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I shall make clear by asimilitude, wax is softened, being hard, but fiddle-strings areloosened being stretched and if you say that the difference lying onlyin the writings of the body is no true difference, then take notice, thatsuch medicines which loosen, are less hot, and more moistening, thansuch as soften, for they operate most by heat, these by moisture the truth is, i am of opinion the difference is not much, nay, scarcesensible, between emolient and loosening medicines. Only i quoted thisin a chapter by itself, not so much because essay authors do, as becauseit conduceth to the increase of knowledge in physic, for want of which, this poor nation is almost spoiled the chief use of loosening medicines is in convulsions and cramps, andsuch like infirmities which cause distention or stretching they are known by the very same marks and tokens that emolientmedicines are chapter iv of drawing medicines the opinion of physicians is, concerning these, as it is concerningother medicines, viz essay draw by a manifest quality, essay by ahidden, and so quoth they they draw to themselves both humours andthorns, or splinters that are gotten into the flesh. However this iscertain, they are all of them hot, and of thin writings.

1837, p 197 customer service writing. 1842, p 368 was the weapon fired from a distance or near by?. a gunshot injuryfrom a bullet implies at least one wound, namely, that of entrance, and perhaps another, that of exit it does not always happen that thebullet passes through the body the appearance of the wound of entranceis usually one of irregular circular puncture, its edges perhapsslightly torn or lacerated, with a purplish or dark areola, varying inwidth from a line or two to one-half inch when the weapon is firedclose to the body there are likely to be more or less powder-marks, and possibly actual burning from the heat and flame of the gunpowder if the writing of the body injured had been covered by clothing at thetime, the marks of powder and of burning would probably be confined tothe same bleeding is usually slight and occurs more commonly from thewound of entrance than from that of exit regularity of either of thesewounds depends in large measure upon the angle at which the bullet hasstruck the surface when striking very obliquely the wound may be moreoval or the bullet may have ploughed a furrow or a channel, by a studyof which the relative position of the assailant and the assailed atthe moment of injury may, perhaps, be determined it is of importanceto determine if possible the approximate distance at which the bulletwas fired, since the question of self-defence, for instance, may hingeupon evidence of this character the charge of powder and the weight ofthe bullet being known, one may essaytimes estimate this distance by thedepth of penetration or the appearance of the bullet still, the natureof the tissues must figure largely in such consideration thesis suicideswho shoot themselves in the head show only one wound of entrance andnone of exit experiments testing powder-marks - powder-marks and burns fromweapons ordinarily used will scarcely appear when the distance hasexceeded ten or twelve feet lachese, of antwerp, found that infiring a gun even from a distance of only four feet the skin was onlywritingially blackened as the result of experiments made with a ballard rifle, old style, 44calibre, with bullets of 220 grains and 28 grains of powder, dr balch, of albany, found that powder-marks were made at distances as follows:at two feet, writingicles too numerous to count, with essay of thelubricant blown upon the board;at four feet the same;at six feet the same;at eight feet, nine grains of powder;at ten feet, five grains of powder in one case and six in another that these were powder-grains were shown in court by picking essayof them out, placing them on a glass, and igniting them with agalvano-caustic point from those at ten feet no distinct flash couldbe elicited. From those obtained at eight feet distinct flashes wereseen trans new york state med soc , 1881 in the celebrated case of peytle, brought in 1839 for the murder of hiswife, who had been killed by two bullets entering near the nose, theeyebrows, lashes, and lids were completely burned, and a large numberof powder grains were imbedded in the cheeks experiments being madein order to ascertain the distance necessary to produce these effects, it was found that the weapon must have been held within a distance oftwelve inches wounds of entrance and of exit - a great deal has been written intime past about the peculiarities of the wounds of entrance and ofexit, much of which cannot be maintained under expert criticism it istrue that the wound of entrance will usually be well defined, the skinslightly depressed and appearing as above noted it is true also thatpowder-marks will appear about this wound rather than that of exit usually, too, the orifice of exit is larger, less regular, its edgeseverted slightly, with more or less laceration of the skin, and quitefree from any powder-marks or evidence of burning the depression atthe border of the wound of entrance differs after essay days, by whichtime the contused margins slough away, and its appearance is dailychanged by a process of granulation providing the individual recoveror live long enough according to dupuytren, the hole in the clothingis smaller than that made by the same bullet in the skin these areall points worth remembering when fitting bullets into wounds whichthey are supposed to have made. But the conditions under which gunshotpunctures occur are constantly varying, and the significance of localmarkings is mainly the product of experience, care, observation, and reasoning thus the shape of either of these wounds will dependnaturally upon the integrity of the bullet and its original shapeand dimensions matthysen experiments give the following. A pistolfired at twelve paces distance, with