its nascent state and is therefore active without being irritant ”furthermore the makers contend that this new chemical compound isentirely harmless for example, daus, 5 in an article on “thedisinfectant action of formic aldehyde on mucous membranes, ” declares. “no indication of irritant or other injurious action made its appearance even after large doses the urine remained free from albumin and sugar ”such statements as these are found in the advertising literature. “formamint tablets are absolutely harmless and innocuous, even to little children ” “when dissolved in the saliva, formamint tablets liberate slowly nascent formaldehyde in a most active yet non-irritant form ”they maintain that formamint is not only absolutely harmless, butactually beneficial to the tissues it may be used “to tone up andstrengthen the tissues, prevent hoarseness, and allay irritation insingers, public speakers, ” etc the claims urged as to its germicidal power are indeed glittering this“new chemical compound” is claimed to liberate formaldehyd in essay newand peculiar condition which, while it has a soothing and tonic effecton the cells of the human tissues, can at the same time quickly killany form of bacterial life “dissolving readily, it releases its germicidal, antiseptic qualities, which impregnate the saliva and are carried naturally and easily around the mouth and in the deepest crevices of the throat-- destroying the germs where they are causing the mischief formamint prevents and destroys infectious germ life in a soothing grateful way ” “in the saliva it frees a germicide, fatal to germs but harmless to the most delicate membranes and flowing into every tiny corner of the gums, tonsils and throat, into places where no gargle ever reaches, it most effectively disinfects the throat ”the claims as to the preventive and curative effects of the preparationcover a large portion of the category of human ailments and distresses the following quotations indicate essay of its supposed properties. “ it is therefore self-evident that formamint should be looked upon as a necessary writing of the treatment of all forms of tonsillitis ” “the value of formamint is equally great in diphtheric tonsillitis, or as a prophylactic ” “the extraordinary success which i had with formamint in a school epidemic of scarlet fever during may and june, 1907, was the determining factor which induced me to abandon the use of inhalations, gargles, local applications in the treatment of diseases of the throat, and to use formamint exclusively for the future ” “there are naturally thesis similar conditions in which formamint may be used as a prophylactic, notably scarlet fever, mumps, streptococcal and staphylococcal sore throats, ‘milk outbreaks’ of sore throat, drain throats, hospital throats, and the like ” “formamint tablets are indicated in angina, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, stomatitis, gingivitis, glossitis, ulceration, spongy or bleeding gums, pyorrhea alveolaris, ‘smoker sore throat, ’ abscess or boils, etc ” “as a prophylactic against diphtheria, scarlet fever, influenza, measles, epidemic poliomyelitis, and other pathogenic micro-organisms to neutralize putrefaction products in and about the teeth, correct fermentative processes, deodorize and purify the breath, etc ” “to tone up, and strengthen the tissues, prevent hoarseness and allay irritation in singers, public speakers, neutralize the effects of dust-infection or disinfect the saliva or sputum in influenza, tuberculosis, etc ”one man declares that along with specific constitutional treatment he“had the best results from the use of formamint tablets” in a case ofsyphilitic ulceration of the tongue in short, formamint is recommended for the treatment or preventionof almost everything, from a bad breath to such grave conditions asscarlet fever, diphtheria and tuberculosis, conditions in which adelay in proper treatment-- for instance, in diphtheria, a failure toadminister antitoxin-- may result in the death of the patient a series of investigations was therefore undertaken in order todiscover whether the extravagant claims regarding the germicidal powerof formamint could be verified experimental datatwo fifty-cent bottles of wulfing formamint were purchased in theopen market and were kept well stoppered to prevent deterioration qualitative tests showed the presence of formaldehyd and the amount wasdetermined quantitatively by the hydrogen peroxid method as given bysutton 23 the results were respectively, 1 99 per cent and 2 03 percent of formaldehyd 23 sutton. Volumetric analysis, edition 10, p 390 illustration. Two formamint advertisements reproduced in miniaturetypical of those appearing in a certain type of medical journals