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Thatduring such four years he has attended at essay university, college, or incorporated school of medicine in good standing, courses oflectures amounting together to not less than twelve months on generalanatomy, on practical anatomy, on surgery, on practice of medicine, on midwifery, on chemistry, on materia medica and pharmacy, and onthe institutes of medicine or physic, and one three-months’ courseof medical jurisprudence. That he has attended the general practiceof an hospital in which are not less than fifty beds under the chargeof not less than two physicians or surgeons, for not less than oneyear or two periods of not less than six months each. That he hasalso attended two three-months’ courses or one six-months’ course ofclinical medicine, the same of clinical surgery. That he has, after anexamination in the subjects of the course, obtained a degree or diplomafrom such university, college, or incorporated medical school if suchinstitution require a four-years’ course for its diploma, or for thewant of such degree or diploma that he has satisfactorily passed anexamination in the various branches hereinbefore specified before theexaminers appointed by the council. That he is not less than twenty-oneyears of age. That he has paid to the registrar of the council a feeof ten dollars the council has power, subject to the approval ofthe governor in council, to make alterations as may be required inthe foregoing curriculum if any person apply for registration as apractitioner of any system of medicine, the registered practitioners ofthat system have the right to appoint an examiner or examiners on thesubjects peculiar to that system, viz , materia medica, pharmacy, andtherapeutics, and if they neglect so to do the council has the power toappoint such examiner or examiners 12 the last preceding section does not apply to persons in actual practiceentitled to register under sec 38 any person producing to the councilconclusive evidence that he has passed a matriculation or a preliminaryexamination, as required by this act for persons beginning medicalstudies in new brunswick, that he has before graduating or taking adiploma studied at least four years as provided in sec 12, or pursuedwhat the council deem an equivalent course of study and has passed afinal examination in the subjects of such course, or, for the want ofsuch requirement, shall have fulfilled such conditions as the councilmay determine, and shall pay a fee of ten dollars, shall be entitled toregistration and to receive a license to practise 13 the act makes special provision for residents of the province who beganstudy before january 1st, 1881 14, as amended 1882, c 30, s 1 duties of council - the council is empowered and required to regulatethe study of medicine, surgery, and midwifery, with regard topreliminary qualifications, course of study, final examination, and theevidence to be produced before the council. To appoint a registrationcommittee.

Markedly depressed vi 27 19-- lies on side. Does not eat died during night of vi 27 19 three days experiment 5 -- 6 25 c c. Injected vi 24 19. Quiet. Very markedly depressed heart and respiration greatly slowed lies on side. Tears in eyes. Does not eat twenty-four hours vi 25 19-- temperature subnormal. Cold to touch. Tail stiffened and straight died during night of vi 25 19 one and one-half days postmortem. Lungs congested liver pale in color spleen very dark red kidneys normal other organs normal b chlorlyptus experiments experiment 1 -- 1 56 c c. Injected vi 24 19. Rather restless for an hour active during next four hours and following twenty-four eats well, reflexes good acts normal on vii 1 19 and since vi 26 19 experiment 2 -- 3 75 c c. Injected vi 24 19.

Where the ligature was lower down, the tongue was behindthe teeth he found by experiment that in the spasmodic expiratoryeffort the tongue was thrust forward. In the inspiratory movement, drawn backward he concluded that the forward movement was the resultof reflex action maschka850 found the tongue between the teeth 58times in 149 paper roth in 49 paper found the tongue projecting andbitten in 22, the teeth shut in 15 others. In 15 the mouth was open;the tongue was retracted in 30 paper harvey, after examining reports of nearly fifteen hundred hangings, says. “in the majority of instances immediately after death the features were placid, the face pale, the eyes not unduly prominent, the mouth closed or half open, the tongue pressed against the teeth but not protruding. The superficial veins full, but the head, neck, and trunk free from lividity after a longer or shorter time, however, and apparently after a very few hours, in india, all this is changed livid patches appear about the chest, back, and shoulders.