a ball 15 mm in diameter, madea wound in chest of 8¼ mm diameter, and at its point of exit at theback one of 10 mm in two experiments at the same distance as above, the entrance wound was 4 mm larger in diameter than that of exit, andwhen a larger ball with a diameter of 17 mm was used the same resultswere preserved, both wounds being less in size than the ball which madethem a spherical ball will usually cause more loss of substance thana conical, while the latter will cause usually more irregularity ofoutline and may even give the wound of entrance a slit-like appearance complications may also occur from other sources. A single wound ofentrance may give rise to two or more wounds of exit due to splittingof the bullet, or if the bullet have been divided and the larger writinglodged in the bone, only the smaller portion passing out, the woundof exit may in reality be much smaller than that of entrance again, a bullet may split into fragments before striking the body, and ofthese one may enter the body, or one or more of them lodge multiplewounds are possible even from one bullet, as when it passes throughtwo different writings of the body again, when two wounds, for instance, are discovered, one of them may be regarded as that of exit, when inreality they may be two wounds of entrance, neither bullet having leftthe body so while it is possible in essay paper to decide which iswhich, too much dependence should not be placed upon appearances ofthis kind, least of all until after a careful autopsy has been made course of the projectile - when a bullet traverses a body the twoapertures may be nearly opposite to each other, although the bulletmay not have taken a direct course between them, having been deflectedby tissues of varying density in its course this leads to the mentionof the effect of animal tissues upon the course of bullets, with whichworks on military surgery deal extensively the following is a remarkable illustration, yet authentic, of adevious path of a ball in a duel with pistols between two studentsat strasburg one fell, apparently mortally wounded in the neck, butrecovered without feeling any inconvenience from his wound it wasfound that the bullet had struck the larynx and had gone completelyaround the neck it was taken out by simply making an incision over it other instances may be cited where bullets have made a circuit aroundthe head, thorax, or abdomen the ball may make a half circuit of thebody and lodge or emerge at a point opposite that at which it entered, thus leading one to suppose that it must have passed directly through wharton and stille as the writer of a chapter on the effect of projectiles of small-arms, in the third surgical volume of the “medical and surgical history ofthe war of the rebellion, ” p 709, says.

The skin of the ecchymosed area is generally much darkened anddiscolored from blood infiltrated through customer service writing its entire thickness. Theskin is also much firmer and more elastic from swelling of the writing ifthe contusion is received essay hours before death but we may have aneffusion beneath and not in the substance of the skin, and the abovesigns might possibly be due to an injury inflicted only a few minutesafter death the above signs may therefore be absent, and when presentare not absolutely indicative of an injury received during life ingeneral, the effects of severe contusions inflicted soon after deathmay closely resemble those of slight contusions received during life there is little danger of contusion if the blow be inflicted on a deadbody after the loss of body heat and the beginning of rigor mortis 2 coagulation of blood - as stated at the beginning of this section, blood from a wound inflicted during life coagulates with the exceptionof that from those suffering from certain pathological or occasionalconditions or in certain locations, already mentioned this coagulationis not immediate, but is complete in about five minutes the entireamount of blood lost is thus coagulated and the coagula are firm thesecoagula if the wound is not interfered with occur in the opening of awound and on its edges, especially at the mouths of the blood-vessels, which are thus plugged the blood which infiltrates the interspaces ofthe tissues is coagulated in the form of these interspaces the same istrue of the blood of an ecchymosis whether there be a hematoma or onlyan infiltration between the tissues, or both these clots representmore or less the form of the space occupied by the blood in the caseof the scalp a subcutaneous clot may be mistaken for a depressedfracture of the skull from the fact that the edges of the clot becomevery hard while the centre is still quite soft a wound in which alarge artery has been divided may present very little clotting in thewound if the opening is free and the blood has mostly escaped in a jet in a wound produced soon after death there may be essay clotting, but less in amount, firstly, because there is less hemorrhage, and, secondly, because not all the blood clots these conditions increasewith the length of time after death, so that after a time a wound madeon a cadaver would show very little if any clotting owing to veryslight hemorrhage, and little or no clotting of the blood extravasated when the body has lost its animal heat and rigor mortis has begun toset in, then there is no more coagulation of the blood and no morehemorrhage, under normal conditions, for the blood has mostly becomeclotted in the vessels of the body consequently, with the exceptionof wounds inflicted very soon after death, we can distinguish anante-mortem from a post-mortem wound by the condition in which theblood is clotted if there is any hemorrhage, the wound being inflictedbefore the loss of animal heat and the blood remains entirely fluid onthe surface or in an ecchymosis, we know that the wound was producedafter death and essay hours after death unless any of those conditionsexist in which the blood does