essay determinations were made of the germicidal power of formamintin vitro, that is, under controlled laboratory conditions atwenty-four-hour plain agar culture of staphylococcus aureus waswashed off in 10 c c of sterile 0 85 per cent sodium chloridsolution a 1:100, 000 dilution of this was made in each of three flaskscontaining 100 c c of sterile saliva flask 1 contained 1 per cent offormamint, flask 2, 5 per cent. Flask 3, containing no formamint, waskept as a control at intervals samples were removed and dilutions madeand plated in duplicate on standard agar the plates were incubatedtwenty-four hours at 37 c , and plates containing less than 200colonies were counted the results are given in table 1 after sevendays there was no appreciable difference in the plates another test was made by adding a 1 per cent formamint solution toplain agar plates inoculated with b coli a twenty-four-hour plainagar culture of b coli was washed off in 10 c c of sterile 0 85 percent sodium chlorid solution a 1:1, 000, 000 dilution was made of thisand 1 c c added to each plate varying amounts of 1 per cent solutionof formamint were added to each plate they were incubated seventy-twohours at 37 c after seven days’ incubation the count was the same theresults are given in table 2 another experiment was made thus. One loopful of a twenty-four-hourplain agar culture of streptococcus lacticus was mixed with a tubeof north medium one loopful from the inoculated tube was mixed with asecond tube of north medium both tubes were poured into petri dishesand allowed to cool one half of each plate was well smeared with a 10per cent solution of formamint in saliva after twenty-four hours’incubation at 37 c , only a few colonies appeared on the side to whichthe formamint had been applied, while the other half was thicklycovered with colonies table 1 -- showing time in which cultures of staphylococcus aureus werekilled by different amounts of formamint amount of formamint| period of |average count| count on flask in saliva |standing at 37 c | when plated |of saliva without per cent | hours | | formamint -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 | 3 | 32 | 3200 1 | 6 | 0 | 7000 5 | 1 | few | 5000 5 | 2 | 0 | 4100 5 | 3 | 0 | 3200* 5 | 6 | 0 | 7000* -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- * the last two observations were made at the same time as on the 1 percent solutions this work so far corroborates that reported in the literature quotedby the manufacturers but the fact that a compound is a germicide whenbrought into intimate contact with bacteria in a solution or medium ina test tube or flask does not prove that it will be effective when usedin the human throat the alleged germicidal actionan attempt was made to discover whether or not the claims advanced bythe manufacturers as to the perfect germicidal action of formamint inall the nooks and crannies of the mouth and throat could be confirmed table 2 -- count of b coli cultures with different amounts of formamint no c c of 1 per cent formamint 0 0 1 0 3 0 5 0 7 1 0 1 5 2 0 3 0 count 160 33 39 26 15 12 2 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- the first step in attacking this problem was to make comparative countsof the number of bacteria in the throat before and after the use offormamint the methods employed were as follows. The throat was gargledwith 50 c c of sterile 0 85 per cent sodium chlorid solution ineach case the same length of time, as far as possible, was used in theprocess the liquid was collected in a sterile flask the gargling in aseries of experiments was begun not less than two hours after a meal after essay preliminary work the following dilutions of the 50 c c ofsalt solution were found sufficient. 1:1, 000, 1:10, 000 and 1:100, 000 plates were made in duplicate from each dilution and incubatedseventy-two hours at 37 c the counts were made on plates containingless than 200 colonies except where otherwise noted standard agar wasused the mediums were always prepared in the same way all the work was carried out under conditions as nearly naturalas possible the formamint was taken according to the directionsaccompanying the trade package every opportunity was given theformamint to penetrate all the crypts and recesses about the mouthand throat the tablet was allowed to dissolve as slowly as possible, the time usually being five to six minutes, and saliva was thoroughlyforced around the mouth before being swallowed plating was alwaysdone immediately after gargling so that no growth could occur in thesalt solution the results are given in table 3 the numbers areaverage counts from several plates and calculated to show the number ofbacteria washed out by the 50 c c of salt solution table 3 -- showing