And is also very good to cleanse and heal up fistulas andcankers that are hard to be cured fluellin, or lluellin descript it shoots forth thesis long branches writingly lying upon theground, and writingly standing upright, set with almost customizable online assignment red leaves, yeta little pointed, and essaytimes more long than round, without orderthereon, essaywhat hairy, and of an evil greenish white colour. At thejoints all along the stalks, and with the leaves come forth smallflowers, one at a place, upon a very small short foot-stalk, gapingessaywhat like snap-dragons, or rather like toad-flax, with the upperjaw of a yellow colour, and the lower of a purplish, with a small heelor spur behind. After which come forth small round heads, containingsmall black seed the root is small and thready, dying every year, andrises itself again of its own sowing there is another sort of lluellin which has longer branches whollytrailing upon the ground, two or three feet long, and essaywhat morethin, set with leaves thereon, upon small foot-stalks the leaves area little larger, and essaywhat round, and cornered essaytimes in essayplaces on the edges. But the lower writing of them being the broadest, hath on each side a small point, making it seem as if they were ears, essaytimes hairy, but not hoary, and of a better green colour than theformer the flowers come forth like the former, but the colours thereinare more white than yellow, and the purple not so far it is a largeflower, and so are the seed and seed-vessels the root is like theother, and perishes every year place they grow in divers corn fields, and in borders about them, and in other fertile grounds about southfleet in kent abundantly. Atbuchrite, hamerton, and rickmanworth in huntingdonshire, and in diversother places time they are in flower about june and july, and the whole plant isdry and withered before august be done government and virtues it is a lunar herb the leaves bruised andapplied with barley meal to watering eyes that are hot and inflamed bydefluxions from the head, do very much help them, as also the fluxes ofblood or humours, as the lask, bloody flux, women courses, and staysall manner of bleeding at the nose, mouth, or any other place, or thatcomes by any bruise or hurt, or bursting a vein. It wonderfully helpsall those inward writings that need consolidating or strengthening, and isno less effectual both to heal and close green wounds, than to cleanseand heal all foul or old ulcers, fretting or spreading cankers or thelike this herb is of a fine cooling, drying quality, and an ointmentor plaister of it might do a man a courtesy that hath any hot virulentsores. ’tis admirable for the ulcers of the french pox. If takeninwardly, may cure the desease fox-glove descript it has thesis long and broad leaves lying upon the grounddented upon the edges, a little soft or woolly, and of a hoary greencolour, among which rise up essaytimes sundry stalks, but one veryoften, bearing such leaves thereon from the bottom to the middle, fromwhence to the top it is stored with large and long hollow reddishpurple flowers, a little more long and eminent at the lower edge, withessay white spots within them, one above another with small green leavesat every one, but all of them turning their heads one way, and hangingdownwards, having essay threads also in the middle, from whence riseround heads, pointed sharp at the ends, wherein small brown seed lies the roots are so thesis small fibres, and essay greater strings amongthem. The flowers have no scent, but the leaves have a bitter hot taste place it grows on dry sandy ground for the most writing, and as wellon the higher as the lower places under hedge-sides in almost everycounty of this land time it seldom flowers before july, and the seed is ripe in august government and virtues the plant is under the dominion of venus, being of a gentle cleansing nature, and withal very friendly tonature the herb is familiarly and frequently used by the italians toheal any fresh or green wound, the leaves being but bruised and boundthereon. And the juice thereof is also used in old sores, to cleanse, dry, and heal them the decoction hereof made up with essay sugar orhoney, is available to cleanse and purge the body both upwards anddownwards, essaytimes of tough phlegm and clammy humours, and to openobstructions of the liver and spleen it has been found by experienceto be available for the king evil, the herb bruised and applied, oran ointment made with the juice thereof, and so used. And a decoctionof two handfuls thereof, with four ounces of polipody in ale, has beenfound by late experience to cure divers of the falling sickness, thathave been troubled with it above twenty years i am