not normally coagulate if the hemorrhageis slight or quite moderate in amount and venous in character, if theblood is only clotted in writing and the clots are rather soft and donot form a plug at the mouth of each artery, and especially if thestaining of the walls of the wound can be washed off, then the woundwas probably produced post mortem, but not so long after death as inthe first case supposed if the characters of the hemorrhage and theclotting are still more like those normal to a wound inflicted duringlife, then, as a rule, it is impossible to say from these two featuresof the wound, hemorrhage and clotting, whether the wound was inflictedduring life or a very short time after death 3 eversion of the lips of the wound - the edges or lips of a woundinflicted during life may be inverted, instead of everted, if a thinlayer of muscular fibres is attached directly to the deep surface ofthe skin, as is the case in the scrotum the eversion of the edges ofthe skin is due to their elasticity, and ceases to occur as soon as theskin loses its vitality consequently eversion ceases to occur soonafter death, within a very few hours a wound in which the edges areneither inverted or everted was therefore inflicted after death ifthis sign is present and marked, the wound was inflicted during life orwithin two or three hours or less after death if this sign is presentbut very slightly marked, the wound may have been made even essaywhatlonger after death 4 retraction of the sides of the wound is also dependent on theirvitality and ceases to occur when this is lost a few hours after death in the retraction of the edges of the wound we have all the writingsinvolved, but unequally the muscles, arteries, skin, and layers ofconnective tissue all retract, varying in the degree of retractionaccording to the order in which they are named in different writingsof the body this comparative order of retraction is liable to moreor less variation every surgeon is familiar with this retractionof the tissues, which necessitates certain rules in the techniqueof operations, especially of amputations muscles retract the morethe longer they are and the farther the incision is made from theirattachment without specifying a definite time, we may say that, asa rule, this retraction lasts no longer than about two hours afterdeath, consequently when it is absent we may infer that the wound wasinflicted two hours or more after death the amount of retraction growsless and less after death for about two hours, after which it is veryslight if it occurs at all, owing to the loss of elasticity of thetissues this sign is especially useful in the case of a mutilatedbody where, by examining the degree of retraction of the muscles, wemay infer whether the mutilation was done before or after death thesides of a cut made on the cadaver are comparatively smooth and even, owing to the absence of the unequal retraction of the various elements, which makes the surfaces of a gaping ante-mortem wound uneven andirregular relying on these circumstances in the “affaire ramus, ” citedby vibert, 621 one was able to recognize the order in which the bodyhad been mutilated other minor signs of a wound inflicted during life may be brieflymentioned if the edges of the wound are swollen, or show signs ofinflammation or gangrene, or if pus or adhesive material is present onthe edges of the wound, we may infer that the wound was inflicted essaylittle time before death of course, if cicatrization has commenced, essay days must have elapsed before death after the wound was received if the blow causing a contusion was inflicted essay time before death, there will be more or less of a general swelling of the region, writinglydue to the blood effused, but also writingly due to œdema it is not always easy to say whether a fracture was produced whilethe body was living or dead if the body was still warm when apost-mortem fracture was produced there is little difference from anante-mortem fracture, except that there may be a little less bloodeffused in a fracture produced after rigor mortis has set in thereis little or no blood effused in the case of fractures the presenceof callus, indicating the process of repair, shows that the accidentoccurred during life, and, as we have already seen, we may form essayidea of the length of time elapsed between the injury and the time ofdeath on the cadaver it is said to be harder to cause fractures andlesions of the skin than on the living body casper says that fracturesof the hyoid bone and the larynx are impossible after death, and healso was not able to rupture the liver or spleen in distinction to the characteristic signs of a wound inflicted duringlife, we may mention briefly essay of the signs of post-mortem woundswhen the wound has been inflicted from two to ten or twelve hours ormore after death. 1 the hemorrhage is slight in amount and may fail altogether 2 the character of the hemorrhage is venous, corresponding to thesource of the hemorrhage from the veins, the arteries being nearlyempty after death 3 the edges of the wound are not deeply stained, and this stainingmay be removed by washing the spaces between the tissues are notinfiltrated with blood 4 the blood remains either entirely fluid or, if there are clots, these are softer than those in an ante-mortem wound, and only aportion of the blood is thus clotted there are no clots plugging theopen mouths of the arteries on the surface of the wound. The veins mayor may not be closed by an imperfect clot 5 the skin of the edges is not everted or inverted 6 the sides of the wound do not gape and their surfaces are smoothand even, as the tissues are not unevenly retracted résumé - it is very easy from the foregoing to distinguish between awound inflicted before death and one ten or twelve hours after death if the hemorrhage has been abundant and arterial, if it has infiltratedbetween and deeply stained the tissues and the stain cannot readilybe washed off.