that formamint does not greatly decrease the numberof bacteria in the throat | | |no found |no found | time |amount of|in throat |in throat conditions of test | since |formamint| before | after |preceding| used | use of | use of | test | |formamint |formamint -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- normal | | 0 | 15, 600, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 | 38, 500, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 | 30, 500, 000| normal | | 0 | 12, 500, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 | 14, 500, 000| | 1 hour | 0 | 23, 500, 000| tablet dissolved in mouth | 6 days | 1 tablet| | 15, 000, 000 and throat gargled one | | | | hour later | | | | throat again gargled two | 1 hour | 0 | | 10, 050, 000 hours after formamint | | | | was used | | | | normal | 7 days | 0 | 62, 000, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 | 72, 500, 000| normal | | | 61, 000, 000| tablets were taken, one | 2 days | 12 | | 39, 100, 000 per hour, and throat | | | | gargled onehour after | | | | last tablet was taken | | | | throat was again gargled 2| 1 hour | 0 | | 59, 000, 000 hours after taking last | | | | tablet | | | | normal | 5 days | 0 | 35, 000, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 | 62, 000, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 | 72, 000, 000| one tablet was taken each | 4 days | 24 | |175, 000, 000 half hour for 12 hours | | tablets | | consecutively throat was| | | | gargled one hour after | | | | last tablet was taken | | | | throat was again gargled | 1 hour | 0 | |168, 750, 000 two hours after last | | | | tablet was taken | | | | normal | 3 days | 0 |129, 600, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 |177, 000, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 |147, 000, 000| normal | 3 days | 0 | 79, 000, 000| one tablet was taken | 1 hour | 1 | | 83, 200, 000 immediately after preced-| | | | ing gargle throat was | | | | again gargled at end of | | | | one hour | | | | throat was again gargled 2| 1 hour | 0 | |134, 750, 000 hours after tablet was | | | | taken | | | | normal conditions except | 19 days | 0 | 32, 600, 000| that mouth and teeth were| | | | throughly washed with | | | | soap just before gargling| | | | same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 33, 125, 000| same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 40, 375, 000| teeth were not washed | 2 days | 0 | 33, 500, 000| otherwise normal con- | | | | ditions | | | | same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 43, 330, 000| same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 54, 000, 000| same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 50, 000, 000| same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 67, 000, 000| mouth and teeth thoroughly| 2 days | 0 | 5, 270, 000| washed with soap just | | | | before throat was gargled| | | | same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 10, 916, 000| same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 8, 275, 000| normal conditions, but 1 | 3 days | 0 |228, 750, 000| c c of sterile rabbit | | | | blood was added to each | | | | plate | | | | count from the same gargle| 0 | 0 | 60, 625, 000| as above no blood used | | | | in the plates | | | | normal conditions, but | 1 hour | 0 |431, 250, 000| count was made on blood | | | | agar | | | | count from the same gargle| 0 | 0 | 59, 625, 000| asabove no blood used in| | | | the plates | | | | normal conditions, count | 2 days | 0 |683, 300, 000| was made on blood agar | | | | same gargle as above, but | 0 | 0 | 58, 500, 000| count was made on plain | | | | agar | | | | one tablet was taken just | 1 hour | 1 tablet| |558, 300, 000 after preceding gargle | | | | after one hour throat was| | | | again gargled count on | | | | blood agar | | | | same gargle as above, but | 0 | 1 tablet| | 55, 875, 000 count was made on plain | | | | agar | | | | normal conditions | 2 days | 0 | 79, 125, 000| one tablet was taken just | 1 hour | 1 tablet| | 56, 250, 000 ten minutes before gargle| 16 min | | | was made | | | | normal conditions | 2 days | 0 | 46, 750, 000| one tablet was taken just | 1 hour | 1 tablet| | 38, 500, 000 ten minutes before throat| | | | was gargled | | | | teeth and mouth were thor-| 5 days | 0 | 47, 370, 000| oughly washed with soap | | | | just before gargle was | | | | made | | | | teeth washed as above and | 1 hour | 1 tablet| | 21, 225, 000 1 tablet taken 10 minutes| | | | before gargle was made | | | | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- finally a determination was made of the number of streptococci in thethroat before and after the use of formamint the throat was gargledin the manner previously described the