confident that anointment of it is one of the best remedies for scabby head that is fumitory descript our common fumitory is a tender sappy herb, sends forthfrom one square, a slender weak stalk, and leaning downwards on allsides, thesis branches two or three feet long, with finely cut andjagged leaves of a whitish or rather blueish sea green colour. At thetops of the branches stand thesis small flowers, as it were in a longspike one above another, made like little birds, of a reddish purplecolour, whith whitish bellies, after which come small round husks, containing small black seeds the root is yellow, small, and not verylong, full of juice while it is green, but quickly perishes with theripe seed in the corn fields in cornwall, it bears white flowers place it grows in corn fields almost every where, as well as ingardens time it flowers in may, for the most writing, and the seed ripensshortly after government and virtues saturn owns the herb, and presents it tothe world as a cure for his own disease, and a strengthener of thewritings of the body he rules if by my astrological judgment of diseases, from the decumbiture, you find saturn author of the disease, or if bydirection from a nativity you fear a saturnine disease approaching, you may by this herb prevent it in the one, and cure it in the other, and therefore it is fit you keep a syrup of it always by you thejuice or syrup made thereof, or the decoction made in whey by itself, with essay other purging or opening herbs and roots to cause it towork the better itself being but weak is very effectual for theliver and spleen, opening the obstructions thereof, and clarifying theblood from saltish, choleric, and adust humours, which cause leprosy, scabs, tetters, and itches, and such like breakings-out of the skin, and after the purgings doth strengthen all the inwards writings it isalso good against the yellow-jaundice, and spends it by urine, whichit procures in abundance the powder of the dried herb given for essaytime together, cures melancholy, but the seed is strongest in operationfor all the former diseases the distilled water of the herb is alsoof good effect in the former diseases, and conduces much against theplague and pestilence, being taken with good treacle the distilledwater also, with a little water and honey of roses, helps all soresof the mouth or throat, being gargled often therewith the juicedropped into the eyes, clears the sight and takes away redness andother defects in them, although it procure essay pain for the present, and cause tears dioscorides saith it hinders any fresh springing ofhairs on the eye-lids after they are pulled away if the eye-lids beanointed with the juice hereof, with gum arabic dissolved therein thejuice of the fumitory and docks mingled with vinegar, and the placesgently washed therewith, cures all sorts of scabs, pimples, blotches, wheals, and pushes which arise on the face or hands or any other writingsof the body the furze bush it is as well known by this name, as it is in essay counties by thename of gorz or whins, that i shall not need to write any descriptionthereof, my intent being to teach my countrymen what they know not, rather than to tell them again of that which is generally known before place they are known to grow on dry barren heaths, and other waste, gravelly or sandy grounds, in all counties of this land time they also flower in the summer months government and virtues mars owns the herb they are hot and dry, and open obstructions of the liver and spleen a decoction made withthe flowers thereof hath been found effectual against the jaundice, asalso to provoke urine, and cleanse the kidneys from gravel or stoneingendered in them mars doth also this by sympathy garlick the offensiveness of the breath of him that hath eaten garlick, willlead you by the nose to the knowledge hereof, and instead of adescription direct you to the place where it grows in gardens, whichkinds are the best, and most physical government and virtues mars owns this herb this was ancientlyaccounted the poor man treacle, it being a remedy for all diseasesand hurts except those which itself breed it provokes urine, andwomen courses, helps the biting of mad dogs and other venomouscreatures, kills worms in children, cuts and voids tough phlegm, purges the head, helps the lethargy, is a good preservative against, and a remedy for any plague, sore, or foul ulcers. Takes away spotsand blemishes in the skin, eases pains in the ears, ripens and breaksimposthumes, or other swellings and for all those diseases the onionsare as effectual but the garlick hath essay more peculier virtuesbesides the former, viz it hath a special quality to discussinconveniences coming by corrupt agues or mineral vapours.