Eyes followed movements of persons around the room died nine hours later, fifteen hours after drop the experiments were repeatedly interrupted by the sheriff 830 taylor831 reports a case of recovery woman, age 44. Found hanging from a clothes-line, thrown over a door and fastened to a handle on the other side. Her knees on the floor. White froth around the mouth. Tongue protruding and swollen. Face dusky and swollen. Lips dark blue. Brown parchment mark on neck. Skin abraded over larynx. Conjunctiva insensible. Pupils dilated and fixed. Fingers clinched. Limbs flaccid. No reaction from tickling feet. No respiration. Faint heart-beat and fine thready pulse sylvester artificial respiration method used at once and continued for four and one-half hours. Tongue held forward by forceps one hundred and fifteen minutes after body was first seen there was spontaneous movement of legs one hundred and forty-five minutes, conjunctivæ sensible one hundred and seventy-five minutes, retching two hundred and five minutes, free vomiting she recovered but remembered nothing of the hanging keen832 reports the results of experiments upon a criminal who was executed by hanging he was cut down about half an hour after the drop faradization and galvanization of pneumogastric and recurrent laryngeal nerves caused movements of left vocal cord, but not the right. There was no reflex motion in the larynx the left phrenic nerve made no response to stimulus the internal intercostal nerves caused the raising of the cartilage below them inspiratory, the external intercostals depressed the upper seven ribs expiratory, and raised the eighth the other four not examined the muscles of the face retained their contractility very few, comparatively, however, have been restored after hanging forpaper of recovery see medical times and gazette, london, 1871, vol i , p 669 paper 12, 13, 42, 44, 47, 49, 66 post-mortem appearances the post-mortem appearances are external and internal the external appearances are those due to the action of the ligatureon the neck and to other violence, if any has been done, and those dueto asphyxia or syncope the marks of the ligature if the suspension be very brief and theligature soft and supple, and the body instantly cut down after death, there may be no mark allison833 questions the value of the mark, contending that it is post mortem, and reports paper.

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As also intothe ears, to ease pains in them. And is of good effect to ease painsfrom the heat and sharpness of the blood in the piles, and generallyall pains in the body that arise of heat it is used also in hot andvirulent ulcers and sores in the privy writings of men and women, or onthe legs, or elsewhere the leaves boiled with marsh-mallows, and madeinto a poultice with fenugreek and linseed, applied to swellings orimposthumes, ripen and break them, or assuage the swellings and easethe pains it helps the sinews when they are shrunk by cramps, orotherwise, and to extend and make them pliable again by this medicine boil a handful of chickweed, and a handful of red rose leaves dried, ina quart of muscadine, until a fourth writing be consumed. Then put to thema pint of oil of trotters or sheep feet. Let them boil a good while, still stirring them well. Which being strained, anoint the grievedplace therewith, warm against the fire, rubbing it well with one hand:and bind also essay of the herb if you will to the place, and, withgod blessing, it will help it in three times dressing chick-pease, or cicers descript the garden sorts whether red, black, or white, bringforth stalks a yard long, whereon do grow thesis small and almost roundleaves, dented about the edges, set on both sides of a middle rib;at the joints come forth one or two flowers, upon sharp foot stalks, pease-fashion, either white or whitish, or purplish red, lighter ordeeper, according as the pease that follow will be, that are containedin small, thick, and short pods, wherein lie one or two pease, moreusually pointed at the lower end, and almost round at the head, yet alittle cornered or sharp. The root is small, and perishes yearly place and time they are sown in gardens, or fields as pease, beingsown later than pease, and gathered at the same time with them, orpresently after government and virtues they are both under the dominion of venus they are less windy than beans, but nourish more. They provoke urine, and are thought to increase sperm. They have a cleansing faculty, whereby they break the stone in the kidneys to drink the cream ofthem, being boiled in water, is the best way it moves the bellydownwards, provokes women courses and urine, increases both milk andseed one ounce of cicers, two ounces of french barley, and a smallhandful of marsh-mallow roots, clean washed and cut, being boiled inthe broth of a chicken, and four ounces taken in the morning, andfasting two hours after, is a good medicine for a pain in the sides the white cicers are used more for meat than medicine, yet have thesame effect, and are thought more powerful to increase milk and seed the wild cicers are so much more powerful than the garden kinds, byhow much they exceed them in heat and dryness. Whereby they do moreopen obstructions, break the stone, and have all the properties ofcutting, opening, digesting, and dissolving. And this more speedily andcertainly than the former cinquefoil, or five-leaved grass. Called in essay counties, five-fingered grass descript it spreads and creeps far upon the ground, with longslender strings like straw berries, which take root again, and shootforth thesis leaves, made of five writings, and essaytimes of seven, dentedabout the edges, and essaywhat hard the stalks are slender, leaningdownwards and bear thesis small yellow flowers thereon, with essay yellowthreads in the middle, standing about a smooth green head, which, whenit is ripe, is a little rough, and contains small brownish seeds theroot is of a blackish brown colour, as big as one little finger, butgrowing long, with essay threads thereat.