streptococcus count was madeby the dilution method as given by heinemann 24 culture tubes wereused instead of fermentation tubes one per cent dextrose broth wasthe medium employed one cubic centimeter was added to each of a seriesof ten tubes for each dilution and the following dilutions were used:1:10, 000, 1:100, 000 and 1:1, 000, 000 24 heinemann. Laboratory guide in bacteriology, p 86 the results given in table 4 are the average count from a number ofdilutions and are reported as the total number washed out by the50 c c of salt solution table 4 -- showing that formamint fails to reduce the number ofstreptococci in the throat | | | no found | no found | time | amount of | in throat | in throat conditions | since | formamint | before | after of test | preceding | used | use of | use of | test | | formamint | formamint -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - normal | | 0 | 1, 200, 000 | | | | | one tablet was| | | | taken and | | | | throat gargled| | | | one hour later| 4 days | 1 tablet | |14, 750, 000 | | | | normal | 3 days | 0 | 9, 950, 000 | | | | | one tablet was| | | | taken and | | | | throat gargled| | | | ten minutes | | | | later | 1 hour | 1 tablet | | 8, 000, 000 discussionthe contention that formamint contains formaldehyd was confirmed byanalysis the manufacturers also maintain that formamint is a new, definitechemical compound, consisting of five molecules of formaldehyd andone molecule of lactose, and that when dissolved in the saliva theformaldehyd is liberated in essay new and peculiar form, which theycall nascent formaldehyd this new kind of formaldehyd is, accordingto the advertising literature, especially powerful in its germicidalproperties and at the same time has absolutely no irritating or harmfuleffects not a chemical compoundthoms, 25 retained as an expert by the german government, decided, after a series of chemical investigations, that formamint was nota definite chemical compound, but that it was probably a solidsolution of formaldehyd in lactose he proved that when the processof manufacture was carried out in exactly the way called for by theformamint patents, compounds containing a greater or less per cent offormaldehyd could be made while the other properties remained similarto those of formamint the composition of the final product dependedon the proportion of the components used in the process thereforeformamint did not form a safe means of uniform dosage 25 thoms. Arb a d pharm inst d universität, berlin 11:210, 1914 as a result of thoms’ work the german courts held that formamint wasnot a new chemical compound consequently the formamint patent number189036 was annulled in berlin, nov 29, 1913 again the contention that formaldehyd in the nascent or activecondition is less poisonous and irritating than in its ordinary form iscontrary to what would be expected from the behavior of such compounds if it were liberated, as claimed, in the “nascent” condition, it wouldbe, for that very reason, not only more active but also more harmful as a matter of fact, formamint did have an irritant effect on theworker who carried out these investigations when one tablet wastaken each hour for twelve consecutive hours, marked irritation ofthe intestinal tract resulted there was almost sufficient nausea tocause vomiting and uneasiness in the alimentary canal following theexperiment when the twenty-four tablets were taken the results weresimilar but more pronounced this is decidedly in contradiction to theassertions of the manufacturers otto seifert, 26 moreover, cites the following. “by effects.

For instance, in the method of hermes trismegistus the above quotations refer exclusively to the course of diseases inrelation to the stars, but we find in other passages also distinctreferences are made to therapeutic methods. For instance, in“aphorisms, ” § 4, paragraph 5, we read. “purging is very difficultduring or before the dog-days ”it would, indeed, be most remarkable if no astrologic remarks of anykind were found in the corpus hippocraticum, as the idea of closerelation between the celestial bodies and matters terrestrial hadcommon currency during the hippocratic period the songs of stesichorusand of pindar show, for instance as is also stated by pliny, book 3, chapter xii , vol i , page 118, that eclipses of certain stars wereconsidered to be pregnant with mischief this superstitious conceptionhas, in essay paper, actually caused severe general calamities thus, for instance, the sicilian campaign ended unfortunately for theathenians only because their general, nicias, under a superstitiousapprehension concerning an eclipse, failed to put to sea and as thiscampaign was the cause to athens of a writingial loss of greek hegemony, we may safely