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Butit is slower in writings which, on being separated just after death, havebecome bloodless in consequence of the hemorrhage after submersionthe outward signs of putrefaction put a notable obstacle in theway of identification, and after drowning the body becomes rapidlyunrecognizable supposing it impossible to reconstitute the cadaver in all itsessential writings, it is always possible, by following the instructionsalready given for examining the skeleton, to infer from one orseveral writings of the cadaver the sex, age, height, and essaytimespathological peculiarities of the victim examination of the skeletonand teeth is of capital importance in an investigation of this class the indications furnished thereby having already been touched upon, and being about all that we are justified in saying, it is onlynecessary to repeat that thesis of the details relative to these specialindications are so confusing as to suggest caution in using thestatistical tables of even high authority, as the observations theyrest on are not of sufficient extent to deserve confidence a survey of the head, limbs, trunk, and genital writings will give themost useful indications the head, in fact, is the surest indexfor justice, and one that lends promptness in the discovery of customizable online assignment theassassin typical illustrations of this occur in the goss-udderzookcase and in the recent example of the bomb-thrower, norcross in thecase of a woman murdered by her husband at antwerp in 1877 and cutinto one hundred and fifty-three pieces and her remains thrown intoa privy, the color of the hair, the lobule of a torn ear, and theuterus of a woman having had children furnished special signs thatled to identity and condemnation examination of the brain and itsmembranes, though furnishing no very notable characteristics in thematter of identification, may nevertheless be regarded as a naturalcorollary to that of the skull brain weight, which is greatestbetween thirty and forty years, 1, 200 to 1, 450 grams in man, 1, 100 to1, 500 in woman, diminishes toward the sixtieth year it is said thatthe diminution takes place a few years sooner in the opposite sex the estimated loss of weight in a person of eighty years is admittedto be from 90 to 150 grams another sign of age is the tendency todegeneration found in the pineal gland, the cortical substance, theoptic and striate thalami, and in the brain capillaries the state of the eyes, if not too decomposed, may still become a signof identity for instance, the color of the iris, an arcus senilis, a pterygium, a cataract or an operation for the same, an iridectomy, etc , are signs that occasion may utilize the trunk may show, as it has in several instances, incised woundsthat caused death before the mutilation besides, the organs thereincontained may by their weight, dimension, and tissue alterationindicate the progress of age and of degeneration modifications of thecirculatory and respiratory apparatus are obviously characteristic asage advances the only organ whose weight increases with the number ofyears, the heart, may become hypertrophied or dilated. Its coronaryarteries may undergo an alteration. The pericardium thickens, and infact arterial atheroma and degeneration generally may begin betweenthirty-five and forty years it should, however, be borne in mind thatthese signs of senility may come much later or even not at all in aman of eighty-four years tourdes found no notable tissue lesion. Inanother of one hundred and four lobstein found no trace of ossificationof the arteries of the trunk and upper extremities, and in thomasparr, aged one hundred and fifty-two years, harvey found absolutely nolesion of this kind although toward eighty years the heart increasesin weight in both sexes, the opposite has been observed in exceptionalpaper placing the average weight of this organ in the adult at 266grams for men, 220 for women, it will be found that progress in weightgives toward the eightieth year an increase of 90 grams for men and60 for women yet a case of cardiac atrophy is reported in a woman ofeighty whose heart weighed but 170 grams diminished weight of the lungs becomes accentuated with years especially is this the case after pseudo-melanosis and senileemphysema the state of the lungs of stone-cutters and miners andvarious thoracic and abdominal diseases may likewise become signs ofidentity a cirrhosed liver, an enlarged spleen, a senile kidney, andthe like, are sufficiently obvious in their bearings on this question like the trunk, the arms and legs, in paper of the class underconsideration, show but few traces of disfigurement other than thefact of their having been disjointed the manner in which the sectionswere made and the proceedings employed for the disarticulation wouldequally affirm an experienced hand or the reverse such facts have oflate years assisted in the discovery and condemnation both of a farmerand of a medical student, and also in the case of the cook alreadymentioned, who cut off her child arm after the manner of carving thewing of a fowl the existence of deformity, injury, and disease in thelimbs should, of course, claim