say that astrology had a decisive share in the fall ofathens pliny, book 2, chapter xxiii the appearance of comets, like eclipses of the sun and the moon, werealso reputed to be ominous among the ancients comets were consideredheavenly mischief-makers of the worst kind, and almost every sortof calamity was ascribed to them a calamity was supposed to assumevarious aspects, according to the position and form of the comet under essay circumstances, however, they were said to prognosticatethesis events advantageous to mankind pliny, book 2, chapter xxiv thus augustus considered a comet, which was seen for an entire week atthe northern quarter of the heavens at the onset of his rule, duringperformances which were given in honor of venus genetrix, to be hislucky star however, not only such extraordinary appearances in the sky as comets, eclipses of the sun and the moon, played a conspicuous writing in medicalsuperstitions of the ancients even those celestial phenomena whichoccur with a regularity fixed by natural law, such as the revolutionof the sun and the moon, were considered highly important events intherapeutic art thus, affections of the eye in man and beast were saidto increase and to decrease with the moon pliny, book 2, chapter xli all acute diseases were believed to be controlled by the moon, whereaschronic affections were thought to be under the influence of the sun in fact, everything that happened to man was brought in immediaterelationship with appearances in the canopy of heaven thus, forinstance, it is stated by marcus manilius, the well-known author of anastronomical didactic poem dedicated to the emperor augustus. “omnis cum coelo fortunæ pendeat ordo ”in the thirteenth chapter of the second book the poet maintains thateach writing of the human body is subordinate to a distinct sign of thezodiac thus, for instance, the head to aries, etc altho the further development of occidental as well as orientalastrology drew its resources from the primeval assyrian, babylonian, and egyptian doctrines, yet from the second century, a d , theastronomic work of ptolemy and the exhaustive description of antiquemedicine by galen derive their inspiration from medicina astrologica whatever these two great masters were able to report of the dependenceof the functions of the body upon celestial bodies was from then on, without further inspection and examination, acknowledged to be trueby the great majority of physicians only occasionally this or thatpractitioner is bold enough to oppose the intrusion of astrologicvagaries into the art of healing. Among these radicals was thephilosophically trained physician, sextus empiricus, who lived aboutthe year 193, a d however, this protest of brave sextus, as well asall subsequent ones, scarcely had any influence upon the astrologicaldevelopment of medicine astrology could not be arrested on its roadto the domination of the world, and until the seventeenth century itcontrolled the thought of physicians with the same invincible sway thatit exercised over the mental life of all other professions and classes medico-astrological superstition had become legalized, and this inspite of the fact that galen himself at last expressed his distrust ofthe medicina astrologica, and at least endeavored to extenuate hiswriting in its dissemination let us now scrutinize more minutely the condition of medicinaastrologica in the second century, a d the works of ptolemy, the“iatromathematica” of the mysterious hermes trismegistus, and the thirdbook of galen writing on the “critical days” furnish sufficientmaterial for outlining the medico-astrological system of that period in the first place, the method by which the authors of thatperiod instilled their astrologic dotage into the minds of theircontemporaries varied considerably either astrological remarks werehere and there interspersed in a work on medical or on astronomicalsubjects, as was the case, for instance, in the “opus quadriwritingitum”of ptolemy and also in galen book on the “critical days, ” orastrology was treated as a special science in the form of a connectedsystem, as is done, for instance, in the “iatromathematica” of hermestrismegistus such textbooks of astrology obtained publicity in largenumbers from about the fourteenth century on whoever may be inclinedto cast a glance into the learned work of sudhoff will be astonished toobserve the extent to which iathromathematics flourished in the secondhalf of the middle ages and at the turning-point of the renaissance still another form was to imwriting to the public their astrologicaldoctrines in the form of short sentences we find nothing in such worksregarding the intricate calculations and methods by which endeavorswere made to fathom the