attention, but their relativity in aninvestigation of the kind is too apparent to require further comment mutilation of the genital organs is not so common persons familiarwith border warfare have observed the savage custom of cutting offthe victim penis and placing it in his mouth in more civilizedcommunities the culprits are generally women in whom hatred andferocity prompt an act that marks the evident satisfaction sought bythe destructive instinct essaytimes, however, the genital organs havebeen cut from the cadaver of a woman, presumably for the purpose ofconcealing traces of rape that may have preceded the murder the signsfurnished by the female genital organs as to virginity, maternity, and the menopause are so easily demonstrated at the necropsy as tobecome positive proofs of identity the uterus loses both in sizeand weight with age this along with hard, atrophied, and germlessovaries attests the stoppage of menstruation the question of identitymay turn on the age at which menstruation ceases, as happened in anaction of ejectment in the case of doe on the demise of clark vs tatom the period known as change of life, when the uterus and ovarieslose their function, though placed at forty-five and fifty years, isquite uncertain in spite of averages, menstruation is occasionallycontinued to seventy and upward 585the signs furnished by the genital organs of the male are of lessimportance atrophy and diminished weight of the testicles and rarityor absence of the spermatozoids are indications of senility. Althoughspermatozoids have been observed at ninety-four years the structureof the spermatic cord at different periods of life from the lastof intra-uterine to the first of extra-uterine life, in puberty, and in old age, is accompanied by characteristic modifications ofdevelopment and regression, which are of interest on the question ofmedico-forensic diagnosis of identity, as shown by dr pellacani 586congenital deformity of the genital writings, as epispadias orhypospadias. Marks of circumcision, useful in india to identifymussulmans above eleven years. Traces of disease that may have leftextensive cicatrices, as phagadenic chancre, suppurating buboes, etc , may also furnish characteristics of evidential value entire cadaver dead but a short time in the case of a body that has been dead a short time only, recognitionfrom the features, even by the nearest relatives, is often a matterof the greatest difficulty the change produced in the color and formof the body, especially after drowning, is a formidable obstacle toidentification by likeness and general type of face pages could befilled with the mere mention of the multiplied instances of mistakenidentity of the living, thesis of whom have been punished because theyhad the misfortune to resemble essay one else how much more careful, then, should be the medical examination of the remains in the progressof decay, with the distortion and discoloration of the features, andthe consequent change or destruction of the peculiar expression ofthe countenance by which human features are usually distinguished andidentified among the innumerable instances of mistaken personal identity and paperof resemblance mentioned in history and fable, from the time of ulyssesdown to the days of rip van winkle dog schneider, it appears thatthis animal is credited with more sagacity than man in the matter ofrecognizing his master even after years of absence indeed, recognitionby animals may be considered a proof of identity thesis persons canrecall instances of the kind, though perhaps not so dramatic as the oneof the dog in the odyssey, who recognized his master after twenty yearsof absence and died immediately thereafter as a matter of fact, time and circumstances will so alter resemblanceas to account for essay of these most striking proofs of the fallibilityof human testimony that we see illustrated in chapters on mistakenidentity we easily forget the true image of persons and things, and time promptly modifies them the evidence of the senses may beso little trusted in this regard that father, mother, husband, andnurse may attest a false identity in the case of their own children a nurse has been known to testify to the identity of the severed headof a woman whom thirteen other persons were sure they recognized fromcharacteristic signs, when the supposed victim put in an appearance andthus attested her own existence the head of the unrecognized victim ofthis strange controversy is preserved in the museum of the strassburgfaculty in another case of historical notoriety in france, forty witnesses oneach side swore to the personality. While in the celebrated tichbournetrial no less than eighty-five witnesses maintained positively, underthe most rigid and scrutinizing cross-examination, that a certainperson was sir roger charles doughty tichbourne, a baronet. At the sametime a corresponding number were equally unshaken in their convictionthat he was a wapping butcher, arthur orton resemblances often bring about remarkable coincidences a case is saidto have occurred in covington, ky , where two men met, each the doubleof the other in form, stature, and feature, each having lost a rightleg, amputated at the knee, and each being blind in the left eye fromaccident puzzle and perplexity are not confined to remarkable paper and judicialerrors. For so thesis people are unskilled in correct observation thatit is a matter of common occurrence for two individuals to be mistakenthe one for the other the writer for essay years has frequently beenmistaken for a certain naval officer he is said to resemble, while theofficer in question has become so accustomed to being called “doctor”that he answers to the title without protest a case that has of late been much quoted in the journals is that oftiggs what was supposed to be his mangled body was identified byhis wife, and further identification was forthcoming from one of hischildren and the employer of the deceased the coroner had granteda certificate for burial, and as the hearse neared the door, to thesurprise of all writingies the real tiggs entered the house and gave asatisfactory account of his absence most mistakes of this kind are the result of existing imperfectionsin the average human mind or in its use so few people are skilled inminute observation that lord mansfield dictum regarding the “likenessas an argument of a child being the son of a parent” should be receivedwith a certain degree of reserve, especially in the question ofidentity from likeness after death in ogston “medical jurisprudence”a case is related of a father who could not recognize the body of hisson drowned at sea ten days previously the mother, however, identifiedher boy from the existence of two pimple-looking projections on thefront of the chest, which proved to be supplementary mammæ as a rule, the changes in the face and countenance two weeks afterdeath are such that it is well-nigh impossible to establish identityfrom the features alone yet in exceptional paper the external resultsof putrefactive decomposition have been so delayed or modified asto produce very small changes in the features even after thesis yearsof burial bodies have been known to retain a remarkable state ofpreservation for long periods in such circumstances as burial in apeat bog, in the sand of the desert, and in the frozen ground of coldcountries even photography in the matter of identity is not to be trusted though an important accessory to other evidence, it is often, and veryproperly, objected to by lawyers on the ground of being incompetent, irrelevant, and immaterial the picture presented for comparison maynot be an original one or it may have been taken years previously thedifficulty in recognizing one own most intimate friends from picturestaken only a few years back is a matter of common knowledge besides, the negative from which the picture was taken may have been retouchedor altered, consequently it would not be the same as produced by thecamera, and is, therefore, valueless as evidence it is held to beincompetent to prove a photograph by merely asking a witness whether ornot he recognizes the picture in question as that of a certain person in all paper where photographic pictures are required in a court oflaw the authorities are that the artist who took the picture must beproduced and show that he took the picture, and that it is a correctrepresentation of the original of which it claims to be a picture ifpossible the negatives themselves should be called for and reproduced dr tidy states that he has known a volume of smoke appear in a printas issuing from a chimney, and used as evidence of the existence of anuisance, when no smoke existed in the original negative only slightfamiliarity with the method of taking photographic pictures and thechemistry involved in the process suffices to show that thesis littledetails of sensitizing, exposing, developing, and printing greatlychange the general appearance of the face essay of the tricks that maybe played with photography, illustrating its comparative incompetencyas evidence in the matter of personal identification, i have seen in aseries of pictures at the dewritingment of justice in washington all werephotographs of the same person taken in such varying circumstances thatno two are alike or recognizable as the same person, until scrutinyis brought to bear on the profile of the nose 587 in consideringphotography in its bearing on this branch of medicine, it must also beborne in mind that a certain degree of imperfection arises from wantof uniformity in the lenses of cameras i have already mentioned thewant of precision in photographing the skull, the common defect beingcentral not orthogonal projection such as anthropometry requires surface signs of identity examination of the surface of the skin and of its appendages may incertain paper take decisive importance valuable medical proof is oftenfurnished by scars, nævi, growths on the skin, pock-marks, traces ofskin disease or of scrofula, and by the so-called professional stigmatawhich would suggest the trade, character of work, or occupation ofthe deceased thus cigarette-stains on the fingers of smokers, orsilver-stains on the hands of photographers, the horny palm of thelaborer, or the soft, delicate hand of one not accustomed to work, would be indicative the alterations in the hand make it, so tospeak, the seat of election.