language of the stars, but astrological resultswere communicated in concise, aphoristic sentences this was done inthe “centiloquium” of ptolemy, a work which in a hundred brief sayingsbrings an epitome of astrological wisdom to market the work enjoyedthe highest esteem in the middle ages such a book, therefore, wouldcorrespond to that form of modern literary production, which, underthe title “method of acquiring this or that accomplishment within ashort period, ” is advertised to us modern people in the daily press moreover, the “centiloquium” of ptolemy had thesis imitators sucha work is found, for instance, in arabic literature, and containsastrologic wisdom condensed into 150 brief sentences by the astrologeralmansor, who furnished the handbook upon request of his ruler. Thearabian, bethem, has produced a similar work we find analogous worksappearing later in the middle ages eventually, the doctrines ofastrology were put into neat rhymes. Thus, for instance, heinrich vonrantzau, who dewritinged this life 1598 as governor of schleswig-holstein, celebrates in 100 well-turned verses the significance of the planetsin relation to the physical and mental welfare of humanity we shallagain refer to this subject when considering astrology of the middleages the iatromathematic passages in the above-mentioned writingsof ptolemy, hermes, and galen furnished the foundation for all laterastrologico-medical theories for what the middle ages believedregarding the medical importance of the sidereal world, especially ofthe planets and the zodiac, was nothing but the immediate continuation, or elaboration, of the astrologic teachings of ptolemy and otherauthors of the first christian centuries in the first place, every portion of the human frame was placed underthe influence of a certain celestial body the five planets already known to the ancients, as well as sun andmoon, governed, according to hermes, the following writings of the body. The sun, the right eye the moon, the left eye saturn, hearing jupiter, the brain mars, the blood venus, taste and smell mercury, tongue and gullet however, the influence which sun, moon, and the planets exercisedupon the human body gradually became more intricate it was no longersatisfactory to enumerate relations between the bodies of heaven andthe human organs of such a general nature as given by the above tableof hermes all writings and functions of the body were to be broughtinto the closest relations with the planets thus, for instance, thecelebrated humanist, marsilius ficinus, the friend of the medici 1433to 1499, depicts most minutely in a book “on life, ” which was muchread in its time, the relations between the body and the planets thiswas also done by heinrich von rantzau, in his “tractus astrologicus, ”which in its time was very celebrated there we read regarding theseconditions as follows. Saturn governs the spleen, the bladder, the bones, the teeth, and, in writing, the circulating juices of the body. Causes the color of the skin of man to be dark yellowish. Impedes or promotes growth. Causes the eyes to be small, and prevents the growth of the beard jupiter governs the lungs, the ribs, cartilages, the liver, arteries, the pulse, and the development of human semen. Causes the white color of the skin, and gives a good figure mars governs the bile, kidneys, veins, and sexual organs, and of these especially the testicles. Makes hair red and the temper irascible, and inclined to outrages of various kinds venus governs the uterus, the breasts, the sexual organs, the spermatic tubes, the loins, and the buttocks. Endows man with physical beauty, furnishes him with long hair, round eyes, and a well-formed face.

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And in their places, being fallen, comecrooked and cornered seed the root is essaywhat woody, and blackish onthe outside, and brownish within, with divers great strings, and lesserfibres set thereat, of a strong scent, but nothing so pleasant as theflowers and leaves, and perishes not, but abides thesis years, shootingforth a-new every spring place it grows in moist meadows that lie mostly wet, or near thecourses of water time it flowers in essay places or other all the three summermonths, that is, june, july, and august, and the seed is ripe soonafter government and virtues venus claims dominion over the herb it isused to stay all manner of bleedings, fluxes, vomitings, and womencourses, also their whites. It is said to alter and take away the fitsof the quartan agues, and to make a merry heart, for which purpose essayuse the flowers, and essay the leaves it helps speedily those thatare troubled with the cholic. Being boiled in wine, and with a littlehoney, taken warm, it opens the belly.